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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915747

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Overlap functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) is associated with more severe gastrointestinal symptoms and lower quality of life. The aim of this study is to evaluate clinical features of non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, their overlap in terms of sex and gender, and to assess the risk factors, including genetic polymorphisms. @*Methods@#A total of 494 FGIDs and 239 controls were prospectively enrolled between 2004 and 2020. FGIDs were diagnosed based on the Rome III criteria and symptoms were evaluated using a questionnaire. Follow-up questionnaires were conducted to determine the change of symptoms during the 75.8-month mean observation period. Risk factors including genetic polymorphisms in neurotransmitter receptor (SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR, GNB3, ADRA2A, CCKAR, and TRPV1) and cytokine (TNFA and IL10) genes. @*Results@#NERD was more prevalent in men, and functional dyspepsia in women. Overlap FGIDs (n = 239) were more prevalent than nonoverlap FGIDs (n = 255) in women (P = 0.019). Anxiety and depression scores were higher in the overlaps (P = 0.012 and P < 0.001, respectively). Symptoms were more frequent and severe in the overlap FGIDs than in the non-overlaps (P < 0.001). During followup, symptoms progressed more frequently in the overlap FGIDs, especially in patients with the L/S genotype of SLC6A4 5-HTTLPR and anxiety/depression. @*Conclusions@#Overlap FGID patients need attention given their association with anxiety/depression and more severe symptoms, especially in women. Genetic polymorphisms also may be associated with certain symptoms of overlap FGIDs.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913827

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#There remains controversy about relationship between obesity and gastric cancer. We aimed to examine the association using obesity-persistence. @*Materials and Methods@#We analyzed a nationwide population-based cohort which underwent health check-up between 2009 and 2012. Among them, those who had annual examinations during the last 5 years were selected. Gastric cancer risk was compared between those without obesity during the 5 years (never-obesity group) and those with obesity diagnosis during the 5 years (non-persistent obesity group; persistent obesity group). @*Results@#Among 2,757,017 individuals, 13,441 developed gastric cancer after median 6.78 years of follow-up. Gastric cancer risk was the highest in persistent obesity group (incidence rate [IR], 0.89/1,000 person-years; hazard ratio [HR], 1.197; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.117 to 1.284), followed by non-persistent obesity group (IR, 0.83/1,000 person-years; HR, 1.113; 95% CI, 1.056 to 1.172) compared with never-obesity group. In subgroup analysis, this positive relationship was true among those < 65 years old and male. Among heavy-drinkers, the impact of obesity-persistence on the gastric cancer risk far increased (non-persistent obesity: HR, 1.297; 95% CI, 1.094 to 1.538; persistent obesity: HR, 1.351; 95% CI, 1.076 to 1.698). @*Conclusion@#Obesity-persistence is associated with increased risk of gastric cancer in a dose-response manner, especially among male < 65 years old. The risk raising effect was much stronger among heavy-drinkers.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900569

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The number of cases of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infections has sharply increased in Korea, especially among young adults. In this study, an HAV outbreak in a facility for disabled people was investigated, and we found epidemiological differences both between 2 different generations and between generally abled and disabled groups. @*Methods@#We analyzed the incubation period and attack rate of an HAV outbreak and investigated the prevalence of HAV antibodies among the staff and residents of a facility for the disabled. We performed a retrospective cohort study during the HAV outbreak, which lasted from February 8 to 25, 2019, including examinations of HAV antibody tests and post-exposure HAV vaccination for the staff or residents of the facility. @*Results@#There were 9 confirmed cases in 2 staff members and 7 residents. Among 53 people (30 staff and 23 residents), except for the 9 confirmed cases and 1 staff member with a known history of HAV infection, HAV seroprevalence was seen in 16.7% of the staff under 40 years of age and 95.2% of those over 40 years of age, while the corresponding rates in the residents were 0.0% and 58.8%, respectively. @*Conclusions@#This result implies that it is necessary to prioritize HAV vaccination for vulnerable groups and workers of residential care facilities.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900415

