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1.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 27-38, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968732

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We evaluated the gut microbiome using extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the urine of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) to determine whether gut-microbe-derived EVs could be a potential biomarker for the diagnosis of CRC. @*Methods@#EVs were isolated from the urine of patients with CRC and healthy controls. DNA was extracted from the EVs, and the bacterial composition was analyzed using next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA. @*Results@#A total of 91 patients with CRC and 116 healthy controls were enrolled. We found some specific microbiomes that were more or less abundant in the CRC group than in the control group. The alpha-diversity of the gut microbiome was significantly lower in the CRC group than in the control group. A significant difference was observed in the beta-diversity between the groups. The alpha-diversity indices between patients with early- and late-stage CRC showed conflicting results; however, there was no significant difference in the beta-diversity according to the stage of CRC. There was no difference in the alpha- and beta-diversity of the gut microbiome corresponding to the location of CRC (proximal vs. distal). @*Conclusions@#A distinct gut microbiome is reflected in the urine EVs of patients with CRC compared with that in the healthy controls. Microbial signatures from EVs in urine could serve as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of CRC.

2.
Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine ; : 52-59, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967637

ABSTRACT

Single-cell RNA sequencing has become a powerful and essential tool for delineating cellular diversity in normal tissues and alterations in disease states. For certain cell types and conditions, there are difficulties in isolating intact cells for transcriptome profiling due to their fragility, large size, tight interconnections, and other factors. Single-nucleus RNA sequencing (snRNA-seq) is an alternative or complementary approach for cells that are difficult to isolate. In this review, we will provide an overview of the experimental and analysis steps of snRNA-seq to understand the methods and characteristics of general and tissue-specific snRNA-seq data. Knowing the advantages and limitations of snRNA-seq will increase its use and improve the biological interpretation of the data generated using this technique.

3.
Gut and Liver ; : 243-258, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966895

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The incidence and prognosis of gastric cancer (GC) shows sex difference.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of body mass index (BMI) on GC survival depending on sex. @*Methods@#The sex, age, location, histology, TNM stages, BMI, and survival were analyzed in GC patients from May 2003 to February 2020 at the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital. @*Results@#Among 14,688 patients, there were twice as many males (66.6%) as females (33.4%).However, under age 40 years, females (8.6%) were more prevalent than males (3.1%). Cardia GC in males showed a U-shaped distribution for underweight (9.6%), normal (6.4%), overweight (6.1%), obesity (5.6%), and severe obesity (9.3%) but not in females (p=0.003). Females showed decreased proportion of diffuse-type GC regarding BMI (underweight [59.9%], normal [56.8%], overweight [49.5%], obesity [44.8%], and severe obesity [41.7%]), but males did not (p<0.001). Both sexes had the worst prognosis in the underweight group (p<0.001), and the higher BMI, the better prognosis in males, but not females. Sex differences in prognosis according to BMI tended to be more prominent in males than in females in subgroup analysis of TNM stages I, II, and III and the operative treatment group. @*Conclusions@#GC-specific survival was affected by BMI in a sex-dependent manner. These differences may be related to genetic, and environmental, hormonal factors; body composition; and muscle mass (Trial registration number: NCT04973631).

