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J. appl. oral sci ; 29: e20201074, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1340110


Abstract Hyperglycemia, a major characteristic of diabetes, is considered to play a vital role in diabetic complications. High glucose levels have been found to inhibit the mineralization of dental pulp cells. However, gene expression associated with this phenomenon has not yet been reported. This is important for future dental therapeutic application. Objective Our study aimed to investigate the effect of high glucose levels on mineralization of human dental pulp-derived cells (hDPCs) and identify the genes involved. Methodology hDPCs were cultured in mineralizing medium containing 25 or 5.5 mM D-glucose. On days 1 and 14, RNA was extracted and expression microarray performed. Then, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were selected for further validation using the reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) method. Cells were fixed and stained with alizarin red on day 21 to detect the formation of mineralized nodules, which was further quantified by acetic acid extraction. Results Comparisons between high-glucose and low-glucose conditions showed that on day 1, there were 72 significantly up-regulated and 75 down-regulated genes in the high-glucose condition. Moreover, 115 significantly up- and 292 down-regulated genes were identified in the high-glucose condition on day 14. DEGs were enriched in different GO terms and pathways, such as biological and cellular processes, metabolic pathways, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and AGE-RAGE signaling pathways. RT-qPCR results confirmed the significant expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 3 (PDK3), cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8), activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), fibulin-7 (Fbln-7), hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1), interleukin 4 receptor (IL-4R) and apolipoprotein C1 (ApoC1). Conclusions The high-glucose condition significantly inhibited the mineralization of hDPCs. DEGs were identified, and interestingly, HAS1 and Fbln-7 genes may be involved in the glucose inhibitory effect on hDPC mineralization.

Humans , Dental Pulp , Transcriptome , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Microarray Analysis , Cell Proliferation , Glucose
Braz. dent. j ; 31(3): 298-303, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1132307


Abstract Diabetes is a group of metabolic disorders that can lead to damage and dysfunction of many organs including the dental pulp. Increased inflammatory response, reduction of dentin formation and impaired healing were reported in diabetic dental pulp. Hyperglycemia, which is a main characteristic of diabetes, was suggested to play a role in many diabetic complications. Therefore our aim was to investigate the effects of high glucose levels on proliferation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). HDPCs were cultured under low glucose (5.5mM Glucose), high glucose (25 mM Glucose) and mannitol (iso-osmolar control) conditions. Cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay for 11 days. Glutathione and DCFH-DA assay were used to assess ROS and antioxidant levels after 24 h of glucose exposure. Odontogenic differentiation was evaluated and quantified by alizarin red staining on day 21. Expression of mineralization-associated genes, which were alkaline phosphatase, dentin sialophosphoprotein and osteonectin, was determined by RT-qPCR on day 14. The results showed that high glucose concentration decreased proliferation of HDPCs. Odontogenic differentiation, both by gene expression and mineral matrix deposit, was inhibited by high glucose condition. In addition, high DCF levels and low reduced glutathione levels were observed in high glucose condition. However, no differences were observed between mannitol and low glucose conditions. In conclusion, the results clearly showed the negative effect of high glucose condition on HDPCs proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, it also induced ROS production of HDPCs.

Resumo O diabetes abrange um grupo de distúrbios metabólicos que podem levar a danos e disfunções de muitos órgãos, incluindo a polpa dentária. Aumento da resposta inflamatória, redução da formação de dentina e comprometimento da cicatrização foram relatados na polpa dentária diabética. A hiperglicemia, que é uma característica determinante do diabetes, desempenha um papel importante em muitas complicações diabéticas. Portanto, nosso objetivo foi investigar os efeitos dos altos níveis de glicose na proliferação, produção de espécies reativas de oxigênio (ROS, em inglês) e diferenciação odontogênica das células da polpa dental humana (HDPCs, em inglês). As HDPCs foram cultivadas em condições de baixa glicose (glicose 5,5 mM), alta glicose (glicose 25 mM) e manitol (controle iso-osmolar). A proliferação celular foi analisada pelo ensaio MTT por 11 dias. Glutationa e DCFH-DA foram utilizados para avaliar os níveis de ROS e antioxidantes após 24 h de exposição à glicose. A diferenciação odontogênica foi avaliada e quantificada pela coloração com vermelho de alizarina no dia 21. A expressão de genes associados à mineralização, que eram fosfatase alcalina, sialofosfoproteína de dentina e osteonectina, foi determinada por RT-qPCR no dia 14. Os resultados mostraram que a alta concentração de glicose diminuiu a proliferação de HDPCs. A diferenciação odontogênica, tanto pela expressão gênica quanto pelo depósito da matriz mineral, foi inibida pela condição de alta glicose. Além disso, altos níveis de DCF e níveis reduzidos de glutationa foram observados na condição de alta glicose. No entanto, não foram observadas diferenças entre o manitol e as condições de baixa glicose. Em conclusão, os resultados mostraram claramente o efeito negativo da condição de alta glicose na proliferação e diferenciação de HDPCs. Além disso, essa condição também induziu a produção de ROS em HDPCs.

Humans , Dental Pulp , Alkaline Phosphatase , Phosphoproteins , Cell Differentiation , Cells, Cultured , Extracellular Matrix Proteins , Reactive Oxygen Species , Cell Proliferation , Glucose , Odontoblasts
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-33611


The aim of the present study was to determine the remineralization effects of xylitol chewing gum containing funoran and calcium hydrogenphosphate on enamel subsurface lesions in humans. The study was a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design, with 4 types of gum: (1) xylitol gum, (2) xylitol gum containing funoran and calcium hydrogenphosphate, (3) sugar gum, and (4) gum base as a control. Seven subjects were instructed to wear removable lingual appliances, with half-slab insets of human enamel containing demineralized subsurface lesions. They were told to chew gum for 20 minutes 4 times per day for 7 days. Upon completion of each treatment the enamel half-slabs were paired with their respective demineralized control half-slabs, embedded, sectioned, and subjected to microradiography and densitometric image analysis, for measurement of the level of remineralization. The mean area of remineralization (deltaZd-deltaZr) and mean percent remineralization (%R) in those chewing xylitol gum containing funoran and calcium hydrogenphosphate were significantly higher than the corresponding values for xylitol gum, sugar gum and gum base. Chewing xylitol gum containing funoran and calcium hydrogenphosphate has a significant effect on the remineralization of initial caries-like lesions of the teeth.

Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-31322


The aim of this study was to determine the levels of secretory IgA (SIgA), pH, flow rates, mutans streptococci (MS) and Candida in saliva of children with rampant caries compared to those caries-free. Thirty children (age 62-123 months) were enrolled and divided into two groups: Group I, children with rampant caries, Group II, caries-free children. The average salivary flow rate was measured from the volume yielded within 5 minutes and the pH was determined using a pH-electrode. Measurement of SIgA was performed using an immunoassay kit. The levels of MS and Candida were determined by culture on Mitis-Salivarius Bacitracin agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar. It was found that children with rampant caries presented with significantly higher levels of salivary SIgA, MS and Candida. However, the mean values for salivary flow rates and pH were similar between the groups. The results reveal that children with rampant caries had significantly higher levels of SIgA, MS and Candida in their oral cavities. This finding tends to support the hypothesis that higher levels of salivary SIgA may reflect a past exposure of the host to cariogenic microorganisms.

Candida/isolation & purification , Child , Child, Preschool , Colony Count, Microbial , Dental Caries/microbiology , Female , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Immunoassay , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/analysis , Male , Saliva/chemistry , Streptococcus mutans/isolation & purification