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1.
Rev. biol. trop ; 64(2): 763-777, abr.-jun. 2016. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-843311

ABSTRACT

AbstractHuman pressure on natural habitats increases the importance of agroforests for biodiversity conservation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of cacao traditional cultivation system (CTCS) on the conservation of the herbivorous insect community when compared with a monodominant rubber agroforest, a type of agricultural system for cacao cultivation. The insects were sampled in three habitats in Southeastern Bahia, Brazil: native forests, CTCS and rubber agroforests. In each habitat, 18 plots of 10 m2 were established, and the structural measures were collected and herbivorous insects were sampled with a Malaise/window trap. The diversity of folivorous decreased with the simplification of vegetation structure, but species composition was similar among habitats. In addition to a decrease in the availability of resources in monodominant rubber agroforests, the latex present in these systems have limited the occurrence of species that cannot circumvent latex toxicity. The diversity of sap-sucking insects was similar among habitats, but species composition was similar only in the CTCS and native forest, and it was different in the rubber agroforest. We observed turnover and a higher frequency of individuals of the family Psyllidae in the rubber agroforest. The biology and behavior of Psyllids and absence of natural enemies enable their diversity to increase when they are adapted to a new host. We observed a shift in the composition of xylophagous insects in the rubber agroforest compared to that in other habitats. Moreover, this agroforest has low species richness, but high individual abundance. Latex extraction is likely an important additional source of volatile compounds discharged into the environment, and it increases the attraction and recruitment of coleoborers to these sites. We concluded that CTCS has an herbivorous insect community with a structure similar to the community found in native forests of the region, and they present a more interesting conservation strategy when compared to rubber agroforests. We also emphasized the potential risk of local pest outbreaks in rubber agroforests for both the rubber and associated cacao trees. Rev. Biol. Trop. 64 (2): 763-777. Epub 2016 June 01.


ResumenLa presión humana sobre los hábitats naturales aumenta la importancia de los sistemas agroforestales para la conservación de la biodiversidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el papel del sistema tradicional de cultivo de cacao en la conservación de la comunidad de insectos herbívoros en comparación con el agrobosque monodominante de caucho, un tipo de sistema agrícola para el cultivo de cacao. Los insectos fueron muestreados en tres hábitats en el sureste de Bahia, Brasil: bosque nativo, sistema tradicional de cultivo de cacao y agrobosque de caucho. En cada hábitat, se establecieron 18 parcelas de 10 m2, se tomaron medidas estructurales y se muestrearon los insectos herbívoros con una trampa tipo Malaise. La diversidad de folívoros disminuyó con la simplificación de la estructura de la vegetación, pero la composición de especies fue similar entre hábitats. Además se presentó una disminución de la disponibilidad de recursos en agrobosques de caucho, el látex presente en estos sistemas han limitado la aparición de especies que no pueden evadir la toxicidad de látex. La diversidad de insectos chupadores de savia fue similar entre los hábitats, pero la composición de especies fue similar sólo en el sistema tradicional de cultivo de cacao y el bosque nativo, y diferente en el agrobosque de caucho. Hemos observado que hay una mayor frecuencia de individuos de la familia Psyllidae en el agrobosque de caucho. La biología y el comportamiento de los psílidos y ausencia de enemigos naturales permiten que su diversidad aumente cuando se adaptan a un nuevo huésped. Hemos observado un cambio en la composición de los insectos xilófagos en el agrobosque de caucho en comparación con la de otros hábitats. Por otra parte, este agrobosque tiene una baja riqueza de especies, pero gran abundancia individual. La extracción de látex probablemente es una fuente adicional importante de compuestos volátiles que son vertidos en el ambiente, y aumenta la atracción y el reclutamiento de curculiónidos en estos sitios. Hemos llegado a la conclusión de que el sistema tradicional de cultivo de cacao tiene una comunidad de insectos herbívoros con una estructura similar a la comunidad que se encuentra en los bosques nativos de la región, y presenta una estrategia de conservación más interesante si se compara con los sistemas agroforestales de caucho. También hicimos hincapié en el riesgo potencial de aparición de plagas locales en sistemas agroforestales de caucho, tanto para el caucho como para los árboles de cacao asociados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cacao/parasitology , Ecosystem , Feeding Behavior/physiology , Insecta/classification , Trees , Insecta/physiology
2.
Rev. biol. trop ; 61(1): 125-137, Mar. 2013. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-674066

