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1.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2422-2428, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Hasner valve incision has been recently introduced as a new treatment for ophthalmic patients with epiphora symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine whether surgical outcomes of Hasner valve incision for inferior nasolacrimal duct obstruction were different between pediatric and adult patients.@*METHODS@#A total of 53 eyes of 52 patients who underwent Hasner valve incision in the Beijing Tongren Hospital from October 2016 to November 2019 were retrospectively observed. Patients were divided into two groups, including pediatric group (23 eyes of 22 patients,  0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Hasner valve incision was effective for both adult and children with inferior nasolacrimal duct obstruction, with no difference in surgical outcomes between the two groups.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Dacryocystorhinostomy , Humans , Lacrimal Duct Obstruction , Nasolacrimal Duct , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
2.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2308-2314, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#In recent years, visual quality has been extensively investigated in various conditions. In this community-based population study, we analyzed the effects of aging, refraction, and Lens Opacification Classification System III (LOCSIII) score on retinal imaging quality in healthy Chinese adults.@*METHODS@#This cross-sectional study was conducted on sub-group subjects from The Handan Eye Study between October 2012 and January 2013. Healthy subjects over 30-years-old with logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (logMAR) best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) less than 0 were included. Retinal image quality was measured by optical quality analysis system (OQAS) and recorded as modulation transfer function cutoff frequency (MTFcutoff), OQAS value (OV) 100%, OV20%, OV9%, Strehl ratio (SR), and objective scatter index (OSI). The correlation between age, spherical equivalent refraction (SE), LOCSIII score, and optical quality parameters were investigated by multivariate analysis.@*RESULTS@#Among 1108 verified subjects, 690 subjects (1380 eyes) met the inclusion criteria. Their age ranged from 30 to 76 years, SE ranged from -4.75 to 2.75 D. They were divided into five age groups (30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and ≥70 years) for further analysis. After multivariate analysis by mixed-effect linear model, SR (t =  -3.03, P = 0.002), OV20% (t = -2.39, P = 0.017), and OV9% (t = -3.16, P = 0.001) significantly decreased with the increasing age, whereas logMAR BCVA (t = 4.42, P < 0.001) and OSI (t = 4.46, P < 0.001) significantly increased with age. As SE increased, SR (t = 2.74, P = 0.01), OV20% (t = 2.31, P = 0.02), and OV9% (t = 2.79, P = 0.005) significantly elevated, and OSI (t = -3.38, P < 0.001) significantly decreased. With the increase in cortical opacity score, all optical quality parameters except for SR significantly decreased, including MTFcutoff (t = -2.78, P = 0.01), OV100% (t = -2.78, P = 0.005), OV20% (t = -2.60, P = 0.009), and OV9% (t = -2.05, P = 0.040). As posterior sub capsular opacity score increased, MTFcutoff (t = -2.40, P = 0.02) and OV100% (t = -2.40, P = 0.01) significantly decreased, while OSI (t = 7.56, P < 0.001) significantly increased.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In healthy Chinese adult population, optical quality-related parameters significantly decrease with the increasing age, and OSI significantly increases with age. In normal BCVA subjects, optical quality is significantly impacted by cortical and posterior sub capsular opacity rather than by nuclear opacity.