ABSTRACT

The distribution of gut microbiota varies according to age (childhood, puberty, pregnancy, menopause, and old age) and sex. Gut microbiota are known to contribute to gastrointestinal (GI) diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and colon cancer; however, the exact etiology remains elusive. Recently, sex and gender differences in GI diseases and their relation to gut microbiota has been suggested. Furthermore, the metabolism of estrogen and androgen was reported to be related to the gut microbiome. As gut microbiome is involved in the excretion and circulation process of sex hormones, the concept of “microgenderome” indicating the role of sex hormone on the gut microbiota has been suggested. However, further research is needed for this concept to be universally accepted. In this review, we summarize sex- and gender-differences in gut microbiota and the interplay of microbiota and GI diseases, focusing on sex hormones. We also describe the metabolic role of the microbiota in this regard. Finally, current subjects, such as medication including probiotics, are briefly discussed.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914840

ABSTRACT

The gut microbiota interacts with the host gut environment, which is influenced by such factors as sex, age, and host diet. These factors induce changes in the microbial composition. The aim of this study was to identify differences in the gut microbiome of Fisher-344 (F344) rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), depending on their age and sex. Fecal microbiomes from 6-, 31-, and 74-week-old, and 2-year-old both male and female rats (corresponding to 5-, 30-, 60-, and 80-year-old humans) were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states, and enterotype (E) assessment. Moreover, the effect of an HFD on colonic epithelial cells was measured using real-time quantitative PCR. Alpha diversity decreased in the HFD group regardless of age and sex. Based on the enterotype clustering of the whole fecal microbiome, clusters from male rats were divided into E1 and E2 enterotypes, while clusters from female rats were divided into E1, E2, and E3 enterotypes. The female E3 group showed a significantly high abundance in the Ruminococcus genus and expression of Tlr2 mRNA, which may reflect compensation to the HFD. Moreover, the female E3 group showed a lower ratio of opportunistic pathogenic strains to commensal strains compared to the female E2 group. Administration of an HFD influenced the rat fecal microbiota in all assessed age groups, which could be further differentiated by sex. In particular, female rats showed a compensatory enterotype response to an HFD compared to male rats.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875502

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Combination therapy with immunomodulators (IMMs) was proposed as a strategy to prevent the development of loss of response (LOR) to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the effect is unclear in patients already exposed to IMMs. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether combination therapy with IMMs is superior to monotherapy for prevention of LOR to anti-TNF. @*Methods@#This was a retrospective study of patients in Seoul National University Bundang Hospital with IBD between January 2009 and October 2018. LOR was defined as clinical deterioration after maintenance of anti-TNF for at least 6 months. We investigated the difference in incidence of LOR to anti-TNF between the monotherapy and combination groups. We additionally assessed factors affecting LOR development to anti-TNF. @*Results@#A total of 116 patients with IBD were included in this study (monotherapy 61 patients; combination 55 patients). Overall, LOR to anti-TNF occurred in 31 patients during the follow-up period. The combination of an anti-TNF agent and IMM showed no significant difference in the incidence of LOR compared to anti-TNF agent monotherapy (hazard ratio [HR], 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.786 to 3.148; p = 0.182). Female sex was significantly associated with the development of LOR to anti-TNF (HR, 3.032; 95% CI, 1.467 to 6.268; p = 0.003). @*Conclusions@#Anti-TNF and IMM combination therapy did not prove efficacious in preventing the development of LOR in IBD patients. Female sex was associated with the development of LOR to anti-TNF; further studies are required to confirm these results.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875475

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The length of colon is known to be longer in females than in males. In addition, the morphology of colon cancer is different between males and females. The aim of this study was to investigate sex differences in Boston bowel preparation score (BBPS) and colonoscopy insertion time. @*Methods@#This study retrospectively analyzed medical records and colonoscopy readings of subjects who underwent colonoscopy at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from March 2015 to April 2018. BPPS was used to evaluate the degree of colon cleanness before colonoscopy. Statistical analysis was performed to compare demographic, clinical, and outcome variables between two groups. @*Results@#The study group consisted of a total of 12,561 patients (6,148 females and 6,413 males). Mean age was 57.8 ± 13.5 years for females and 57.5 ± 13.8 years for males (p = 0.695). Females showed better bowel preparation than males (mean total score: 7.4 ± 1.8 vs. 7.2 ± 1.9, p = 0.001; total score ≥ 6: 5,340 [86.9%] vs. 5,437 [84.8%], p = 0.001; BBPS ≥ 2 for all segments: 5,048 [82.1%] vs. 5,097 [79.5%], p < 0.001). However, cecal intubation time (8.3 ± 6.2 minutes vs. 6.2 ± 6.1 minutes, p < 0.001) and withdrawal time (7.9 ± 3.5 minutes vs. 7.4 ± 3.1 minutes, p < 0.001) were longer in males. @*Conclusions@#There were sex differences in BBPS, cecal intubation time, and withdrawal time for subjects undergoing colonoscopy.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874871