ABSTRACT

Species diversity of insect herbivores associated to canopy may vary local and geographically responding to distinct factors at different spatial scales. The aim of this study was to investigate how forest canopy structure affects insect herbivore species richness and abundance depending on feeding guilds´ specificities. We tested the hypothesis that habitat structure affects insect herbivore species richness and abundance differently to sap-sucking and chewing herbivore guilds. Two spatial scales were evaluated: inside tree crowns (fine spatial scale) and canopy regions (coarse spatial scale). In three sampling sites we measured 120 tree crowns, grouped in five points with four contiguous tree crowns. Insects were sampled by beating method from each crown and data were summed up for analyzing each canopy region. In crowns (fine spatial scale) we measured habitat structure: trunk circumference, tree height, canopy depth, number of ramifications and maximum ramification level. In each point, defined as a canopy region (coarse spatial scale), we measured habitat structure using a vertical cylindrical transect: tree species richness, leaf area, sum of strata heights and maximum canopy height. A principal component analysis based on the measured variables for each spatial scale was run to estimate habitat structure parameters. To test the effects of habitat structure upon herbivores, different general linear models were adjusted using the first two principal components as explanatory variables. Sap-sucking insect species richness and all herbivore abundances increased with size of crown at fine spatial scale. On the other hand, chewer species richness and abundance increased with resource quantity at coarse scale. Feeding specialization, resources availability, and agility are discussed as ecological causes of the found pattern.


La diversidad de especies de insectos herbívoros asociados con el dosel puede variar geográficamente y responder a distintos factores a diferentes escalas espaciales. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar cómo la estructura del dosel afecta la riqueza de especies de insectos herbívoros y la abundancia en función la especialización alimenticia. Se evaluó la hipótesis que propone que la estructura del hábitat afecta en forma diferente la riqueza y abundancia de especies de insectos que se alimentan de savia y la de especies herbívoras masticadoras. Dos escalas espaciales fueron evaluadas: el interior de las copas de árboles (escala fina) y regiones del dosel (escala gruesa). En tres sitios de muestreo medimos 120 copas de árboles, agrupadas en cinco puntos con cuatro copas de árboles contiguas. Los insectos fueron muestreados golpeando las copas y los datos fueron sumados para analizar cada región del dosel. En las copas (escala espacial fina) medimos la estructura del hábitat: circunferencia del tronco, altura del árbol, profundidad del dosel, número de ramificaciones y máximo nivel de ramificación. En cada punto, definiendo una región del dosel (escala gruesa), medimos la estructura del hábitat usando un transecto cilíndrico vertical: riqueza de especies árboles, área foliar, sumatoria de altura de los estratos y máxima altura del dosel. Fue realizado un análisis de componentes principales basado en las variables medidas para cada escala espacial para estimar los parámetros de la estructura del hábitat. Para probar los efectos de la estructura del hábitat sobre los herbívoros, se ajustaron diferentes modelos lineares generales usando estos componentes principales como variables causales. La riqueza de especies chupadoras de savia y la abundancia de todas las especies herbívoras se incrementaron con el tamaño de la copa en la escala espacial final. Por otro lado, la riqueza y abundancia de especies masticadoras incrementaron con la complejidad de la estructura del hábitat en la escala más gruesa. La especialización alimenticia, la disponibilidad de recursos y la movilidad son propuestas como los factores ecológicos que explican los patrones observados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ecosystem , Herbivory/classification , Insecta/classification , Biodiversity , Herbivory/physiology , Insecta/physiology , Population Density , Trees
3.
Neotrop. entomol ; 39(1): 91-96, Jan.-Feb. 2010. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-540938