3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2157-2167, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Handan Eye Study (HES), a large population-based cohort study in rural area of northern China, was one of the few studies focusing on the major eye diseases of rural Chinese population. The aim of this study was to introduce the design, methodology and to assess the data quality of the follow-up phase of HES.@*METHODS@#All participants were recruited in Yongnian county of Handan city between 2012 and 2013. Main outcomes were measured by visual quality scales and ocular examinations. We performed the Chi-square test to make comparison of categorical data among groups, One-way analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to make comparison of continuous data among groups, a post-hoc test was done to make further pairwise comparison. Inter-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Kappa coefficients were used to evaluate the consistency between different operators. Logistic regression was used to explore the influence factors of death, odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to estimate the effect size of each influence factor.@*RESULTS@#The follow-up rate was 85.3%. Subjects were classified into three groups: the follow-up group (n = 5394), the loss to follow-up group (n = 929), and the dead group (n = 507), comparison of their baseline information was done. Compared with the other two groups, age of the dead group (66.52 ± 10.31 years) was the oldest (Z = 651.293, P < 0.001), male proportion was the highest (59.0%) (χ = 42.351, P < 0.001), only 65.9% of the dead finished middle school education (Z = 205.354, P < 0.001). The marriage percentage, body mass index (BMI), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and intra-ocular pressure of the dead group was the lowest either. Spherical equivalent error (SER) of the dead group was the highest. Besides, history of smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease were more common in the dead group. Multivariate analysis showed that age (OR = 1.901, 95% CI: 1.074-1.108), gender (OR = 0.317, 95% CI: 0.224-0.448), and BCVA (OR = 0.282, 95% CI: 0.158-0.503) were associated with death. While between the follow-up group and the loss to follow-up group, there was only difference on age, gender, BMI, systolic blood pressure and SER. The Cronbach coefficients of all scales used in the follow-up were ≥0.63 and the cumulative variances were ≥0.61, indicating good reliability and validity. The ICCs and Kappa coefficients between different operators were ≥0.69.@*CONCLUSIONS@#HES has a high follow-up rate and a low risk of loss to follow-up bias. Age, gender, and BCVA are influence factors of death. Specifically, male subjects are at a higher risk of death than female, age is a risk factor of death while BCVA is a protective factor for death.

4.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2157-2167, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802923

ABSTRACT

Background@#Handan Eye Study (HES), a large population-based cohort study in rural area of northern China, was one of the few studies focusing on the major eye diseases of rural Chinese population. The aim of this study was to introduce the design, methodology and to assess the data quality of the follow-up phase of HES.@*Methods@#All participants were recruited in Yongnian county of Handan city between 2012 and 2013. Main outcomes were measured by visual quality scales and ocular examinations. We performed the Chi-square test to make comparison of categorical data among groups, One-way analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to make comparison of continuous data among groups, a post-hoc test was done to make further pairwise comparison. Inter-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Kappa coefficients were used to evaluate the consistency between different operators. Logistic regression was used to explore the influence factors of death, odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to estimate the effect size of each influence factor.@*Results@#The follow-up rate was 85.3%. Subjects were classified into three groups: the follow-up group (n = 5394), the loss to follow-up group (n = 929), and the dead group (n = 507), comparison of their baseline information was done. Compared with the other two groups, age of the dead group (66.52 ± 10.31 years) was the oldest (Z = 651.293, P < 0.001), male proportion was the highest (59.0%) (χ2 = 42.351, P < 0.001), only 65.9% of the dead finished middle school education (Z = 205.354, P < 0.001). The marriage percentage, body mass index (BMI), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and intra-ocular pressure of the dead group was the lowest either. Spherical equivalent error (SER) of the dead group was the highest. Besides, history of smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease were more common in the dead group. Multivariate analysis showed that age (OR = 1.901, 95% CI: 1.074–1.108), gender (OR = 0.317, 95% CI: 0.224–0.448), and BCVA (OR = 0.282, 95% CI: 0.158–0.503) were associated with death. While between the follow-up group and the loss to follow-up group, there was only difference on age, gender, BMI, systolic blood pressure and SER. The Cronbach coefficients of all scales used in the follow-up were ≥0.63 and the cumulative variances were ≥0.61, indicating good reliability and validity. The ICCs and Kappa coefficients between different operators were ≥0.69.@*Conclusions@#HES has a high follow-up rate and a low risk of loss to follow-up bias. Age, gender, and BCVA are influence factors of death. Specifically, male subjects are at a higher risk of death than female, age is a risk factor of death while BCVA is a protective factor for death.

