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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3662-3667, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689863

ABSTRACT

Astragalus membranaceus pathogenesis-related protein 10 (AmPR-10) is largely expressed in case of environmental pressure and pathogen invasion. This study aims to explore the biochemical functions of AmPR-10. The dried root of Astragalus membranaceus was mechanically homogenized and extracted by Tris-HCl buffer to obtain its crude extract, which was then purified by anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography to obtain electrophoretically pure AmPR-10. The nuclease activity of AmPR-10 was tested with different RNAs by detecting the absorption value at 260 nm. The results demonstrated potent nuclease activity toward yeast tRNA, yeast RNA, Poly (A) and Poly (C). The optimum reaction temperature was 50 °C and pH was 7-8. EDTA showed no effect on its activity, while Mg²⁺ exhibited potent activation effect on the activity, and Co²⁺, Ca²⁺ and Zn²⁺ manifested moderately inhibition of the activity. Since AmPR-10 had no sequence homology with other known nucleases, AmPR-10 was probably a novel nuclease. The inhibition kinetic data against papain was analyzed by Lineweaver-Burk plots, and the results showed that the inhibition of papain followed noncompetitive-type kinetics. AmPR-10 played an important role in Astragalus membranaceus defense mechanism against environmental pressure and pathogen invasion, which may be achieved by inhibiting cycteine enzymes activity.

2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3701-3707, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689857

ABSTRACT

Hypericum stellatum is an important ethnomedicinal plant endemic to southwest China. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was applied to analyze the chemical constituents of H. stellatum. Seventeen compounds from H. stellatum were tentatively identified using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS data. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content were investigated by DPPH assay and Folin-Ciocalted methods. The EtOAc extract with high total phenolic content showed prominent antioxidant activity. The EtOAc extract of H. stellatum was separated and purified by column chromatography, including silica gel, Sephedex LH-20, and RP-HPLC. The isolates were defined by 1D, 2D NMR data. As a result, ten compounds were isolated and assigned as quercetin (Ⅰ), quercetin 3---D-glucopyranoside (Ⅱ), 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxylxanthone (Ⅲ), 1,3,5,6-tetrahydroxyxanthone (Ⅳ), 1,3,7-trihydroxyxanthone (Ⅴ), 3, 6, 7-trihydroxy-1-methoxyxanthone (Ⅵ), calycinoxanthon D (Ⅶ), caffeic acid ethyl ester (Ⅷ), chlorogenic acid (Ⅸ) and chlorogenic acid ethyl ester (Ⅹ). This is the first report on chemical constituents and bioactivity of H. stellatum. The antioxidant activity of chemical constituents was tentatively found, which provided a foundation for further researches on the genus Hypericum and the traditional uses of H. stellatum.

3.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 696-706, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687922

ABSTRACT

Herb-induced liver injury (HILI) is a type of adverse drug reactions related to using Chinese medicine (CM) or herbal medicine (HM), and is now a growing segment of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) worldwide. Owing to the complicated compositions and miscellaneous risk factors associated with the clinical usage of CM or HM, it is more challenging to diagnose and manage HILI than DILI. In the present guideline issued by the China Association of Chinese Medicine (CACM), the authors present an evidence chain-based workflow with 9 structured judgment criteria for diagnosing HILI. The 3 diagnostic ending points-suspected diagnosis, clinical diagnosis, and confirmed diagnosis-could be reached according to the length of the evidence chain acquired in the structured diagnostic workflow. Either identifying the species of CM or HM or excluding adulterations and toxin contaminants was strongly recommended to improve the level of evidence for a clinical diagnosis of HILI. In addition, the authors report that the improper use of CM, which violates the general law of CM theory, is one of the most important factors that contributes to HILI and should be avoided. By contrast, based on syndrome differentiation, some CM can also be used to treat HILI if used in accordance with the general law of CM theory. Therefore, 9 recommendations are put forward in this guideline.

