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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898714

ABSTRACT

Under physiological conditions, calcium (Ca2+ ) regulates essential functions of polarized secretory cells by the stimulation of specific Ca2+ signaling mechanisms, such as increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i ) via the store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) and the receptor-operated Ca2+ entry (ROCE). Homer proteins are scaffold proteins that interact with G protein-coupled receptors, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptors, Orai1-stromal interaction molecule 1, and transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels. However, their role in the Ca2+ signaling in exocrine cells remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of Homer2 in the Ca2+ signaling and regulatory channels to mediate SOCE and ROCE in pancreatic acinar cells. Deletion of Homer2 (Homer2–/– ) markedly increased the expression of TRPC3, TRPC6, and Orai1 in pancreatic acinar cells, whereas these expressions showed no difference in whole brains of wild-type and Homer2–/– mice. Furthermore, the response of Ca2+ entry by carbachol also showed significant changes to the patterns regulated by specific blockers of SOCE and ROCE in pancreatic acinar cells of Homer2–/– mice. Thus, these results suggest that Homer2 plays a critical role in the regulatory action of the [Ca2+]i via SOCE and ROCE in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-891010

ABSTRACT

Under physiological conditions, calcium (Ca2+ ) regulates essential functions of polarized secretory cells by the stimulation of specific Ca2+ signaling mechanisms, such as increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i ) via the store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) and the receptor-operated Ca2+ entry (ROCE). Homer proteins are scaffold proteins that interact with G protein-coupled receptors, inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptors, Orai1-stromal interaction molecule 1, and transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels. However, their role in the Ca2+ signaling in exocrine cells remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of Homer2 in the Ca2+ signaling and regulatory channels to mediate SOCE and ROCE in pancreatic acinar cells. Deletion of Homer2 (Homer2–/– ) markedly increased the expression of TRPC3, TRPC6, and Orai1 in pancreatic acinar cells, whereas these expressions showed no difference in whole brains of wild-type and Homer2–/– mice. Furthermore, the response of Ca2+ entry by carbachol also showed significant changes to the patterns regulated by specific blockers of SOCE and ROCE in pancreatic acinar cells of Homer2–/– mice. Thus, these results suggest that Homer2 plays a critical role in the regulatory action of the [Ca2+]i via SOCE and ROCE in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835490

ABSTRACT

Homer proteins are scaffold proteins that regulate calcium (Ca2+) signaling by modulating the activity of multiple Ca2+ signaling proteins. In our previous report, Homer2 and Homer3 regulated NFATc1 function through its interaction with calcineurin, which then acted to regulate receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone metabolism. However, to date, the role of Homers in osteoclastogenesis remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the roles of Homer2 and Homer3 in aging-dependent bone remodeling. Deletion of Homer2/Homer3 (Homer2/3 DKO) markedly decreased the bone density of the femur. The decrease in bone density was not seen in mice with Homer2 (Homer2−/−) and Homer3 (Homer3−/−) deletion. Moreover, RANKL treatment of bone marrow-derived monocytes/macrophages in Homer2/3 DKO mice significantly increased the formation of multinucleated cells and resorption areas. Finally, Homer2/3 DKO mice decreased bone density in an aging-dependent manner. These findings suggest a novel potent mode of bone homeostasis regulation through osteoclasts differentiation during aging by Homer proteins, specifically Homer2 and Homer3.

4.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-835481

ABSTRACT

The salivary glands secrete saliva, which plays a role in the maintenance of a healthy oral environment. Under physiological conditions, saliva secretion within the acinar cells of the gland is regulated by stimulation of specific calcium (Ca2+) signaling mechanisms such as increases in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) via storeoperated Ca2+ entry, which involves components such as Orai1, transient receptor potential (TRP) canonical 1, stromal interaction molecules, and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3Rs). Homer proteins are scaffold proteins that bind to G protein-coupled receptors, IP3Rs, ryanodine receptors, and TRP channels. However, their exact role in Ca2+ signaling in the salivary glands remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role of Homer2 in Ca2+ signaling and saliva secretion in parotid gland acinar cells under physiological conditions. Deletion of Homer2 (Homer2−/− markedly decreased the amplitude of [Ca2+]i oscillations via the stimulation of carbachol, which is physiologically concentrated in parotid acinar cells, whereas the frequency of [Ca2+]i oscillations showed no difference between wild-type and Homer2−/− mice. Homer2−/− mice also showed a significant decrease in amylase release by carbachol in the parotid gland in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that Homer2 plays a critical role in maintaining [Ca2+]i concentration and secretion of saliva in mouse parotid gland acinar cells.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761795

ABSTRACT

Humanin (HN) is a mitochondrial peptide that exhibits cytoprotective actions against various stresses and diseases. HN has been shown to induce the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a negative regulator of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL). However, the role of HN in osteoclastogenesis or other skeletal disorders remains unknown. Here, we examined whether HN regulates osteoclastogenesis via AMPK activation using bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) cultures. Our results show that HN inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and reduced the expression of genes involved in osteoclastogenesis, including nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1, osteoclast-associated receptor, cathepsin K, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Moreover, HN increased the levels of phosphorylated AMPK protein; compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, recovered HN-induced osteoclast differentiation. In addition, we found that HN significantly decreased the levels of RANKL-induced reactive oxygen species in BMMs. Therefore, these results indicate that HN plays an important role in osteoclastogenesis and may function as an inhibitor of bone disorders via AMPK activation.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases , Cathepsin K , Cytoplasm , Macrophages , Osteoclasts , Phosphorylation , Reactive Oxygen Species , T-Lymphocytes
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728611

ABSTRACT

Recent human genetic studies have shown that Gβ5 is related to various clinical symptoms, such as sinus bradycardia, cognitive disability, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although the calcium signaling cascade is closely associated with a heterotrimeric G-protein, the function of Gβ5 in calcium signaling and its relevance to clinical symptoms remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the in vitro changes of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) with exogenous expression of Gβ5. The cells expressing Gβ5 had enhanced SOCE after depletion of calcium ion inside the endoplasmic reticulum. Gβ5 also augmented Stim1- and Orai1-dependent SOCE. An ORAI1 loss-of-function mutant did not show inhibition of Gβ5-induced SOCE, and a STIM1-ERM truncation mutant showed no enhancement of SOCE. These results suggested a novel role of GNB5 and Stim1, and provided insight into the regulatory mechanism of SOCE.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Bradycardia , Calcium , Calcium Signaling , Endoplasmic Reticulum , GTP-Binding Proteins , Humans , In Vitro Techniques
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