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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 158-168, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872607

ABSTRACT

As a depot drug delivery system, injectable polylactide-polyglycolide (PLGA) sustained-release microspheres have been successfully used to treat many diseases since the first microsphere product Lupron depot was approved for marketing in the United States in 1989. It has the ability of long-term release in the body for several days to several months, which can not only reduce the times of administration, but also reduce the drug blood concentration fluctuations, significantly improve the safety and patient compliance. In vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) makes the development of microspheres more possible. It can describe the dynamic information of drug release in vivo through the in vitro release behavior of microspheres, and can reduce the workload of each stage and shorten the time span while characterizing the performance of microspheres. IVIVC can provide guidance or support for drug development, production changes, supervision and management. This article summarizes the release mechanism of injectable PLGA sustained-release microspheres, common measurement methods and theories of in vitro and in vivo release. And we also focus on the establishment and application of IVIVC, especially A level IVIVC in the field of microsphere preparations, to provide a reference for further study on in vitro-in vivo correlation of microspheres.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909585

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE Baicalin is a major flavonoid component of Scutellaria baicalensis, and has been used in the treatment of liver diseases for many years. However, the role of baicalin in estrogen-induced cholestasis (EIC) remains to be elucidated. This present study explored the protective effect of baicalin against estrogen-induced liver injury and further elucidated the mechanisms involved both in vivo and in vitro. METHODS We conducted a series of experiments using 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE) induced cholestatic rats and cultured HepG2 cells. Serum, bile, and liver samples were collected for biochemical and histological analyses. Bile acid composition in liver was analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The mechanisms underlying the hepatoprotective of baicalin were investigated by RT-PCR, Western blotting analyses and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS Baicalin showed obvious hepatoprotective effects in EIC rats by reducing serum bio?markers and increasing the bile flow rate, as well as by alleviating liver histology and restoring the abnormal composition of hepatic bile acids (BAs). In addition, baicalin protected against EE induced liver injury by up-regulation of the expres?sion of hepatic efflux transporters and down-regulation of hepatic uptake transporters. Furthermore, baicalin increased the expression of hepatic BA synthase (CYP27A1) and metabolic enzymes (Bal, Baat and Sult2a1) in EIC rats. We showed that baicalin significantly inhibited hepatic inflammatory responses in EIC rats through reducing elevated levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and NF-κB. Finally, we confirmed that baicalin maintains BA homeostasis and alleviates inflamma?tion through Sirt1/HNF-1α/FXR signaling pathway. CONCLUSION Baicalin protects against estrogen-induced cholestatic liver injury, and the underlying mechanism involved is related to activation of the Sirt1/HNF-1α/FXR signaling pathway.

3.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3484-3492, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906828

ABSTRACT

Compound reserpine and triamterene tablets (CRTT), a compound antihypertensive drug developed by Chinese scientists, is still widely used in clinical practice. However, the mechanisms by which CRTT treats hypertension remain to be fully understood. This study used network pharmacology to analyze CRTT's antihypertensive mechanisms with in vitro experiments. The targets of the four chemical components of CRTT were collected from the Swiss Target Prediction database; 1 828 protein targets related to hypertension were collected from the Therapeutic Target Database (TTD) and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. The CRTT-hypertension network model was constructed using a search tool for recurring instances of neighbouring genes (STRING). Gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis of targets of interest was conducted with the Metascape database. In the in vitro study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were treated with 1 μmol·L-1 angiotensin Ⅱ (AngⅡ) and CRTT was administered at concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, and 1 μmol·L-1. Changes in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein serine threonine kinase/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (PI3K/Akt/eNOS) pathway in HUVEC and the cyclic guanosine monophosphate/cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGMP/PKG) pathway in VSMC were determined by Western blot. Network pharmacological analysis revealed that the antihypertensive effect of CRTT is closely associated with biological pathways such as vascular tone regulation, adrenergic receptor activation, protein kinase activity and signaling pathways such as the cGMP/PKG signaling pathway, vascular smooth muscle contraction, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes and calcium signaling pathways. The in vitro study confirmed that CRTT increased the levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (p-PI3K), phosphorylated protein serine threonine kinase (p-Akt), phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS) in HUVEC and the levels of eNOS, phosphorylated vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (p-VASP), and PKG in VSMC through multiple targets and pathways. These results suggest that the activation of PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathway and endothelial-dependent NO/cGMP signaling may be involved in the CRTT-mediated hypotensive effect.