4.
Gut and Liver ; : 58-68, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966878

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is positively associated with metabolic syndrome (MS). However, the long-term effects of eradication therapy on MS and sex differences have not been thoroughly studied. We aimed to investigate the long-term effects of HP eradication on MS and sex differences. @*Methods@#This study included 2,267 subjects who visited a tertiary referral center between May 2003 and May 2019. HP was diagnosed by histology, a Campylobacter-like organism test, and culture, and the subjects were prospectively followed up. The participants were categorized into three groups: HP uninfected, HP infected but non-eradicated, and HP eradicated. The baseline characteristics and changes in metabolic parameters after HP eradication were compared over a 5-year follow-up period. @*Results@#Among 1,521 subjects, there was no difference in baseline metabolic parameters between the HP-uninfected (n=509) and HP-infected (n=1,012) groups, regardless of sex. Analysis of the metabolic parameters during follow-up among HP-uninfected (n=509), HP-non-eradicated (n=346), and HP-eradicated (n=666) groups showed that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and the body mass index (BMI) increased after eradication, with a significant difference at 1-year of follow-up. In females, HDL increased after eradication (p=0.023), and the BMI increased after eradication in male subjects (p=0.010). After propensity score matching, the HDL change in female remained significant, but the statistical significance of the change in BMI in the male group became marginally significant (p=0.089). @*Conclusions@#HP eradication affected metabolic parameters differently depending on sex. HDL significantly increased only in females over time, especially at 1-year of follow-up. In contrast, BMI showed an increasing tendency over time in males, especially at the 1-year follow-up.

5.
Gut and Liver ; : 108-118, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966870

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study aimed to evaluate the potential of the stool microbiome and gut microbe-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) to differentiate between patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and healthy controls, and to predict relapse in patients with IBD. @*Methods@#Metagenomic profiling of the microbiome and bacterial EVs in stool samples of controls (n=110) and patients with IBD (n=110) was performed using 16S rRNA sequencing and then compared. Patients with IBD were divided into two enterotypes based on their microbiome, and the cumulative risk of relapse was evaluated. @*Results@#There was a significant difference in the composition of the stool microbiome and gut microbe-derived EVs between patients with IBD and controls. The alpha diversity of the microbiome in patients with IBD was significantly lower than that in controls, while the beta diversity also differed significantly between the two groups. These findings were more prominent in gut microbe-derived EVs than in the stool microbiome. The survival curve tended to be different for enterotypes based on the gut microbe-derived EVs; however, this difference was not statistically significant (log-rank test, p=0.166). In the multivariable analysis, elevated fecal calprotectin (>250 mg/kg) was the only significant risk factor associated with relapse (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.147; 95% confidence interval, 1.545 to 6.408; p=0.002). @*Conclusions@#Analysis of gut microbe-derived EVs is better at differentiating patients with IBD from healthy controls than stool microbiome analysis.

6.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 196-218, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966474

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#Sex hormones are known to affect the gut microbiota. Previously, we reported that endogenous and exogenous testosterone are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) development and submucosal invasion. In the present study, we investigated whether the gut microbiota is affected by orchiectomy (ORX) and testosterone propionate (TP) administration using an azoxymethane/dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS)-induced CRC mouse model. @*Materials and Methods@#Gut microbiota was evaluated by means of 16S rRNA gene sequencing of stool DNA extracted from feces that were obtained at 13 weeks after AOM injection (from 22-week-old animals) and stored in a gas-generating pouch. @*Results@#The increase in microbial diversity (Chao1 and Phylogenetic Diversity index) and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio upon AOM/DSS treatment in ORX mice was significantly decreased by TP supplementation. The ratio of commensal bacteria to opportunistic pathogens was lower in the TP-administered females and ORX mice than in the AOM/DSS group. Opportunistic pathogens (Mucispirillum schaedleri or Akkermansia muciniphila) were identified only in the TP group. In addition, microbial diversity and F/B ratio were higher in male controls than in female and ORX controls. Flintibacter butyricus, Ruminococcus bromii, and Romboutsia timonensis showed similar changes in the male control group as those in the female and ORX controls. @*Conclusion@#In conclusion, testosterone determines the dysbiosis of gut microbiota, which suggests that it plays a role in the sex-related differences in colorectal carcinogenesis.