5.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 420-425, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-342022

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of the Trabectome for Chinese glaucoma patients.</p><p><b>Methods</b>This was a multicenter, retrospective, observational study. Glaucoma patients, except those with neovascular glaucoma, with/without a visually significant cataract were enrolled. The patients received Trabectome or a combined surgery with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. The primary outcome evaluation was a reduction in intraocular pressure (IOP), and the secondary outcomes were a reduction in glaucoma medication, the 2-year success percentages, and complications. Success was defined as an IOP <21 mmHg and at least a 20% IOP reduction from baseline after 3 months for any two consecutive visits, without additional glaucoma surgery. The data were processed using the R Stats Package version 3.0.0. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the postoperative IOP and the number of glaucoma medications with baselines. The Kaplan-Meier test was used to calculate the 2-year success percentage. The risk factors related to Trabectome failure were determined by logistic regression.</p><p><b>Results</b>A total of 120 glaucoma patients were enrolled. The Trabectome efficiently reduced the IOP from a baseline of 22.8 ± 1.34 mmHg to 17.6 ± 0.96 mmHg, and the use of glaucoma medications from 2.2 ± 0.17 mmHg to 1.4 ± 0.21 in a 2-year follow-up (both, P < 0.01). The overall success percentage was 80%. No risk factor related to Trabectome failure was identified. No vision-threatening complication was observed. Ten patients, who required secondary glaucoma surgery, all reached the target IOP.</p><p><b>Conclusions</b>In a 2-year follow-up, Trabectome was an efficient and safe procedure for Chinese glaucoma patients.</p>

6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2713-2719, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-324757

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>There are ON- and OFF-pathways in the normal vertebrate retina. Short- and long-flash electroretinogram (ERG) are suitable methods to observe the function of ON- and OFF-pathways in vivo, respectively. It is clear that high intraocular pressure (IOP) might cause dysfunction of cone-dominated photopic negative response (PhNR) in monkeys with high IOP in ON-pathway. However, whether cone-dominated OFF-responses are also affected is less known. The aim of this study was to observe photopic OFF-responses of ERG in monkeys with high IOP.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Nine monkeys were involved in the experiment from January 2006 to December 2016. High IOP was induced in the right eye by laser coagulation of the mid-trabecular meshwork in five monkeys. Six years after the laser coagulation, both short- and long-flash of the photopic ERG were recorded. Stimulus light was red flashes superimposed on a blue background. Four normal monkeys were examined under the same ERG protocols as controls. Paired t- test was used to compare the difference of each ERG parameter between the lasered eye and the fellow eye. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey adjustment was adopted to calculate the differences among the lasered eye, the fellow eye, and the eyes of normal monkeys.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The mean amplitude of a-wave (11.73 ± 2.05) and PhNR (8.67 ± 2.44) in lasered eyes was significantly lower than that of a-wave (21.47 ± 3.15) and PhNR (22.05 ± 3.42) in fellow eyes (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively) in response to short flash. The mean amplitude of d-wave (1.60 ± 0.59) and i-wave (3.13 ± 0.64) was significantly reduced in the lasered eyes than that of d-wave (4.01 ± 0.56) and i-wave (8.79 ± 1.75) in the fellow eyes (P = 0.02 and P = 0.02, respectively) in response to long flash.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Reduced OFF-responses are recorded in monkeys with high IOP when dysfunction of photoreceptor is involved. The reduced OFF-responses to long-flash stimulus show evidence of anomalous retinal circuitry in glaucomatous retinopathy.</p>

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-281456

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) reference value of the rural population in Hebei province.Methods This study enrolled 5154 participants. By excluding subjects with hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, kidney diseases, and overweight condition, as well as those with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60 ml/(min·1.73 m), apparently healthy subjects (1168) were selected. Urine albumin was measured by using the immunoturbidimetic method, serum creatinine was measured by using Jaffe's kinetic method on a morning spot-urine sample, and ACR was calculated. The 95th percentile of ACR in the healthy subjects was used as the normal upper limit.Results The normal upper limit of ACR was 28.71 mg/g (3.25 mg/mmol) for males and 31.85 mg/g (3.60 mg/mmol) for females. Based on this ACR reference value, the age-gender standardized prevalence of albuminuria in the rural areas of Hebei province was 12.9%.Conclusion The ACR reference value in the rural of Hebei province is higher than that of the Western population.