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Prokinetics such as mosapride citrate CR (conventional-release; Gasmotin) are commonly used in functional dyspepsia (FD). This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of once-a-day mosapride citrate SR (DWJ1252), a sustained-release formulation of mosapride citrate, compared with mosapride citrate CR 3 times a day, in patients with FD. @*Methods@#In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, non-inferiority study, 119 patients with FD (by the Rome III criteria, 60 for mosapride citrate SR and 59 for mosapride citrate CR) were randomly allocated to mosapride citrate SR once daily or mosapride citrate CR thrice daily for 4 weeks in 16 medical institutions. Primary end point was the change in gastrointestinal symptom (GIS) score from baseline, assessed by GIS questionnaires on 5-point Likert scale after 4-week treatment. Secondary end points and safety profiles were also analyzed. @*Results@#The study included 51 and 49 subjects in the mosapride citrate SR and mosapride citrate CR groups, respectively. GIS scores at week 4 were significantly reduced in both groups (mean ± SD: − 10.04 ± 4.45 and − 10.86 ± 5.53 in the mosapride citrate SR and mosapride citrate CR groups, respectively; P < 0.001), and the GIS changes from baseline did not differ between the 2 groups (difference, 0.82 point; 95% CI, − 1.17, 2.81; P = 0.643). Changes in GIS at weeks 2 and 4 and quality of life at week 4, and the improvement rates of global assessments at weeks 2 and 4, did not differ between the groups. Adverse events were similar in the 2 groups, and there were no serious adverse events. @*Conclusion@#In patients with FD, mosapride citrate SR once daily is as effective as mosapride citrate CR thrice daily, with a similar safety profile.

9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874858

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The gut microbiota regulates intestinal immune homeostasis through host-microbiota interactions. Multiple factors affect the gut microbiota, including age, sex, diet, and use of drugs. In addition, information on gut microbiota differs depending on the samples.The aim of this study is to investigate whether changes in cecal microbiota depend on aging. @*Methods@#Gut microbiota in cecal contents of 6-, 31-, and 74-week-old and 2-year-old male Fischer-344 rats (corresponding to 5-, 30-, 60-, and 80-year-old humans in terms of age) were analyzed using 16S ribosomal RNA metagenome sequencing and phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthology.Moreover, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) level in cecum and inflammation related factors were measured using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. @*Results@#Alpha and beta diversity did not change significantly with age. At the family level, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, which produce SCFAs, showed significant change in 31-week-old rats: Lachnospiraceae significantly increased at 31 weeks of age, compared to other age groups, while Ruminococcaceae decreased. Butyrate levels in cecum were significantly increased in 31-week-old rats, and the expression of inflammation related genes was increased followed aging. Especially, EU622775_s and EU622773_s, which were highly abundance species in 31-week-old rats, showed significant relationship with butyrate concentration. Enzymes required for producing butyrate—acetyl-CoA transferase, butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, and butyrate kinase—were not predicted by PICRUSt. @*Conclusions@#Major bacterial taxa in the cecal lumen, such as Lachnospiraceae, well-known SCFAs-producing family, changed in 31-week-old rats.Moreover, unknown species EU622775_s and EU622773_s showed strong association with cecal butyrate level at 31 weeks of age.