7.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 254-261, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968684

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Anorectal functions are influenced by gender and age. This study sought to define the normal anorectal pressure values measured with conventional anorectal manometry (ARM) and to evaluate the effects of age and gender on anorectal function in asymptomatic subjects. @*Methods@#Conventional ARM was used to measure the anorectal pressures of 164 asymptomatic healthy subjects, including 86 males and 76 females. @*Results@#The resting anal pressures of males and females aged >60 years were significantly lower than those ≤60 years (males, 44.09±14.22 vs. 57.45±17.69, p<0.001; females, 44.09±14.22 vs. 57.45±17.69, p<0.001). The anal high-pressure zone was significantly lower in older males than in younger males (2.42±0.93 vs. 2.82±0.739, p=0.048). In both age groups (<60 and ≥60 years), the anal squeezing pressures of males were significantly higher than those of females (<60 years old, 168.40±75.94 vs. 119.15±57.53, p=0.001; ≥60 years, 149.61±64.68 vs. 101.3±54.92, p=0.006). @*Conclusions@#The normal anorectal pressure values measured with ARM in males and females were different. Older males and females had lower anal resting pressures than those of the younger subjects, but squeezing pressure was not affected by age.

8.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 145-158, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915747

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Overlap functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) is associated with more severe gastrointestinal symptoms and lower quality of life. The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical features of non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, their overlap in terms of sex and gender, and to assess the risk factors, including genetic polymorphisms. @*Methods@#A total of 494 FGIDs and 239 controls were prospectively enrolled between 2004 and 2020. FGIDs were diagnosed based on the Rome III criteria and symptoms were evaluated using a questionnaire. Follow-up questionnaires were conducted to determine the change of symptoms during the 75.8-month mean observation period. Risk factors including genetic polymorphisms in neurotransmitter receptor (SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, GNB3, ADRA2A, CCKAR, and TRPV1) and cytokine (TNFA and IL10) genes. @*Results@#NERD was more prevalent in men, and functional dyspepsia in women. Overlap FGIDs (n = 239) were more prevalent than nonoverlap FGIDs (n = 255) in women (P = 0.019). Anxiety and depression scores were higher in the overlaps (P = 0.012 and P < 0.001, respectively). Symptoms were more frequent and severe in the overlap FGIDs than in the non-overlaps (P < 0.001). During followup, symptoms progressed more frequently in the overlap FGIDs, especially in patients with the L/S genotype of SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR and anxiety/depression. @*Conclusions@#Overlap FGID patients need attention given their association with anxiety/depression and more severe symptoms, especially in women. Genetic polymorphisms also may be associated with certain symptoms of overlap FGIDs.

9.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 199-207, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913827

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#There remains controversy about relationship between obesity and gastric cancer. We aimed to examine the association using obesity-persistence. @*Materials and Methods@#We analyzed a nationwide population-based cohort which underwent health check-up between 2009 and 2012. Among them, those who had annual examinations during the last 5 years were selected. Gastric cancer risk was compared between those without obesity during the 5 years (never-obesity group) and those with obesity diagnosis during the 5 years (non-persistent obesity group; persistent obesity group). @*Results@#Among 2,757,017 individuals, 13,441 developed gastric cancer after median 6.78 years of follow-up. Gastric cancer risk was the highest in persistent obesity group (incidence rate [IR], 0.89/1,000 person-years; hazard ratio [HR], 1.197; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.117 to 1.284), followed by non-persistent obesity group (IR, 0.83/1,000 person-years; HR, 1.113; 95% CI, 1.056 to 1.172) compared with never-obesity group. In subgroup analysis, this positive relationship was true among those < 65 years old and male. Among heavy-drinkers, the impact of obesity-persistence on the gastric cancer risk far increased (non-persistent obesity: HR, 1.297; 95% CI, 1.094 to 1.538; persistent obesity: HR, 1.351; 95% CI, 1.076 to 1.698). @*Conclusion@#Obesity-persistence is associated with increased risk of gastric cancer in a dose-response manner, especially among male < 65 years old. The risk raising effect was much stronger among heavy-drinkers.