8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1087-1090, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-290121

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography is a novel technique by which we can detect the local perfusion of fundus directly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of optic disc and macular flow perfusion parameters in rhesus monkeys using OCT angiography.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Eighteen healthy monkeys (18 eyes) were subjected to optic disc and macula flow index measurements via a high-speed and high-resolution spectral-domain OCT XR Avanti with a split-spectrum amplitude de-correlation angiography algorithm. Right eye was imaged 3 times during the first examination and once during each of the two following examinations. The intra-visit and inter-visit intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were both determined.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The average flow indices of the four optic disc area layers were 0.171 ± 0.009 (optic nerve head), 0.015 ± 0.004 (vitreous), 0.052 ± 0.009 (radial peripapillary capillary), and 0.167 ± 0.011 (choroid). Average flow indices of the four macula area layers were 0.044 ± 0.011 (superficial retina), 0.036 ± 0.011 (deep retina), 0.016 ± 0.009 (outer retina), and 0.155 ± 0.013 (choroid). Intra-visit (ICC value: 0.821-0.954) and inter-visit (ICC value: 0.844-0.899) repeatability were both high.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The study is about the reproducibility of optic disc and macular perfusion parameters as measured by OCT angiography in healthy rhesus monkeys. Flow index measurement reproducibility is high for both the optic disc and macula of normal monkey eyes. OCT angiography might be a useful technique to assess changes when examining monkeys with experimental ocular diseases.</p>


Subject(s)
Angiography , Animals , Macaca mulatta , Macula Lutea , Diagnostic Imaging , Male , Optic Disk , Diagnostic Imaging , Reproducibility of Results , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Methods
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1229-1235, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-290098

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>A sensitive method is required to detect retinal hamartomas in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). The aim of the present study was to compare the color fundus photography, infrared imaging (IFG), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the detection rate of retinal hamartoma in patients with TSC.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>This study included 11 patients (22 eyes) with TSC, who underwent color fundus photography, IFG, and spectral-domain OCT to detect retinal hamartomas. TSC1 and TSC2RESULTS: The mean age of the 11 patients was 8.0 ± 2.1 years. The mean spherical equivalent was -0.55 ± 1.42 D by autorefraction with cycloplegia. In 11 patients (22 eyes), OCT, infrared fundus photography, and color fundus photography revealed 26, 18, and 9 hamartomas, respectively. The predominant hamartoma was type I (55.6%). All the hamartomas that detected by color fundus photography or IFG can be detected by OCT.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Among the methods of color fundus photography, IFG, and OCT, the OCT has higher detection rate for retinal hamartoma in TSC patients; therefore, OCT might be promising for the clinical diagnosis of TSC.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological , Eye Diseases , Diagnosis , Female , Fundus Oculi , Hamartoma , Diagnosis , Humans , Male , Photography , Methods , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Methods , Tuberous Sclerosis , Diagnosis
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1268-1272, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-290086

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Though trabeculectomy is often performed on patients with medically refractive pigmentary glaucoma (PG), the clinical outcomes of surgical treatment on PG remain unknown. The aim of this study was to summarize the long-term efficacy and safety of trabeculectomy on PG.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>This was a prospective case series observational study. Eighteen consecutive PG patients were followed up for 8 years after trabeculectomy from May 2006 to April 2007. Visual acuity (VA), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), slit lamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, Humphrey visual field analysis (VFA), and stereoscopic funduscopy were performed on admission and every 6 months after the surgery. Postoperative IOP, VA, BCVA, VFA, adjunctive anti-glaucoma medication, treatment-related side-effects, changes in blebs, and main clinical findings in the anterior segment of PG were recorded and compared with the baseline.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Eighteen PG eyes from 18 patients, with average preoperative IOP of 34.5 ± 4.7 mmHg (range: 21-47 mmHg, 1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) were enrolled in this study. All enrolled patients completed the follow-up visits and required examinations. Eight years after trabeculectomy, all surgical eyes (18/18) had satisfactory IOP control with an average of 13.7 ± 2.5 mmHg (range: 9-19 mmHg), which was significantly lower than baseline (P = 0.001). Majority (15/18) of the PG eyes had stable VA, BCVA, VFA, and optic disc cupping parameters. Functional blebs still existed in 12/18 of the PG eyes at the last follow-up visit. Unanimously, pigmentation in the anterior segment attenuated with time after surgical treatment. No severe side-effects were recorded in any of the surgical eyes.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>All surgical PG eyes in this study had satisfactory IOP control 8 years after the surgery with well-preserved visual function. The long-term efficacy and safety of trabeculectomy are promising in PG patients.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Glaucoma , General Surgery , Glaucoma, Open-Angle , General Surgery , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Time Factors , Trabeculectomy , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-264555