4.
Chinese Journal of School Health ; (12): 1803-1806, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906809

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To analyze the status of serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D[25 (OH)D] in children aged 0-6 years in Gansu Province, and to analyze the relationships between 25 (OH)D and age, seasonal characteristics and physical development, so as to provide a scientific reference for supplementing vitamin D for children in due time.@*Methods@#Stratified random cluster sampling method was used to select a total of 9 790 children aged 0-6 years from 6 cities and prefectures maternity and child health institutions in Gansu Province for health examination from January 2019 to December 2020. Serum 25 (OH)D concentration from 1 mL peripheral blood was tested by enzyme linked immunoassay. Subjects were classified into overweight and normal figure groups based on weight for height.@*Results@#the serum 25 (OH)D level M(P 25 ,P 75 ) of the children aged 0-6 was 81.31(63.14, 95.86)nmol/L. The detection rate of 25 (OH)D deficiency and insufficiency was 45.11%. The serum 25 (OH)D level of children 4- 6 years old was significantly lower than that of infants <1 year old and children 1-<4 years old, and the detection rate of 25 (OH)D deficiency and insufficiency was highest among 4-6 years old( χ 2=83.67, P <0.05). In winter the proportion of 25 (OH)D insufficiency and deficiency was highest (55.82%) ( χ 2=194.12, P <0.01). For overweight children, the abnormal rate of 25 (OH)D (19.83%) was significantly higher in autumn ( P <0.01).@*Conclusion@#Children s vitamin D levels were associated with age, season and physical development. Vitamin D surveillance should be focused on ages less than 1 year old and above 4 years old, winter should be an important season. For overweight children, autumn should be the focus period for vitamin D deficiency prevention.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906758

ABSTRACT

@#Pancreatic cancer stroma plays a critical role in tumor progression, invasion, metastasis and resistance.Targeting tumor cell alone could not meet the demand for prolonging patients'' survival.Growing studies have laid emphasis on developing combined regimens between targeting pancreatic cancer stroma and chemotherapy, radiotherapy and immunotherapy.We are faced with some new opportunities in spite of the great challenges brought to the research and development of targeting drugs owing to the complicated stroma components, crosstalking signal pathways and abnormal angiogenesis of pancreatic cancer.In this article, recent advances in therapeutic strategies of targeting pancreatic cancer stroma are reviewed and analyzed from the aspects of extracellular matrix (ECM), cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and vessels, in the hope of providing some novel ideas for targeting therapy against pancreatic cancer.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906535

ABSTRACT

Xihuangwan is composed of four Chinese medicines: Bovis Calculus, Olibanum, Myrrha, and Moschus. Modern pharmacology studies have shown that Xihuangwan has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-tumor, anti-mammary gland hyperplasia effect, and can enhance the body's immune function. Cancer seriously endangers public health and safety-of-life, and is a major cause of mortality of Chinese citizens. It is a disease with intricate etiopathogenesis caused by the joint action of circumstances and hereditary factors. At present, anti-tumor chemotherapy drugs in clinical application not only have toxic and side effect, but also affect clinical efficacy and prognosis of patients. Long-term use will also lead to drug resistance of tumors. As a traditional classic anti-cancer prescription, Xihuangwan has been used more and more in tumor research with the rise of Chinese medicine culture. It is provided with remarkable inhibitory effect on liver cancer, gastric cancer, carcinoma of the lungs, mammary gland, colorectal carcinoma and other malignant tumors. In clinical practice, Xihuangwan , mostly used as adjuvant drugs in combined use with chemotherapy drugs for anti-tumor effect, can reduce the side effect of chemotherapy drugs and the untoward reaction of sufferers, improve the survivability of patients to chemotherapy, reduce or delay postoperative tumor recurrence, enhance the body's immune function, and reverse the tolerance of tumor cells. Based on the anti-tumor research of Xihuangwan, we summarized its mechanisms in inducing cell apoptosis, regulating amino acid metabolism, reversing drug resistance, interfering with cell cycle, resisting tumor metastasis and invasion, regulating immune function, improving tumor microenvironment, and regulating signal pathways, as well as its clinical combination with chemotherapeutic anti-tumor drugs, analyzed the current anti-tumor research status of Xihuangwan's research, and put forward the shortcomings and unresolved problems in order to provide theoretical basis for further research and clinical application of Xihuangwan.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905921