10.
The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology ; : 17-27, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939066

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Constipation is a common gastrointestinal disease that reduces the quality of life and incurs considerable medical expenses. Bisacodyl and sodium docusate are generally used to treat constipation. This study assessed the effectiveness and safety of Goodmorning S Granule® (Hanpoong Pharm. Co., Ltd., Wanju, Korea) in functional constipation by a comparison with bisacodyl. @*Methods@#A 2-week randomized, double-blind, active-controlled exploratory clinical trial was conducted to compare the treatment (Goodmorning S Granule® ) with the control (bisacodyl). The efficacy was measured by the changes in transition, Bristol stool type, stomachache, clinical manifestation, defecation time after drug consumption, 36-item short-form survey (SF-36), and the results of improvement evaluation. The safety was evaluated by the incidence of adverse drug events and vital signs. Additional analyses were conducted by dividing the severity according to the proportion of Bristol Stool Scale types 1 and 2. @*Results@#Subjects were randomized to the treatment (n=24) or control (n=26) groups. No significant differences were observed in demographics. After 2 weeks from the baseline, the changes in the complete spontaneous bowel movement (CSBM) were higher in the treatment (4.00±2.62) group than in the control group (1.40±2.34) (p<0.05). The treatment group exhibited significant improvement in the score on the SF-36 questionnaire. The clinical side effects, such as stomachache and borborygmus, were reduced in the moderate constipation patients in the treatment group, according to additional analyses. @*Conclusions@#Goodmorning S Granule® , a herbal medicine, was more effective in improving quality of life and CSBM per week and safer in the moderate constipation groups because of the reduced clinical side effects.

11.
Journal of Korean Academy of Pediatric Dentistry ; (4): 217-227, 2022.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938193

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate parents’ and dentists’ perceptions of the national oral health screening for infants and children (OHS), and evaluate the dentists’ accuracy of analyzing the results of OHS. A questionnaire survey was conducted, face-to-face or online, for 90 parents of children who received OHS in the Department of Pediatric Dentistry at Yonsei University Dental Hospital and 100 dentists working at local clinic or university dental hospital from May to October 2021. Most parents and dentists were aware of the importance of OHS, and approximately 96.7% of parents were satisfied with OHS. The requirements of parents and dentists about OHS were different. The reasons for having difficulties in explaining parents after OHS and the opinions on appropriate period and number of OHS were disagreed between pediatric dentists and general dentists. Regardless of dentists’ major, work experience, elapsed period after taking online education program, the accuracy of the examination result was low. In this study, various opinions of parents and dentists on OHS were collected. Efforts should be made to enhance the oral health of infants and children by considering the requirements of parents and dentists and improving the accuracy of examination results.

12.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 474-482, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-938105

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We evaluated the clinical significance and prognostic power of functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) panometry in patients with achalasia treated with peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), and examined the clinical parameters associated with symptomatic improvement and the presence of contractility (POC) following POEM. @*Methods@#We reviewed the electronic medical records of patients with achalasia treated with FLIP panometry and POEM at a tertiary teaching hospital in Seoul, Republic of Korea. Follow-up examination was composed of esophageal manometry and questionnaires on symptoms. We analyzed the FLIP data by interpolating using the cubic spline method in MATLAB. @*Results@#We retrospectively analyzed 33 men and 35 women (mean age: 52 ± 17 years), of whom 14, 39, and 15 patients were diagnosed with achalasia types I, II, and III, respectively. The FLIP panometry diagnoses were reduced esophagogastric junction opening (REO) with a retrograde contractile response (n = 43); REO with an absent contractile response (n = 5); REO with a normal contractile response (n = 11); and a retrograde contractile response (n = 9). Overall, the patients showed improvements in Eckardt scores following POEM from 6.48 ± 2.20 to 1.16 ± 1.15 (P < 0.01). Post-POEM symptomatic improvement was not significantly associated with any of the clinical parameters, including panometry diagnosis. Conversely, post-POEM POC was significantly associated with the presence of repetitive antegrade contractions and achalasia subtypes (both P < 0.01). @*Conclusion@#While FLIP panometry was not significantly associated with the clinical course of achalasia, FLIP panometry was associated with POC following POEM and may complement manometry in the functional evaluation of esophageal motility disorders.