4.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1518-1527, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687667

ABSTRACT

Lactic acid bacteria and cellulose degrading bacteria play an important role in fermentation process of silage, because they can prevent the rancidity and increase the nutritive value of silage. But the propagation of lactic acid bacteria will inhibit the activity of cellulose degrading bacteria in the silage fermentation system. This problem can be solved by releasing lactic acid bacteria and cellulose degrading bacteria in different time. Therefore, we immobilized lactic acid bacteria as a microbial agent for sustained release. Firstly, the optimal balling concentration of the composite immobilized carrier and composite immobilized carrier were obtained by immobilization of blank balls and corncob adsorbed Lactobacillus plantarum S1 respectively. The best immobilization condition of L. plantarum S1 was obtained by comparing the immobilized rate and balling effect of two kinds of balls, which were embedded by sodium alginate (SA), CMC-Na and embedded-crosslinked by SA, CMC-Na, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The results showed that the best balling concentration was achieved by using 6% PVA+0.4% SA+0.3% CMC-Na for embedding-crosslinking and 1.2% SA+0.5% CMC-Na for direct embedding respectively. In addition, comparing with the mechanical strength and embedding rate of five kinds of immobilization process, the best immobilized process was obtained by adding of the mixture of immobilized carriers (1.2%SA+ 0.5%CMC-Na) and corncob adsorbed L. plantarum S1 slowly into 4% CaCl₂ for 24 hours. The corncob adsorption and SA embedding methodology can effectively increase the embedding efficiency of Lactobacillus plantarum S1.

5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1049-1053, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-687334

ABSTRACT

With the growth of number of Chinese patent medicines and clinical use, the rational use of Chinese medicine is becoming more and more serious. Due to the complexity of Chinese medicine theory and the uncertainty of clinical application, the prescription review of Chinese patent medicine always relied on experience in their respective, leading to the uncontrolled of clinical rational use. According to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory and characteristics of the unique clinical therapeutics, based on the practice experience and expertise comments, our paper formed the expert consensus on the prescription review of Chinese traditional patent medicine for promoting the rational use of drugs in Beijing. The objective, methods and key points of prescription review of Chinese patent medicine, were included in this expert consensus, in order to regulate the behavior of prescription and promote rational drug use.

6.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 420-425, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-342022

ABSTRACT

<p><b>Background</b>The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of the Trabectome for Chinese glaucoma patients.</p><p><b>Methods</b>This was a multicenter, retrospective, observational study. Glaucoma patients, except those with neovascular glaucoma, with/without a visually significant cataract were enrolled. The patients received Trabectome or a combined surgery with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. The primary outcome evaluation was a reduction in intraocular pressure (IOP), and the secondary outcomes were a reduction in glaucoma medication, the 2-year success percentages, and complications. Success was defined as an IOP <21 mmHg and at least a 20% IOP reduction from baseline after 3 months for any two consecutive visits, without additional glaucoma surgery. The data were processed using the R Stats Package version 3.0.0. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the postoperative IOP and the number of glaucoma medications with baselines. The Kaplan-Meier test was used to calculate the 2-year success percentage. The risk factors related to Trabectome failure were determined by logistic regression.</p><p><b>Results</b>A total of 120 glaucoma patients were enrolled. The Trabectome efficiently reduced the IOP from a baseline of 22.8 ± 1.34 mmHg to 17.6 ± 0.96 mmHg, and the use of glaucoma medications from 2.2 ± 0.17 mmHg to 1.4 ± 0.21 in a 2-year follow-up (both, P < 0.01). The overall success percentage was 80%. No risk factor related to Trabectome failure was identified. No vision-threatening complication was observed. Ten patients, who required secondary glaucoma surgery, all reached the target IOP.</p><p><b>Conclusions</b>In a 2-year follow-up, Trabectome was an efficient and safe procedure for Chinese glaucoma patients.</p>

7.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1169-1174, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330647