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To determine the prevalence of ocular trauma and the proportion of blindness and visual impairment due to trauma in a rural population in northern China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The Handan Eye Study is a population-based cross-sectional study that surveyed 6830 Chinese people aged 30+ years from 13 randomly selected villages in Yongnian County, city of Handan, Hebei Province, in July, 2006. All participants underwent a standardized interview and extensive examinations. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on ocular trauma.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Of the 5837 participants who filled out the questionnaire, 124 subjects [2.1%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8%-2.5%] reported a history of ocular trauma in either eye, including 19 (0.3%) persons reporting trauma in both eyes. Men were more likely to have an eye injury than women [odds ratio (OR), 3.3; 2.2-4.9]. In multiple logistic regression models, ocular trauma was significantly more frequent among normotensive participants when compared with hypertensive participants (hypertensive vs. normotensive: OR, 0.6; 0.4-0.9) and among participants who had a history of falls (OR, 2.4; 1.2-4.8). The proportion of unilateral visual impairment and unilateral blindness due to trauma were 10.5% (13 subjects) and 21.0% (26 subjects), respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Our study reports the prevalence of severe ocular trauma among adults in rural China, revealing a high proportion of blindness and visual impairment due to trauma. These findings suggest the need for educational strategies to increase eye health awareness in this rural population with focus on providing at least appropriate first aid care to reduce blindness due to trauma.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blindness , Epidemiology , China , Epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Eye Injuries , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Random Allocation , Risk Factors , Rural Population , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vision, Low , Epidemiology , Visually Impaired Persons
12.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1693-1699, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350440

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) plays an important role in the death of retinal capillary cells in diabetic retinopathy (DR) partly via its regulation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). The current study investigated the effect of the regimen of Gaoshan Hongjingtian (RG) on the mechanism of PARP regulation of NF-κB, and demonstrated the possible impact of the RG and Gaoshan Hongjingtian (Rhodiola sachalinensis, RS) on diabetic retinopathy.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Wistar rats were made diabetic by administering streptozotocin. They were then assigned to three groups at random. After 2 months, the three groups of these diabetic rats were treated with RS or RG, or untreated. Analyses of expression levels of PARP, NF-κB, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the retinas of rats in different groups were performed by Western blotting and immunohistochemical assays, and mRNA levels of NF-κB and ICAM-1 were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, the basement membranes of capillaries in the rats' retinas were observed using electron microscopy, and diabetes-induced capillary degeneration (ghost pericytes and acellular capillaries) were quantitated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>From the third month after the injection of streptozotocin, the diabetic rats were given daily RG, RS or tap water separately. The diabetic rats failed to gain weight compared with normal age-matched rats, whereas their glycated hemoglobin levels were significantly increased. After 5 months, the mRNA levels of NF-κB and ICAM-1 and the protein expression of PARP, NF-κB, and ICAM-1 were significantly increased in the retinas of diabetic rats in the untreated group compared with the nondiabetic controls. After 8 months, the number of degenerated retinal capillaries (ghost pericytes and acellular capillaries) was significantly increased in the diabetic rats in the untreated group compared with normal age-matched rats. RG and RS inhibited diabetes-induced over-expression of PARP, NF-κB, and ICAM-1 in the retinas of diabetic rats at the end of 5-month diabetic duration. Treatment using RG and RS significantly inhibited increases in the number of acellular capillaries and pericyte ghosts and suppressed the basement membrane thickening in the retinas of rats with diabetes for 8 months compared with the control diabetic rats.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>These results indicate that PARP plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. RS and RG may have acted on the mechanism of PARP regulation of NF-κB, which suppressed the expression of NF-κB and ICAM-1, and led to the inhibition of retinal capillary degeneration.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Basement Membrane , Pathology , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Diabetic Retinopathy , Drug Therapy , Pathology , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Genetics , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , NF-kappa B , Genetics , Physiology , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases , Physiology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Rhodiola , Streptozocin
13.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 3301-3306, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-354492