13.
Gut and Liver ; : 535-546, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-937603

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#We examined the efficacy and safety of tegoprazan as a part of first-line triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication. @*Methods@#A randomized, double-blind, controlled, multicenter study was performed to evaluate whether tegoprazan (50 mg)-based triple therapy (TPZ) was noninferior to lansoprazole (30 mg)-based triple therapy (LPZ) (with amoxicillin 1 g and clarithromycin 500 mg; all administered twice daily for 7 days) for treating H. pylori. The primary endpoint was the H. pylori eradication rate. Subgroup analyses were performed according to the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 genotype, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of amoxicillin and clarithromycin, and underlying gastric diseases. @*Results@#In total, 350 H. pylori-positive patients were randomly allocated to the TPZ or LPZ group. The H. pylori eradication rates in the TPZ and LPZ groups were 62.86% (110/175) and 60.57% (106/175) in an intention-to-treat analysis and 69.33% (104/150) and 67.33% (101/150) in a per-protocol analysis (non-inferiority test, p=0.009 and p=0.013), respectively. Subgroup analyses according to MICs or CYP2C19 did not show remarkable differences in eradication rate. Both first-line triple therapies were well-tolerated with no notable differences. @*Conclusions@#TPZ is as effective as proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy and is as safe as first-line H. pylori eradication therapy but does not overcome the clarithromycin resistance of H. pylori in Korea

14.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 579-590, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927031

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The long-term effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on the metabolic syndrome or diabetes are unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of H. pylori eradication on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or prediabetes mellitus (preDM). @*Methods@#A total of 124 asymptomatic subjects with T2DM or preDM were divided into H. pylori-negative (n = 40), H. pylori-positive with non-eradicated (n = 34), and eradicated (n = 50) groups. We measured H. pylori status (culture, histology, and rapid urease test) and glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1C) levels and followed-up at the 1st year and the 5th year of follow-up. @*Results@#The A1C levels significantly decreased in the eradicated group compared to the negative group and the non-eradicated groups (at the 1st year, p = 0.024; at the 5th year, p = 0.009). The A1C levels decreased in male, and/or subjects < 65 years of age in subgroup analyses (in male subjects, p = 0.047 and p = 0.020 at the 1st and the 5th year; in subjects < 65 years of age, p = 0.028 and p = 0.006 at the 1st and the 5th year; in male subjects < 65 years of age, p = 0.039 and p = 0.032 at the 1st and the 5th year). The eradication of H. pylori was related to the decrease in A1C values throughout the follow-up period, compared to the non-eradicated group (p = 0.017). @*Conclusions@#H. pylori eradication was related to the decreasing of A1C levels in patients with T2DM or preDM over a long-term follow-up period, especially in male and subjects < 65 years of age.

15.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 265-275, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926119

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#To assess the effects and safety of DA-9701 (Motilitone) in patients with constipation-type irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) whichfrequently accompany functional dyspepsia (FD). @*Methods@#FD and IBS-C were diagnosed based on the Rome III criteria. Randomized subjects were administered 30 mg of DA-9701 or placebo 3times a day for 4 weeks. The study endpoints were evaluated the percentage of responders in the overall symptom evaluation of IBS-C and FD. @*Results@#Thirty IBS-C patients and 30 placebos were prospectively enrolled. The proportion of responders with improvement in overall symptoms of IBS-C was 53.33% in the DA-9701 group and 40.00% in the placebo group (P = 0.301). Compared to the placebo group, the decrease of abdominal pain score in the DA-9701 group was significantly higher at week 3 in the DA-9701 group (0.96 ± 0.77 vs 0.55 ± 0.79, P = 0.042) but no significance at week 4. There was no significant difference in total IBS quality of life score at week 4 between the 2 groups (P = 0.897). Among patients with IBS-C accompanied by FD, the proportion of responders in the DA-9701 group was 50.00% (15/30), which was higher than 31.03% (9/29) of the placebo group (P = 0.138). @*Conclusions@#DA-9701 showed trend of treatment efficacy in patients with IBS-C and FD overlap including overall improvement, and safety,compared to placebo but without significance probably due to small numbers. It is suggested the need for a large-scale clinical trial toconfirm this preliminary effect of DA-9701.