ABSTRACT

Objective:To control the quality of the reference sample of Wenjingtang by establishing the specific chromatograms. Method:On the basis of analyzing 15 batches of Wenjingtang freeze-dried powder samples, a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) specific chromatogram analysis method of Wenjingtang was established. The system adaptability was investigated and the retention time, relative retention value and deviation caused by different chromatographic columns and instruments were calculated by using the same brand of chromatographic columns, four different brands of chromatographic columns and instruments from three different manufacturers. The precision, repeatability and stability of this method was further completed. The possible chemical components of the freeze-dried powders were speculated and identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS<italic><sup>n</sup></italic>). Chromatographic separation was performed on ACQUITY UPLC BEH C<sub>18</sub> column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) with acetonitrile (A)-0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (B) as mobile phase for gradient elution (0-2.8 min, 10%A; 2.8-8.0 min, 10%-18%A; 8.0-12.2 min, 18%-25%A; 12.2-15.3 min, 25%-40%A; 15.3-17.4 min, 40%A; 17.4-20.5 min, 40%-90%A), and column temperature was set at 30 ℃ with flow rate of 0.4 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>. Mass spectrometry was performed on electrospray ionization, data were collected under positive and negative ion modes, and the detection range was <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 50-1 600. Result:Ten characteristic peaks were selected as the distinguishing features in this specific chromatograms, and eight of them were identified by comparing with the reference standards, including paeoniflorin (peak 1), liquiritin apioside (peak 2), liquiritin (peak 3), ferulic acid (peak 4), iquiritigenin (peak 6), cinnamaldehyde (peak 8), paeonol (peak 9)and glycyrrhizic acid (peak 10). By mass spectrometry analysis, 30 compounds were identified, and the source of medicinal materials were assigned. It mainly contained triterpenoid saponins and flavonoids from Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, ginsenosides from Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, monoterpenoid glycosides and tannins from Paeoniae Radix Alba, steroids in Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, phenolic acids in Angelicae Sinensis Radix. Conclusion:The established characteristic chromatographic analysis method of Wenjingtang is simple, stable and repeatable. The chemical composition of the freeze-dried powder of Wenjingtang is basically defined by mass spectrometry identification and source attribution, which can provide reference for the development and quality control of Wenjingtang in the future.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904323

ABSTRACT

@#In order to sustain prodigious anabolic needs, tumor cells need metabolic reprogramming that differs from untransformed somatic cells.Besides glucose metabolism in tumor, amino acid metabolism also plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.It is an emerging trend in tumor energy metabolism research.The metabolic pathway of cysteine, a glucose-producing amino acid, involves a variety of enzymes and products, regulating physiological and pathological processes such as oxidative stress, energy metabolism, and autophagy.This article focuses on the exogenous transport and endogenous conversion pathways of cysteine in tumor cells, the various regulatory mechanisms of cysteine metabolism pathways on the occurrence and development of tumors, and the potential therapeutic targets based on cysteine metabolism pathways, which can provide a theoretical basis for clinical use of drugs against tumors.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922011

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a child with 46,XY disorders of sex development (DSD) and explore its genotype-phenotype correlation.@*METHODS@#The child was subjected to whole exome sequencing (WES), and exons 1 to 7 of NR5A1 were subjected to multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis.@*RESULTS@#The patient presented with rudimentary vulva of a female with Tanner stage 1. B-mode ultrasonography has detected ovary and uterus. The child was found to have a chromosome karyotype of 46,XY. WES revealed that the patient has harbored heterozygous deletion of exon 5 of the NR5A1 gene, which was a novel pathogenic variant inherited from the mother. No abnormality was found in the father.@*CONCLUSION@#The main symptoms of 46,XY DSD children are insufficient external genitalia masculinization, for which variants of the NR5A1 gene are an important cause. WES has improved the detection rate of genetic variants and provided a solid basis for genetic counseling of the affected families.