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Managements of optic neuritis (ON) included high-dose corticosteroids or combined with systemic immunomodulatory agents. It was important to make a correct diagnosis of ON before initiation of treatment. The purpose of the study was to report and analyze the clinical features of retinal diseases in patients who were misdiagnosed as having retrobulbar ON.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Retrospective review of 26 patients (38 eyes) initially diagnosed with retrobulbar ON but were ultimately diagnosed with retinal or macular diseases. Data obtained from fundus examination, fluorescence fundus angiography (FFA), automated static perimetry, full-field electroretinogram (ffERG), multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were evaluated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Thirty-eight eyes of 26 patients were found to have misdiagnosis of retrobulbar ON, based on normal or slight abnormal fundus findings and abnormal visual evoked potentials (VEP). The mean age of the patients was 34 years and the correct diagnosis of the patients included acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR, 15 eyes, 14 patients), occult macular dystrophy (OMD, 8 eyes, 4 patients), cone or cone-rod dystrophy (10 eyes, 5 patients), acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMNR, 3 eyes, 2 patients), and cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR, 2 eyes, 1 patient).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>When attempting to diagnose retrobulbar ON in clinical practice, it is crucial to carry out necessary examinations of the retinal function and morphology to decrease misdiagnosis.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Electroretinography , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Optic Neuritis , Diagnosis , Retinal Diseases , Diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence
14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 692-696, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-342515

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Anterior capsular contraction syndrome is a potential complication of continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC). Three neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser relaxing incisions decrease anterior capsular contraction but the mechanism is unknown. The present study analyzed the biomechanical mechanism of three Nd:YAG laser relaxing incisions made to reduce anterior capsular contraction.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A three-dimensional control model and a three-dimensional Nd:YAG model of the anterior capsule with an opening diameter of 6 mm were created. Three incisions of 1 mm in length were made centrifugally at intervals of 120° around the opening circle. The stress alterations of the anterior capsule after CCC with and without Nd:YAG relaxation were numerically simulated and compared.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In the control model, the stress was axially uniform in the inner area and relatively high near the inner rim of the opening. Meanwhile, in the Nd:YAG model, the stress level was very low in the inner opening areas, especially near the three incisions. The relaxing incisions in the Nd:YAG model significantly released the relatively high stress on the anterior capsule. Additionally, there was a high stress gradient near the relaxing incisions.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Biomechanical effects of stress release may be the preventive mechanism of Nd:YAG incision against anterior capsular contraction syndrome.</p>


Subject(s)
Aluminum , Therapeutic Uses , Capsulorhexis , Finite Element Analysis , Humans , Lens Diseases , Yttrium , Therapeutic Uses
15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 903-908, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-342276

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Screening for amblyopia at earliest is important for early treatment and better prognosis. This study aimed to evaluate the validity of uncorrected distant and near visual acuity (VA) and stereoacuity for screening amblyopia in grade-1 students in primary school in central China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>By stratified cluster sampling, 3112 grade-1 students from 11 Anyang primary schools were selected for the study. All the participants underwent uncorrected distant and near VA, stereopsis test, cycloplegic refraction, best corrected VA (BCVA), cover test, and ocular movement examination. VA was measured with a logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) chart. Stereoacuity was measured with the Lang II stereo card and TNO test. Amblyopia was defined as the BCVA less than or equal to 0.1 logMAR units of any eye in the absence of significant pathological abnormalities. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of uncorrected VA and stereoacuity for amblyopia were analyzed.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Out of the 3112 eligible students, 2893 (92.96%) completed the examinations. The average age of the students was (7.10 ± 0.41) years. Screened by distant VA with low cutoff (logMAR 0.1), high cutoff (logMAR 0.0), and near VA (logMAR 0.0), 31.64%, 73.18%, and 50.23% students were abnormal, respectively. Screened by stereopsis test, only 4.69% students were abnormal. Diagnosed by a senior pediatric ophthalmologist, 61 students had amblyopia. The sensitivities of distant VA with low/high cutoff and near VA were 92.31%, 100%, and 80.77%, respectively, whereas that of stereoacuity by TNO test was 15.38%. Simultaneous testing of either two of the three tests improved the sensitivity.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Distant VA test of high cutoff alone displays a high sensitivity but a low specificity. Simultaneous testing of distant VA of low cutoff and stereoacuity is a better choice to balance between sensitivity and specificity.</p>