16.
Gut and Liver ; : 465-473, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925016

ABSTRACT

Background/aims@#Contradictory findings on the association between cholecystectomy and cancer have been reported. We aimed to investigate the risk of all types of cancers or site-specific cancers in patients who underwent cholecystectomy using a nationwide dataset. @*Methods@#Subjects who underwent cholecystectomy from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2014, who were older than 20 years and who underwent an initial baseline health check-up within 2 years were enrolled. Those who were diagnosed with any type of cancer before the enrollment or within 1 year after enrollment were excluded. Ultimately, patients (n=123,295) who underwent cholecystectomy and age/sex matched population (n=123,295) were identified from the database of the Korean National Health Insurance Service. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cancer were estimated, and Cox regression analysis was performed. @*Results@#The incidence of cancer in the cholecystectomy group was 9.56 per 1,000 person-years and that in the control group was 7.95 per 1,000 person-years. Patients who underwent cholecystectomy showed an increased risk of total cancer (adjusted HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.24; p<0.001), particularly leukemia and malignancies of the colon, liver, pancreas, biliary tract, thyroid, pharynx, and oral cavity. In the subgroup analysis according to sex, the risk of developing cancers in the pancreas, biliary tract, thyroid, lungs and stomach was higher in men than in women. @*Conclusions@#Physicians should pay more attention to the possibility of the occurrence of secondary cancers among patients who undergo cholecystectomy.

17.
Gut and Liver ; : 366-374, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-925013

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Less invasive surgical treatment is performed in East Asia to preserve postoperative digestive function and reduce complications such as postgastrectomy syndromes, but there is an issue of metachronous gastric cancer (GC) in the remaining stomach. This study aimed to analyze the incidence of metachronous GC and its risk factors in patients who had undergone partial gastrectomy. @*Methods@#A total of 3,045 GC patients who had undergone curative gastric partial resection at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital were enrolled and analyzed retrospectively for risk factors, including age, sex, smoking, alcohol, Helicobacter pylori status, family history of GC, histological type, and surgical method. @*Results@#Metachronous GC in the remaining stomach occurred in 35 of the 3,045 patients (1.1%): 23 in the distal gastrectomy group (18 with Billroth-I anastomosis, five with Billroth-II anastomosis), seven in the proximal gastrectomy (PG) group, and five in the pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) group. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that age ≥60 years (p=0.005) and surgical method used (PG or PPG, p<0.001) were related risk factors for metachronous GC, while male sex and intestinal type histology were potential risk factors. @*Conclusions@#Metachronous GC was shown to be related to older age and the surgical method used (PG or PPG). Regular and careful follow-up with endoscopy should be performed in the case of gastric partial resection, especially in patients with male sex and intestinal type histology as well as those aged ≥60 years undergoing the PG or PPG surgical method.

18.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : S9-S17, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875502

