@#This study aimed to determine the in vivo effectiveness of the ethanolic extract of Piper betle L. leaves against Staphylococcus aureus-infected wounds in mice and its antimicrobial properties on clinical isolates of multiple drug-resistant bacterial pathogens. Twenty mice were divided into four groups. Wounds were created in all mice under anesthesia by excision from the dorsal skin down to the subcutaneous fat and inoculating with S. aureus. After 24 h, the wound of each mouse was treated once daily by application of the respective cream. Group I was treated with mupirocin antibacterial cream; Group II received a cream base containing no active ingredient; Groups III and IV were treated with 2.5% and 5.0% concentrations of P. betle cream, respectively. Further, an in vitro study was performed by adding undiluted, 1:50 and 1:100 dilutions of the four studied creams in normal saline containing 1.5 × 108 CFU/mL of the following bacteria: antimicrobial-susceptible S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, metallo-βlactamase-producing P. aeruginosa and carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. The mice in Groups III and IV had significantly faster wound contraction and significantly shorter reepithelialization time than Group II (p < 0.05), which were not significantly different from Group I (p > 0.05). P. betle creams inhibited all studied bacterial strains at full concentration and at a dilution of 1:50. The inhibitory effect was more significant than Groups I and II (p < 0.05), except on S. aureus. Specifically, S. aureus inhibition was not significantly different for Groups III and IV (p > 0.05) when compared with Group I. Cream formulations derived from P. betle ethanolic extract have great potential as antimicrobial agents for the treatment of wound infection. Further clinical tests are recommended to determine the safety and efficacy of these formulations in other mammalian species.
Temperature and rainfall were analyzed daily during six years to evaluate their influence on in vitro production of bovine embryos. Weekly replications (n=480) were performed on 14,778 ovaries collected at slaughterhouses. Cumulus oocyte complexes (n=19,180) were fertilized with a pool of Bos taurus taurus semen in one incubator with 5 percent CO2. Presumable zygotes were cultured in gasified plastic bags with 5 percent CO2, 5 percent O2, and 90 percent N2. In the first year, cleavage and embryo yield were 60.3 percent and 15.6 percent, respectively, being lower (P<0.05) than in the following years. Average cleavage rates were always lower in winter (P<0.0001), thus producing less embryos. Winter climatic conditions had a negative influence on in vitro production, when cleavage and embryo yield declined, possibly because of reduced availability and growth of native pasture.
A temperatura e a precipitação pluviométrica foram analisadas diariamente, durante seis anos, para avaliar sua influência sobre a produção in vitro de embriões bovinos. As repetições semanais (n=480) foram realizadas com 14.778 ovários coletados em matadouros. Os oócitos (n=19.180) foram maturados em estufa com atmosfera com controle de temperatura e umidade saturada com 5 por cento de CO2 e, após 20h, foram fecundados com sêmen de Bos taurus taurus e mantidos sob as mesmas condições de atmosfera da maturação. Os zigotos foram cultivados em placas de quatro poços em bolsas gaseificadas com 5 por cento de CO2, 5 por cento de O2 e 90 por cento de N2, à temperatura de 39ºC e umidade saturada. No primeiro ano, a taxa clivagem (60,3 por cento) e a produção de embriões (15,6 por cento) foram inferiores (P<0,05) aos demais anos. As taxas de clivagem foram sempre menores no inverno (P<0,0001). As condições climáticas no inverno tiveram influência negativa sobre a produção in vitro de embriões bovinos e houve diminuição nos índices de clivagem e produção de blastocistos, possivelmente devido à reduzida disponibilidade e crescimento da pastagem nativa.