10.
Gut and Liver ; : 253-261, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874593

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#This study aimed to characterize the changes in the gut microbiota of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients and to investigate the consequent alterations in bacterial functions. @*Methods@#We performed 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing and a phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) analyses using fecal samples from control (n=12) and diarrhea-dominant IBS patients (n=7). @*Results@#The samples were clustered by the principal coordinates analysis depending on the presence of IBS (p=0.003). In the IBS patients, the abundances of Acidaminococcaceae, Sutterellaceae, and Desulfovibrionaceae were significantly increased, while those of Enterococcaceae, Leuconostocaceae, Clostridiaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, and Lachnospiraceae were significantly decreased. The PICRUSt results indicated that two orthologues involved in secondary bile acid biosynthesis were significantly decreased in IBS patients. Modules involved in multidrug resistance, lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, the reductive citrate cycle, and the citrate cycle were significantly increased in the IBS patients. In contrast, modules involved in cationic antimicrobial peptide resistance, and some transport systems were more abundant in controls than in IBS patients. @*Conclusions@#Changes in the gut microbiota composition in IBS patients lead to alterations in bacterial functions, such as bile acid transformation and the induction of inflammation, which is a known pathophysiological mechanism of IBS.

11.
Gut and Liver ; : 61-69, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874569

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The aim of this study was to evaluate factors related to outcomes of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) and viability of frozen stock for FMT. @*Methods@#Clinical data of patients who had received FMT for CDI were prospectively collected.Next-generation 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacteria was performed from donors’ and recipients’ stool. Colony-forming units (CFUs) of cultures from frozen stock solutions for FMT were measured at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 weeks after preparation of the solutions. @*Results@#In total, 25 FMT procedures were performed in 20 cases (14 fresh and 11 frozen FMT).Forty-five percent of cases involved fulminant CDI. The overall success rate was 55% after the 1st FMT and 75% after the 2nd FMT. The success rate was significantly higher in partially treated CDI than in refractory CDI (100% vs 71.4%; p=0.001). In successful cases only, the decrease in alpha-diversity in the recipient stool microbiomes was recovered after FMT to a level similar to that in donor stools. There was a significant difference in the microbiome composition in pre-FMT recipients’ stool between successful and failed cases (p=0.001). The CFUs of frozen solution for FMT did not decrease for 48 weeks in both aerobic and anaerobic cultures. @*Conclusions@#FMT is highly effective in partially treated CDI but not in refractory CDI. The microbiome differs between failed and successful cases. Frozen stock for FMT is viable up to 48weeks.

12.
Gut and Liver ; : 53-60, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874567

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Favorable outcomes of potassium-competitive acid blocker (PCAB)-containing eradication therapy have been reported. In fact, tegoprazan, a recently developed PCAB, was presumed to show good eradication efficacy even for resistant Helicobacter pylori. We aimed to investigate the anti-H. pylori efficacy of tegoprazan compared with that of vonoprazan. @*Methods@#A total of 220 resistant clinical H. pylori isolates were utilized. The anti-H. pylori efficacy of PCABs was determined by evaluating the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of clarithromycin, fluoroquinolone, metronidazole, and amoxicillin in combination with vonoprazan or tegoprazan by the agar dilution method. The impact of the mutations responsible for resistance development, such as 23S rRNA, gyrA, rdxA, frxA, and pbp1 mutations, was also analyzed. @*Results@#H. pylori growth was significantly inhibited in a medium containing 1 μg/mL clarithromy-cin with tegoprazan (128 μg/mL). The MICs of clarithromycin (46.3%), fluoroquinolone (46.7%), metronidazole (55.6%), and amoxicillin (34.5%) against resistant H. pylori isolates improved after tegoprazan administration. Tegoprazan demonstrated more frequent susceptibility acquisitionwith metronidazole than with vonoprazan (20.6% vs 4.7%, p=0.014). However, there were nosignificant differences depending on the mutational status of each antimicrobial agent. @*Conclusions@#Tegoprazan administration may improve the susceptibility of antimicrobial-resistant H. pylori, independent of acid suppression.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913919

ABSTRACT

We aimed to evaluate associations between the ratio of serum estrone (E1) to estradiol (E2) and parameters related to serum glucose metabolism and insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods: In total, 133 women between the ages of 18 and 35 diagnosed with PCOS were enrolled in this study. All participants with PCOS underwent blood tests to determine hormonal and biochemical metabolic parameters and a standard 2-hour 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. They were divided into two groups according to the serum E1-to-E2 ratio: group 1 (E1/E2 ratio <2.0) and group 2 (E1/E2 ratio ≥2.0). Results: In the comparative analysis, the waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) was the only clinical variable that was significantly different between the two groups. Patients with a higher E1/E2 ratio showed higher fasting insulin levels, homeostasis model for insulin resistance, and postprandial glucose level at 2 hours (PPG2). In a correlation analysis, only PPG2 was significantly related to the serum E1/E2 ratio. However, after controlling for the confounding effects of body mass index (BMI) and WHR, fasting glucose was also significantly correlated with the serum E1/E2 ratio. Conclusion: Women with PCOS with a higher serum E1/E2 ratio were found to be more likely to show higher fasting insulin and postprandial glucose levels. Significant correlations were found between the serum E1/E2 ratio and both fasting and postprandial serum glucose levels after adjusting for BMI and WHR in women with PCOS.