Subject(s)
Child , Disorder of Sex Development, 46,XY/genetics , Disorders of Sex Development/genetics , Exons/genetics , Female , Genetic Testing , Heterozygote , Humans , Mutation , Steroidogenic Factor 1/genetics
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921809

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the effect of Modified Dihuang Decoction in improving ovarian reserve in mice through the Bcl-2-related mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Forty-eight adult female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into the following six groups with eight mice in each group: a blank group, a model group, a femoston group(three cycles of treatment with 0.13 mg·kg~(-1) estradiol tablets for 2 days and 1.43 mg·kg~(-1) estradiol and dydrogesterone tablets for 3 days), and high(64.74 g·kg~(-1))-, medium(43.16 g·kg~(-1))-, and low-dose(21.58 g·kg~(-1)) Modified Dihuang Decoction groups. Mice in other groups except the blank group received a single intraperitoneal injection of 12 mg·kg~(-1) cyclophosphamide and 1.2 mg·kg~(-1) busulfan to induce a model of diminished ovarian reserve(DOR), while those in the blank group received an equal volume of normal saline. Mice were treated with corresponding drugs for 15 d from the 36 th day, once per day, and the mice in the blank group and the model group were treated with an equal volume of normal saline. The general condition and oestrous cycle were observed. The serum hormone levels were detected with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The morphological changes of ovaries were observed by HE staining. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-9(caspase-9), cleaved caspase-3, Bcl-2 associated X protein(Bax), Bcl-2, superoxide dismutase-2(SOD-2), and glutathione peroxidase-1(GPx-1). The mRNA expression of Bax and Bcl-2 was detected by real-time fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction(real-time PCR). The results showed that compared with the blank group, the model group showed body weight loss, disordered oestrous cycle, elevated serum levels of follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) and luteinizing hormone(LH), reduced serum levels of estradiol(E_2), anti-mullerian hormone(AMH), and inhibin B(INHB), the declining number of ovarian follicles and granulosa layers, increased number of atretic follicles, up-regulated protein expression of caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, and Bax and Bax mRNA expression in ovaries, and down-regulated protein expression of Bcl-2, SOD-2 and GPx-1, and Bcl-2 mRNA expression. Compared with the model group, the Modified Dihuang Decoction groups displayed restored body weight and oestrous cycle, decreased serum levels of FSH and LH, elevated serum levels of E_2, AMH, and INHB, increased number of ovarian follicles, thickened granulosa layers, and declining number of atretic follicles. Additionally, the protein expression of caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, and Bax, and Bax mRNA expression was down-regulated, and the protein expression of Bcl-2, SOD-2, and GPx-1, and Bcl-2 mRNA expression was up-regulated. The results suggest that Modified Dihuang Decoction can regulate endocrine hormone, promote follicle growth and improve ovarian reserve by enhancing ovarian anti-oxidant capacity, inhibiting the Bcl-2-related mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, and further inhibiting cell apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Female , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Ovarian Follicle , Ovarian Reserve , Ovary
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921755