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Combination therapy with immunomodulators (IMMs) was proposed as a strategy to prevent the development of loss of response (LOR) to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the effect is unclear in patients already exposed to IMMs. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether combination therapy with IMMs is superior to monotherapy for prevention of LOR to anti-TNF. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective study of patients in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital with IBD between January 2009 and October 2018. LOR was defined as clinical deterioration after maintenance of anti-TNF for at least 6 months. We investigated the difference in incidence of LOR to anti-TNF between the monotherapy and combination groups. We additionally assessed factors affecting LOR development to anti-TNF. @*Results@#A total of 116 patients with IBD were included in this study (monotherapy 61 patients; combination 55 patients). Overall, LOR to anti-TNF occurred in 31 patients during the follow-up period. The combination of an anti-TNF agent and IMM showed no significant difference in the incidence of LOR compared to anti-TNF agent monotherapy (hazard ratio [HR], 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.786 to 3.148; p = 0.182). Female sex was significantly associated with the development of LOR to anti-TNF (HR, 3.032; 95% CI, 1.467 to 6.268; p = 0.003). @*Conclusions@#Anti-TNF and IMM combination therapy did not prove efficacious in preventing the development of LOR in IBD patients. Female sex was associated with the development of LOR to anti-TNF; further studies are required to confirm these results.

19.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine ; : 322-331, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875475

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The length of colon is known to be longer in females than in males. In addition, the morphology of colon cancer is different between males and females. The aim of this study was to investigate sex differences in Boston bowel preparation score (BBPS) and colonoscopy insertion time. @*Methods@#This study retrospectively analyzed medical records and colonoscopy readings of subjects who underwent colonoscopy at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from March 2015 to April 2018. BPPS was used to evaluate the degree of colon cleanness before colonoscopy. Statistical analysis was performed to compare demographic, clinical, and outcome variables between two groups. @*Results@#The study group consisted of a total of 12,561 patients (6,148 females and 6,413 males). Mean age was 57.8 ± 13.5 years for females and 57.5 ± 13.8 years for males (p = 0.695). Females showed better bowel preparation than males (mean total score: 7.4 ± 1.8 vs. 7.2 ± 1.9, p = 0.001; total score ≥ 6: 5,340 [86.9%] vs. 5,437 [84.8%], p = 0.001; BBPS ≥ 2 for all segments: 5,048 [82.1%] vs. 5,097 [79.5%], p < 0.001). However, cecal intubation time (8.3 ± 6.2 minutes vs. 6.2 ± 6.1 minutes, p < 0.001) and withdrawal time (7.9 ± 3.5 minutes vs. 7.4 ± 3.1 minutes, p < 0.001) were longer in males. @*Conclusions@#There were sex differences in BBPS, cecal intubation time, and withdrawal time for subjects undergoing colonoscopy.

20.
Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility ; : 87-96, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874871

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Prokinetics such as mosapride citrate CR (conventional-release; Gasmotin) are commonly used in functional dyspepsia (FD). This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of once-a-day mosapride citrate SR (DWJ1252), a sustained-release formulation of mosapride citrate, compared with mosapride citrate CR 3 times a day, in patients with FD. @*Methods@#In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, non-inferiority study, 119 patients with FD (by the Rome III criteria, 60 for mosapride citrate SR and 59 for mosapride citrate CR) were randomly allocated to mosapride citrate SR once daily or mosapride citrate CR thrice daily for 4 weeks in 16 medical institutions. Primary end point was the change in gastrointestinal symptom (GIS) score from baseline, assessed by GIS questionnaires on 5-point Likert scale after 4-week treatment. Secondary end points and safety profiles were also analyzed. @*Results@#The study included 51 and 49 subjects in the mosapride citrate SR and mosapride citrate CR groups, respectively. GIS scores at week 4 were significantly reduced in both groups (mean ± SD: − 10.04 ± 4.45 and − 10.86 ± 5.53 in the mosapride citrate SR and mosapride citrate CR groups, respectively; P < 0.001), and the GIS changes from baseline did not differ between the 2 groups (difference, 0.82 point; 95% CI, − 1.17, 2.81; P = 0.643). Changes in GIS at weeks 2 and 4 and quality of life at week 4, and the improvement rates of global assessments at weeks 2 and 4, did not differ between the groups. Adverse events were similar in the 2 groups, and there were no serious adverse events. @*Conclusion@#In patients with FD, mosapride citrate SR once daily is as effective as mosapride citrate CR thrice daily, with a similar safety profile.

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