ABSTRACT

Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore is an Australian native pest of Eucalyptus detected in Brazil in 2003. Since then, it has spread fast and colonized plantations in several states of the country. This study aimed to investigate the influence of cerrado remnants on the abundance and biological control of G. brimblecombei. We placed yellow sticky card traps to capture insects in four plantations of hybrid clones of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis ("Urograndis") and four plantations of E. urophylla x Eucalyptus camaldulensis ("Urocam"). Traps were placed in three areas of these plantations: center, border with cerrado and border without cerrado. We also collected leaves from the same clones to estimate psyllid egg and lerp abundance. The abundance of G. brimblecombei was lower in the plantation-cerrado border, and the inverse pattern was observed for microhymenopterans. The leaf abaxial surface showed a higher abundance of eggs and nymphs, probably as a consequence of a lower parasitism rate and mechanical removal by wind and rain. Egg number was higher on Urograndis than in Urocam clones, but the number of psyllid lerps was higher in the latter. Thus, the establishment of first instars is probably a critical event to psyllid infestation, and these differences may be caused by morphological, anatomical and biochemical leaf features of distinct clones. Our results suggest that the maintenance of native vegetation around plantations is a promising management practice to promote the natural biological control of G.brimblecombei, a strategy that would also enhance the preservation of cerrado remnants.


Subject(s)
Animals , Eucalyptus/genetics , Eucalyptus/parasitology , Hemiptera/physiology , Genotype , Insect Control , Population Density
4.
ROBRAC ; 19(51)2010.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-604910

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Realizar uma pesquisa em consultórios odontológicos na cidade de São José do Rio Preto - SP sobre conhecimento e atitudes dos profissionais sobre proteção radiológica e comparar os dados com as recomendações da Portaria 453 do Ministério da Saúde. Material e Método: Cento e cinqüenta consultórios odontológicos foram visitados e foi aplicado um questionário. Resultados: Observou-se que 26% dos entrevistados não conheciam a lei, 23% não avaliavam radiografias existentes do paciente, 21% não usavam vestimenta plumbífera nos pacientes, 49% não usavam posicionadores de filmes, 58% ainda utilizavam processamento visual; 93% utilizavam filme E ou F, entretanto a média de tempo de exposição foi 0.5 segundo, 14% dos equipamentos possuíam cone localizador e 83% seletor de tempo manual, 17% dos dentistas não se protegiam durante a exposição do paciente e 64% ainda utilizavam disparador com retardo. Conclusão: Há falta de conhecimento sobre proteção radiológica; um programa educacional em Radiologia pode produzir mudanças nas atitudes dos profissionais em relação ao uso da radiação ionizante.


Objective: To perform a research in dental offices in the city of São José do Rio Preto-SP about the practitioners' knowledge and attitudes related to radiological protection and compare the data with the recommendations of Ordinance 453 of the Health Ministry. Material and Methods: One hundred and fifty dental offices were visited and a questionnaire was applied. Results: Was observed that 26% of the interviewed did not know the law, 23% did not evaluate the patient's existing radiographs, 21% did not wear lead clothing in patients, 49% did not use film positioners, 58% still used visual processing, 93% used film E or F, however the average exposure time was 0.5 second, 14% of the equipment had locator cone and 83% had manual time selector, 17% of dentists do not protect themselves during the patient's exposure and 64% still used delayed trigger. Conclusion: There Atitudes dos Cirurgiões-Dentistas em Relação à Proteção Radiológica, de Acordo com a Lei Brasileira Pesquisa Rev Odontol Bras Central 2010;19(51) 305 is a lack of knowledge about radiological protection. An educational program in Radiology can produce changes in attitudes of professionals regarding the use of ionizing radiation.

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