ABSTRACT

Microarray data of hippocampal tissue(HC) of the cognitively intact elderly(60-99 years old) were compared with those of the middle-aged and the young(20-59 years old) by bioinformatics techniques to initially screen out differentially expressed genes(DEGs) and then predict potential effective Chinese medicinals for the treatment of brain aging. The gene expression profile(accession: GSE11882) was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus(GEO) and DEGs were screened based on R package. The key DEGs were identified by STRING, Cytoscape and the plug-in, followed by Gene Ontology(GO) term and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes(KEGG) pathway analysis. Then the key genes and the medical ontology information retrieval platform(Coremine Medical) were mapped against each other to single out the Chinese medicinals for the treatment of brain aging and construct the " Chinese medicinal-active constituent-target" network. Among the resultant 268 DEGs(246 down-regulated and 22 up-regulated), the 15 key genes were mainly involved in biological processes such as leukocyte migration, neutrophil activation, cell chemotaxis, microglia activation and response to external stimulus, and pathways such as inflammatory process, immune response, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, PI3 K-Akt signaling pathway, Rap1 signaling pathway, chemokine signaling pathway and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway. The potential effective Chinese medicinals were Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Ginseng Radix et Rhizoma, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Astragali Radix. The analysis of DEGs and key genes enhances the understanding of the mechanisms of brain aging. This study provides potential gene targets and ideas for the development of Chinese medicine for brain aging.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain , China , Computational Biology , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Ontology , Humans , Middle Aged , Transcriptome , Young Adult
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921638

ABSTRACT

Based on the textual research on literature, the key information of Wenjing Decoction were tested and identified, and 15 batches of lyophilized powder samples of Wenjing Decoction were prepared. The specific components, including paeoniflorin, glycyrrhizin, ginsenosides(Rg_1, Re and Rb_1), glycyrrhizic acid, and paeonol, were used as indexes to establish the HPLC method for quantitative evaluation, and the content ranges and transfer rates of these components were determined. The results showed that the contents of paeoniflorin, glycyrrhizin, ginsenosides Rg_1 + Re, ginsenoside Rb_1, glycyrrhizic acid, and paeonol in the 15 batches of samples were 0.62%-0.86%, 0.25%-0.76%, 0.14%-0.30%, 0.07%-0.21%, 0.63%-1.16%, and 0.09%-0.25%, respectively, and their transfer rates from the decoction pieces to the reference materials were 14.99%-19.42%, 28.11%-40.93%, 25.92%-61.88%, 25.03%-64.06%, 23.43%-35.53%, and 5.34%-10.44%, respectively. The consistency of the transfer rates between batches indicated that the preparation process was stable. It is suggested that the contents of paeoniflorin, glycyrrhizin, ginsenosides Rg_1 + Re, ginsenoside Rb_1, glycyrrhizic acid, and paeonol in Wenjing Decoction should not be less than 0.52%, 0.35%, 0.15%, 0.10%, 0.63%, and 0.12%, respectively. In this study, we determined the contents and analyzed the quantity transfer process of the index components in Wenjing Decoction, which can provide a basis for the follow-up development of Wenjing Decoction and the quality control of related preparations.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glycyrrhizic Acid , Powders , Quality Control
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912349

ABSTRACT

Total thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysmrepair is one of the most complex operations in cardiac surgery. Patients may have spinal cord injury, disturbance of consciousness, hypoxemia, arrhythmia, acute renal injury, abdominal organ ischemia and so on after operation. Postoperative complications may occur in patients with neurological, respiratory, circulatory, digestive, urinary and coagulation systems. This paper summarizes the experience of prevention and treatment of postoperative complications based on the medical literature at home and abroad and the experience of diagnosis and therapeutic schedule in our hospital, in order to improve the prognosis.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912008

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the effect of rehabilitation training on the expression of neuroglobin (Ngb), oxidative stress and axon regeneration in the cortex and explore possible mechanisms of functional recovery after cerebral infarction.Methods:Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sham operation group, a model group and a rehabilitation group. Cerebral infarction was modelled in the model and rehabilitation groups using Longa′s middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) technique. The sham operation group received the same procedure except that no thread was inserted to block the middle cerebral artery. The rats in the rehabilitation group began treadmill training 24h after the operation, while the other two groups were left on the treadmill without training. On the 3rd, 7th and 14th days after the operation, all of the rats′ neurological functioning was assessed using modified neurological severity scores (mNSSs). After the last mNSS test, all of the rats were sacrificed and peri-infarct brain tissue was resected to detect the expression of Ngb and oxidative stress indicators including superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as neurofilament-200 (NF-200) indicating axon regeneration.Results:On the 3rd day after the surgery there was no significant difference between the average mNSS scores of the rehabilitation and model groups. On the 7th and 14th day the average mNSS score of the rehabilitation group was significantly better than that of the model group. The average expression of Ngb in the model group was significantly higher than in the sham operation group. After the intervention, the average expression of SOD in the rehabilitation group was significantly higher than in the model group, while NO and MDA expression were significantly lower. After the intervention the average expression of NF-200 in the rehabilitation group was also significantly higher than in the model group.Conclusions:Rehabilitation training benefits the recovery of neurological function after cerebral infarction, at least in rats. The mechanism may be related to the upregulation of Ngb, alleviation of oxidative stress and enhancement of axonal regeneration in the peri-infarct cortex.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888136