Subject(s)
Amblyopia , Diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Depth Perception , Female , Humans , Male , Schools , Vision Screening , Visual Acuity , Physiology
16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1292-1297, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-342187

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Indirect traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) is an acute injury of the optic nerve associated with severe visual dysfunction, which may be a result of secondary mechanical injury and vascular disorder of the optic nerve due to trauma. We analyzed the natural course of axonal loss and blood flow disturbances in patients with indirect TON to find a possible therapeutic window.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A cohort of 54 patients with indirect TON recruited between October 2008 and October 2010 at Beijing Tongren Hospital was retrospectively analyzed. The patients were divided into no light perception group (NLP) and better than NLP (btNLP) group. Specifically, the thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and hemodynamic parameters of the ophthalmic artery (OA), central retinal artery (CRA) and posterior ciliary artery (PCA) were determined.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Two weeks after injury, there was a statistically significant decrease in the thickness of RNFL in the btNLP group as compared with the fellow control eyes (P < 0.05). In contrast, in the NLP group, RNFL thickness slightly increased for 2 weeks following injury, then overtly reduced after 4 weeks (P < 0.05). Peak systolic velocity (PSV) of CRA was significantly decreased 4 weeks after injury (P < 0.05) in both the NLP group and btNLP group (P < 0.05). The thickness of RNFL in the NLP group was negatively correlated with PSV of CRA after 1 week of injury (P < 0.05, r = -0.962).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>SD-OCT is a useful supplement in detecting the axonal loss in TON. The dynamic change of the thickness of RNFL appears to correlate with the hemodynamic disturbances in the natural course of TON. The first 2 weeks following an injury is critical and should be considered as the therapeutic window for TON patients.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nerve Fibers , Physiology , Optic Nerve , Physiology , Optic Nerve Injuries , Retinal Neurons , Physiology , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, Optical Coherence
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 41-45, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-331325

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Argon laser peripheral iridoplasty (ALPI) is proved to be effective in lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) of patients with mild acute primary angle closure (APAC). It is unclear whether this laser treatment is equally efficient in managing patients with severe APAC. This study aimed to evaluate the IOP-lowering efficacy of ALPI and laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) on patients with refractory APAC, who have previously responded poorly to intensive medical therapy.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty-six patients (8 men and 28 women) were identified as medically refractory APAC, who still had ocular pain, red eye, hazy cornea, closed anterior chamber (AC) angle, and IOP of not less than 21 mmHg after two days or more of anti-glaucoma medication. All enrolled patients underwent ophthalmologic examinations including measurement of visual acuity (VA), best corrected VA (BCVA), IOP, biomicroscopy, and gonioscopy followed by ALPI immediately in the APAC eye and LPI in both eyes.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>All patients were affected unilaterally, with average age of (54.6 ± 11.7) (range, 37.0 - 75.0) years old. The mean IOP value of the affected eyes dropped from (31.6 ± 7.7) (range, 21.0 - 39.0) mmHg at enrollment to (18.4 ± 8.7) (range, 10.0 - 27.0) mmHg 2 hours after ALPI. At follow-up day 7, the mean IOP value maintained at (14.8 ± 4.2) (range, 9.0 - 21.0) mmHg, which was significantly different (P = 0.000) compared with baseline. The average decrease of IOP in the APAC eyes was (16.8 ± 7.4) (range, 12.0 - 21.0) mmHg. At follow-up three years later, the mean IOP of the APAC eyes stabilized at (16.3 ± 3.2) (range, 9.0 - 20.0) mmHg with at least 180° of AC angle opened.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>ALPI and LPI lower the IOP of medically refractory cases of APAC though they have responded poorly to anti-glaucoma medication.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Glaucoma, Angle-Closure , General Surgery , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Iridectomy , Methods , Iris , General Surgery , Laser Therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-636222