14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903575

ABSTRACT

The distribution of gut microbiota varies according to age and sex. Gut microbiota are known to contribute to gastrointestinal (GI) diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and colon cancer; however, the exact etiology remains elusive.Sex hormone such as estrogen and testosterone control the microbiota mainly due to different effect on the immunity. In addition, the diet depending on gender also affect the gut microbiota. Furthermore, the metabolism of estrogen and androgen was reported to be related to the gut microbiome. However, there have been few comprehensive review articles regarding the effect of microbiota on GI diseases. In this review, the factors which affect the gut microbiota and the interplay of microbiota and GI diseases in terms of sex- and gender differences were briefly summarized.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-903549

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Functional dyspepsia is a disease involving a range of upper gastrointestinal symptoms derived from various pathophysiologies. Tablets containing a combination of rabeprazole and controlled-release (CR) mosapride were recently developed.To investigate a more effective treatment, this trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of UIC201609/UIC201610 as a preliminary study. @*Methods@#A multicenter, double-blind, randomized study was performed on 30 subjects. UIC201609/UIC201610 (combination of rabeprazole and CR mosapride) was the case group, and the two control groups were rabeprazole 10 mg once a day and mosapride 15 mg CR tablet once a day. As a primary efficacy endpoint of the study, the changes in the total score of eight items of the Nepean Dyspepsia Index-Korean version were analyzed at 2 weeks and 4 weeks. The outcomes regarding safety were collected. @*Results@#The total symptom score of Nepean Dyspepsia Index-Korean decreased in the rabeprazole single group (29.4±17.1), mosapride CR single group (33.4±15.6), and UIC201609/UIC201610 group (33.4±11.8) at 4 weeks without significant differences. On the other hand, the UIC201609/UIC201610 combination group showed more score reduction of pain in the upper abdomen, burning in the upper abdomen compared to each control group, but it did not reach statistical significance. No difference was found in safety analysis. @*Conclusions@#UIC201609/UIC201610 once daily showed some improvement in epigastric pain and dyspepsia in patients with functional dyspepsia, but there was no significance. Further study based on the advanced clinical trial design will be needed to confirm the efficacy of UIC201609/UIC201610 combination therapy in the future.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-899045

ABSTRACT

Colon tumors develop more frequently in male than in female. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays differential roles in the stage of tumorigenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Nrf2 on colitis-associated tumorigenesis using Nrf2 knockout (KO) female mice. Azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-treated wild-type (WT) and Nrf2 KO female mice were sacrificed at week 2 and 16 after AOM injection. Severity of colitis, tumor incidence, and levels of inflammatory mediators were evaluated in AOM/DSS-treated WT and Nrf2 KO mice. Furthermore, qRT-PCR, Western blot abnalysis, and ELISA were performed in colon tissues. At week 2, AOM/DSS-induced colon tissue damages were significantly greater in Nrf2 KO than in WT mice. At week 16, tumor numbers (> 2 mm size) were significantly lower in both the proximal and distal colon in Nrf2 KO compared to WT. The overall incidences of adenoma/cancer of the proximal colon and submucosal invasive cancer of the distal colon were reduced by Nrf2 KO. The mRNA and protein expression levels of NF-κB-related mediators (i.e., iNOS and COX-2) and Nrf2-related antioxidants (i.e., heme oxygenase-1 and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit) were significantly lower in the Nrf2 KO than in WT mice. Interestingly, the protein level of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) was higher in AOM/DSS-treated Nrf2 KO than in WT mice. Our results support the oncogenic effect of Nrf2 in the later stage of carcinogenesis and upregulation of tumor suppressor 15-PGDH might contribute to the repression of colitis-associated tumorigenesis in Nrf2 KO female mice.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895871