ABSTRACT

Safflower(Carthamus tinctorius), a valuable traditional Chinese medicinal plant, has attracted much attention in recent years. This study established a stable tissue culture system of safflower and analyzed the chromatogram of its secondary metabolites, providing high-quality experimental materials for further research on natural products in safflower. The calluses were established from the safflower seeds germinated in a sterile environment, and then they were differentiated into the aseptic seedlings, or cultured to obtain suspension cells in liquid medium. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry(UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), Progenesis QI, and principal component analysis(PCA) were used to detect and analyze the secondary metabolites in the suspension cells before and after induction with different elicitors(methyl jasmonate, silver nitrate, salicylic acid and yeast extract). A total of 23 secondary metabolites including flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, alkaloids, fatty acids and aromatic glycosides were detected in safflower suspension cells. In response to the four elicitors, 11 compounds showed increased or decreased relative content. The results indicate that different elicitors have various effects on the accumulation of secondary metabolites in safflower suspension cells, and yeast extract shows more obvious positive induction. Therefore, different elicitors may play a role in the expression of related genes in the biosynthetic pathway of specific secondary metabolites. The results facilitate the discovery of targeted elicitors and the large-scale production of valuable secondary metabolites in the future.


Subject(s)
Carthamus tinctorius , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Flavonoids , Glycosides , Mass Spectrometry
16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1552-1560, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common public health problem worldwide. Recent studies have reported that socioeconomic status (SES) is related to the incidence of COPD. This study aimed to investigate the association between SES and COPD among adults in Jiangsu province, China, and to determine the possible direct and indirect effects of SES on the morbidity of COPD.@*METHODS@#A cross-sectional study was conducted among adults aged 40 years and above between May and December of 2015 in Jiangsu province, China. Participants were selected using a multistage sampling approach. COPD, the outcome variable, was diagnosed by physicians based on spirometry, respiratory symptoms, and risk factors. Education, occupation, and monthly family average income (FAI) were used to separately indicate SES as the explanatory variable. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were introduced to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for examining the SES-COPD relationship. A pathway analysis was conducted to further explore the pulmonary function impairment of patients with different SES.@*RESULTS@#The mean age of the 2421 participants was 56.63 ± 9.62 years. The prevalence of COPD was 11.8% (95% CI: 10.5%-13.1%) among the overall sample population. After adjustment for age, gender, residence, outdoor and indoor air pollution, body weight status, cigarette smoking, and potential study area-level clustering effects, educational attainment was negatively associated with COPD prevalence in men; white collars were at lower risk (OR: 0.60, 95% CI: 0.43-0.83) of experiencing COPD than blue collars; compared with those within the lower FAI subgroup, participants in the upper (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.49-0.97) tertiles were less likely to experience COPD. Such negative associations between all these three SES indicators and COPD were significant among men only. Education, FAI, and occupation had direct or indirect effects on pulmonary function including post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC), FEV1, FVC, and FEV1 percentage of predicted. Education, FAI, and occupation had indirect effects on pulmonary function indices of all participants mainly through smoking status, indoor air pollution, and outdoor air pollution. We also found that occupation could affect post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC through body mass index.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Education, occupation, and FAI had an adverse relationship with COPD prevalence in Jiangsu province, China. SES has both direct and indirect associations with pulmonary function impairment. SES is of great significance for COPD morbidity. It is important that population-based COPD prevention strategies should be tailored for people with different SES.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Forced Expiratory Volume , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Social Class , Spirometry , Vital Capacity
17.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 203-207, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-884989