ABSTRACT

The treatment of hereditary retinal disease is still one of the contemporary scientific problems.Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is one type of congenital retinal diseases.Desirable results have been achieved in ongoing clinical trials of gene therapy for LCA,and the efficacy and safety in the intraocular injection of a gene inserted in an adeno-associated virus (AAV) have been verified abroad.These results bring hope and opportunity to LCA patients.China has more hereditary retinal disease patients,but gene therapy for hereditary retinal disease and LCA is lacking.Rightly interpreting and objectively evaluating the clinical trials of gene therapy of LCA will provide us with many important references and useful clues to further help us organize and implement clinical trials of gene therapy for hereditary retinal disease in the future.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-636099

ABSTRACT

Background Recently,the number of randomized controlled trials on ophthalmic diseases that published in international journals from mainland China has increased gradually.There is no systematic summary in this field.Objective To systematically search and analyze the distribution of ophthalmic diseases related randomized controlled trials (RCT) published in SCI journals from mainland China up to November,2012.Methods The search was performed on Pubmed using “Ophthalmology”,“Eye” and all of their inferior subjective terms,with type of literature being limited as randomized controlled trial,and country as China.All retrieved papers were screened,data extracted and analyzed.Results There were 68 ophthalmic diseases related RCT papers published from mainland China since 1989.After 2005,the number of RCT papers from mainland China increased quickly with 7 in 2006,11 in 2009,and 15 in 2011.The 68 RCT papers were focused on cataract,optometry,glaucoma,corneal and conjunctival diseases,ophthalmic immune and pharmacology,and fundus diseases.The RCT papers were published in a total of 35 SCI journals including most kinds of ophthalmic journals such as Ophthalmology,IOVS and a few journals on other specialty.The journal Clin Experiment Ophthalmol had the maximum RCT papers from China (8 papers).The 68 RCT papers came from 26 departments in mainland China,mainly from the hospitals affiliated to medical university in Guangzhou,Beijing,Shanghai,Wenzhou and Hangzhou.Conclusions The number of ophthalmic diseases related RCT papers published in SCI journals from mainland China increased continuously.The papers were mainly focused on cataract,optomctry and glaucoma.The number of these papers,however,was still small and imbalance between districts existed.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-636029

ABSTRACT

Background The safety,effectiveness and predictability of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) to correct hyperopia are of a widely clinical concern,but the efficacy of LASIK for hyperopic correction is not satisfied in comparison to that of myopia.Objective The aim of this work was to evaluate the safety,effectiveness and predictability of autologous corneal len inlays to correct hyperopia.Methods Autologous corneal len inlays was performed on the left eye of female patient with the diopter of +3.25 DS.This patient was followed-up for 1 month.Cornea compensatory intraocular pressure (IOPcc) and imitation Goldmann IOP (IOPg) were measured,and the corneal thickness and corneal flap were observed using optical coherence topography (OCT).Corneal topography was examined to check the change of corneal curvature.Ocular response analyzer was used to evaluate the shifts of corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF).Uncorrected and best corrected visual acuity and refraction were compared between before and after operation.Written informed consent was obtained from the patient prior to the operation.Results No intraoperative and postoperative complications were found.Uncorrected distance visual acuity improved one line 1 day and 1 month after surgery,and near visual acuity progressed to J2 and the spherical equivalent (SE) was-0.125 D 1 month after surgery.OCT exhibited that the cornea was clear and transparent,and the graft was centered in the corneal stroma capsular bag without rejection 1 month after surgery.The IOPcc was 12.4 mmHg before operation and 11.9 mmHg 1 month after operation,and IOPg was 11.9 mmHg before operation and 10.7 mmHg 1 month after operation in the operated eye.The CH was 9.7 mmHg before operation and 8.9 mmHg 1 month after operation,and CRF was 10.9 mmHg before operation and 10.3 mmHg 1 month after operation,without remarkble change in the indexes mentioned above.Conclusions Autologous corneal implantation can be used to correct hyperopic eye with good safety,effectiveness and predictability.

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