ABSTRACT

The distribution of gut microbiota varies according to age and sex. Gut microbiota are known to contribute to gastrointestinal (GI) diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and colon cancer; however, the exact etiology remains elusive.Sex hormone such as estrogen and testosterone control the microbiota mainly due to different effect on the immunity. In addition, the diet depending on gender also affect the gut microbiota. Furthermore, the metabolism of estrogen and androgen was reported to be related to the gut microbiome. However, there have been few comprehensive review articles regarding the effect of microbiota on GI diseases. In this review, the factors which affect the gut microbiota and the interplay of microbiota and GI diseases in terms of sex- and gender differences were briefly summarized.

18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-895845

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Functional dyspepsia is a disease involving a range of upper gastrointestinal symptoms derived from various pathophysiologies. Tablets containing a combination of rabeprazole and controlled-release (CR) mosapride were recently developed.To investigate a more effective treatment, this trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of UIC201609/UIC201610 as a preliminary study. @*Methods@#A multicenter, double-blind, randomized study was performed on 30 subjects. UIC201609/UIC201610 (combination of rabeprazole and CR mosapride) was the case group, and the two control groups were rabeprazole 10 mg once a day and mosapride 15 mg CR tablet once a day. As a primary efficacy endpoint of the study, the changes in the total score of eight items of the Nepean Dyspepsia Index-Korean version were analyzed at 2 weeks and 4 weeks. The outcomes regarding safety were collected. @*Results@#The total symptom score of Nepean Dyspepsia Index-Korean decreased in the rabeprazole single group (29.4±17.1), mosapride CR single group (33.4±15.6), and UIC201609/UIC201610 group (33.4±11.8) at 4 weeks without significant differences. On the other hand, the UIC201609/UIC201610 combination group showed more score reduction of pain in the upper abdomen, burning in the upper abdomen compared to each control group, but it did not reach statistical significance. No difference was found in safety analysis. @*Conclusions@#UIC201609/UIC201610 once daily showed some improvement in epigastric pain and dyspepsia in patients with functional dyspepsia, but there was no significance. Further study based on the advanced clinical trial design will be needed to confirm the efficacy of UIC201609/UIC201610 combination therapy in the future.

19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892865

ABSTRACT

Objectives@#The number of cases of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infections has sharply increased in Korea, especially among young adults. In this study, an HAV outbreak in a facility for disabled people was investigated, and we found epidemiological differences both between 2 different generations and between generally abled and disabled groups. @*Methods@#We analyzed the incubation period and attack rate of an HAV outbreak and investigated the prevalence of HAV antibodies among the staff and residents of a facility for the disabled. We performed a retrospective cohort study during the HAV outbreak, which lasted from February 8 to 25, 2019, including examinations of HAV antibody tests and post-exposure HAV vaccination for the staff or residents of the facility. @*Results@#There were 9 confirmed cases in 2 staff members and 7 residents. Among 53 people (30 staff and 23 residents), except for the 9 confirmed cases and 1 staff member with a known history of HAV infection, HAV seroprevalence was seen in 16.7% of the staff under 40 years of age and 95.2% of those over 40 years of age, while the corresponding rates in the residents were 0.0% and 58.8%, respectively. @*Conclusions@#This result implies that it is necessary to prioritize HAV vaccination for vulnerable groups and workers of residential care facilities.

20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892711

ABSTRACT

The distribution of gut microbiota varies according to age (childhood, puberty, pregnancy, menopause, and old age) and sex. Gut microbiota are known to contribute to gastrointestinal (GI) diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and colon cancer; however, the exact etiology remains elusive. Recently, sex and gender differences in GI diseases and their relation to gut microbiota has been suggested. Furthermore, the metabolism of estrogen and androgen was reported to be related to the gut microbiome. As gut microbiome is involved in the excretion and circulation process of sex hormones, the concept of “microgenderome” indicating the role of sex hormone on the gut microbiota has been suggested. However, further research is needed for this concept to be universally accepted. In this review, we summarize sex- and gender-differences in gut microbiota and the interplay of microbiota and GI diseases, focusing on sex hormones. We also describe the metabolic role of the microbiota in this regard. Finally, current subjects, such as medication including probiotics, are briefly discussed.

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