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the cytogenetic characteristics of hypospadias in children by karyotype analysis.Methods:From June 2008 to May 2018, 45 children with hypospadias in Tianjin Children's Hospital had cytogenetic abnormalities. Their median age was 10 months(range 3 hours to 5 years old). Of the 45 cases, 20 were proximal hypospadias, 1 was middle hypospadias. All 24 cases had varying degrees of genitourinary malformations. Among them, 15 cases had unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism, 5 cases had scrotal division, 3 cases had penile scrotal transposition, 3 cases had small penis, 3 cases had indirect inguinal hernia, 1 case had repeated urethra, 1 case had hydrocele and 1 case had concealed penis. To the other systemic malformations, there was 1 with cleft lip and palate and 1 with congenital heart disease. G-banding karyotype analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes was performed in all 45 cases.Results:Among the 45 cases of hypospadias with abnormal karyotypes, with an abnormal rate of 14.0%, 28 cases (62.22%) had sex chromosome abnormalities, including (47, XXY), (46, XX/47, XXY), (45, X0/47, XYY), etc. Sexual inversion occurred in 8 cases (17.78%), all of which were 46, XX. There were 4 autosomal abnormalities (8.89%), including (46, XY, 9p+ ), (46, XY, 10p+ ) and (46, XY, 1q+ ). Chromosome polymorphism was found in 4 cases (8.89%), including [46, XY, inv(9)] and [46, XY, 16qh+ ], and the equilibrium translocation of 1 case (2.22%) was [45, XY, -21, -22, + t(21; 22)]. Among the 45 cases, 8 sex reversal children with (46, XX) chromosome karyotype were all proximal hypospadias.Conclusions:Children with hypospadias may be associated with chromosomal karyotype abnormalities, including sex chromosomal abnormalities, autosomal abnormalities, chromosome polymorphism and balanced translocation. Among them, sex chromosome abnormality was the most common and balanced translocation was the least.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883480

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the causes of death of elderly inpatients,so as to provide direction for the precaution of geriatrics.Methods:The first page data of hospitalized medical records of elderly inpatients in medical department in the Second Hospital of Dalian Medical University from 2102 to 2019 were extracted, and the causes of death were analyzed. The statistical analysis was performed by Excel and SPSS 21.0 statistical software.Results:The number of deaths of elderly inpatients in medical department from 2012 to 2019 was 5 249. The proportion of deaths in ICU was 34.43%(1 807/5 249), in oncology department was19.03%(999/5 249), and in cardiovascular department was12.08%(634/5 249). The average age was (78.52 ± 7.82) years. Besides, the age of men was younger than women: (78.18 ± 8.00) years vs. (79.02 ± 7.52) years, and the differences was statistically significant ( P<0.01). Men(59.1%, 3 099/5 249) were more than women (40.96%, 2 150/5 249). The largest number of deaths was in the age of 75-84 years (42.56%, 2 234/5 249). The number of cases with combined above five diseases was 4 552(86.72%, 4 552/5 249). The top three causes of deaths of elderly inpatients in medical department from 2012 to 2019 were cardiocerebrovascular diseases (27.21%, 1 428/5 249), malignant tumor (25.74%, 1351/5 249) and respiratory system diseases (22.10%, 1160/5 249). From 2012 to 2015, the top three causes of deaths were malignant tumor, cardiocerebrovascular diseases and respiratorysystem diseases. From 2016 to 2019,the top three causes of deaths were cardiocerebrovascular diseases, malignant tumor, and respiratory system diseases. The most common cause in cardiocerebrovascular diseases of death was coronary heart disease (51.47%,735/1 428), cerebrovascular disease (43.70%,624/1 428),and hypertension(4.34%, 62/1 428). Among the patients with malignant tumor death, first cause of death waslung malignant tumor (37.53%, 507/1 351), the others in turn were gastric carcinoma (11.10%,150/1 351) and intestinal cancer (11.10%,150/1 351). Among the patients with respiratory system diseases, first cause of death was pulmonary infection (69.66%,808/1 160), the others in turn were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (15.43%, 179/1 160) and interstitial lung disease (5.09%, 59/1 160). Conclusions:The average age of elderly inpatients in medical department is (78.52 ± 7.82) years. The death age of male is less than that of female, and the number is slightly more than that of female. The top three causes of deaths of elderly inpatients in medical department are cardiocerebrovascular diseases, malignant tumor, respiratorysystem diseases. From 2012 to 2015 the first cause of deaths is malignant tumor. From 2016 to 2019, the cardiocerebrovascular diseases rise to the first.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882647

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effect of melatonin (MEL) influence on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced long-term anxiety-like behavior and activation of astrocytes in septic neonatal rats.Methods:Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly(random number) assigned to the control group, LPS group and LPS+MEL group. Sepsis model was intraperitoneally injected with LPS (1 mg/kg), and neonatal rats in the MEL group were administered with MEL (10 mg/kg) 30 min after LPS injection. At different time points after injection, rats in each group were divided into three subgroups: 3 d, 7 d and 28 d. The expression of GFAP and TNF-α in the corpus callosum was detected by immunofluorescence staining and Western blot. Open-field test was applied to observe anxiety-like behaviors. In vitro, cultured neonatal SD rat astrocytes were divided into the control group, LPS group, LPS+MEL group, and LPS+MEL+luzindole group. Immunofluorescence staining was used to observe the expression of GFAP and TNF-α. Expression of GFAP, TNF-α, p-NF-κBp65, NF-κBp65 protein in astrocytes were assessed by Western blot. RT-qPCR was used to investigate the mRNA expression of GDNF and BDNF. One-way ANOVA and two-way ANOVA were used for comparison of multiple groups of variables. A P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results:LPS reduced the duration of movement in the central area and distance in the central area/total distance in open-field test, while melatonin evidently reversed the LPS-induced anxiety-like behavior. Compared with the LPS group, the expressions of GFAP and TNF-α were significantly decreased in the corpus callosum at 3 d and 7 d in the MEL group ( P< 0.05). Compared with the LPS group, MEL could significantly decrease the expression of GFAP, TNF-α and p-NF-κBp65 in astrocytes ( P< 0.05), which could be blocked by Luzindole. In addition, compared with the LPS group, MEL pretreatment could reverse the down regulation of GDNF and BDNF induced by LPS ( P<0.05). Conclusions:MEL can relieve LPS-induced long-term anxiety-like behavior in septic neonatal rats. The mechanism may be related to the inhibition of astrocyte activation and inflammatory reaction through NF - κ B pathway.

20.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 944-953, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread throughout the world. In this study, we aimed to identify the risk factors for severe COVID-19 to improve treatment guidelines.@*METHODS@#A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted on 313 patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Patients were classified into two groups based on disease severity (nonsevere and severe) according to initial clinical presentation. Laboratory test results and epidemiological and clinical characteristics were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to detect potential risk factors associated with severe COVID-19.@*RESULTS@#A total of 289 patients (197 nonsevere and 92 severe cases) with a median age of 45.0 (33.0, 61.0) years were included in this study, and 53.3% (154/289) were male. Fever (192/286, 67.1%) and cough (170/289, 58.8%) were commonly observed, followed by sore throat (49/289, 17.0%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that patients who were aged ≥ 65 years (OR: 2.725, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.317-5.636; P = 0.007), were male (OR: 1.878, 95% CI: 1.002-3.520, P = 0.049), had comorbid diabetes (OR: 3.314, 95% CI: 1.126-9.758, P = 0.030), cough (OR: 3.427, 95% CI: 1.752-6.706, P < 0.001), and/or diarrhea (OR: 2.629, 95% CI: 1.109-6.231, P = 0.028) on admission had a higher risk of severe disease. Moreover, stratification analysis indicated that male patients with diabetes were more likely to have severe COVID-19 (71.4% vs. 28.6%, χ2 = 8.183, P = 0.004).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The clinical characteristics of those with severe and nonsevere COVID-19 were significantly different. The elderly, male patients with COVID-19, diabetes, and presenting with cough and/or diarrhea on admission may require close monitoring to prevent deterioration.


Subject(s)
Adult , COVID-19/pathology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cough , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
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