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Septic cardiomyopathy is a common finding in septic shock patients. The accepted definition of septic cardiomyopathy is often based on the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The aim of this study was to determine whether the left ventricular longitudinal systolic function was more sensitive than the LVEF in heart function appraisal of septic shock patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>This was a case-control study conducted at a 40-bed Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Septic shock patients admitted to the ICU were consecutively enrolled in the study group from March 1, 2016 to September 1, 2016. The control group was selected from nonsepsis patients who were admitted to the ICU and were comparable to the study group. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed to obtain the LVEF measurement, mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE), tissue Doppler velocity measurement of mitral annulus (Sa), and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The study group consisted of 45 septic shock patients. Another 45 nonsepsis patients were selected as the control group. There was no difference in the LVEF between the two groups (64.6% vs. 67.2%, t= -1.426, P= 0.161). MAPSE in the study group was much lower than in the control group (1.2 cm vs. 1.5 cm, t= -4.945, P< 0.001). Sa in the study group was also lower than in the control group (10.2 cm/s vs. 11.8 cm/s, t = -2.796, P= 0.014).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Compared to the LVEF, longitudinal systolic function might be more sensitive in the detection of cardiac depression in septic shock patients. In the heart function appraisal of septic shock patients with a normal ejection fraction, more attention should be given to longitudinal function parameters such as MAPSE and Sa.</p>


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cardiomyopathies , Pathology , Case-Control Studies , Echocardiography , Echocardiography, Doppler , Hemodynamics , Physiology , Intensive Care Units , Shock, Septic , Pathology , Ventricular Function, Left , Physiology
8.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1276-1282, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330629

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Approximately 15-20% cases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are diagnosed in children. There have been a few studies reporting the epidemiological data of pediatric-onset SLE (cSLE) in China, neither comparing the differences between cSLE and adult-onset SLE (aSLE). The aim of this study was to describe the impact of age of onset on clinical features and survival in cSLE patients in China based on the Chinese SLE Treatment and Research group (CSTAR) database.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We made a prospective study of 225 cSLE patients (aged Results: The mean age of cSLE patients was 12.16 ± 2.92 years, with 187 (83.1%) females. Fever (P < 0.001) as well as mucocutaneous (P < 0.001) and renal (P = 0.006) disorders were found to be significantly more frequent in cSLE patients as initial symptoms, while muscle and joint lesions were significantly less common compared to aSLE subjects (P < 0.001). The cSLE patients were found to present more frequently with malar rash (P = 0.001; odds ratio [OR], 0.624; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.470-0.829) but less frequently with arthritis (P < 0.001; OR, 2.013; 95% CI, 1.512-2.679) and serositis (P = 0.030; OR, 1.629; 95% CI, 1.053-2.520). There was no significant difference in SLE disease activity index scores between cSLE and aSLE groups (P = 0.478). Cox regression indicated that childhood onset was the risk factor for organ damage in lupus patients (hazard ratio 0.335 [0.170-0.658], P = 0.001). The survival curves between the cSLE and aSLE groups had no significant difference as determined by the log-rank test (0.557, P = 0.455).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>cSLE in China has different clinical features and more inflammation than aSLE patients. Damage may be less in children and there is no difference in 5- year survival between cSLE and aSLE groups.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Age Factors , Age of Onset , China , Epidemiology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Epidemiology , Mortality , Pathology , Odds Ratio , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , Registries , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1639-1647, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330562

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Pharmacological therapy for congestive heart failure (CHF) with ventricular arrhythmia is limited. In the study, our aim was to evaluate the effects of Chinese traditional medicine Shensong Yangxin capsules (SSYX) on heart rhythm and function in CHF patients with frequent ventricular premature complexes (VPCs).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>This double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study randomized 465 CHF patients with frequent VPCs to the SSYX (n = 232) and placebo groups (n = 233) for 12 weeks of treatment. The primary endpoint was the VPCs monitored by a 24-h ambulatory electrocardiogram. The secondary endpoints included the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification, 6-min walking distance (6MWD), Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) scores, and composite cardiac events (CCEs).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The clinical characteristics were similar at baseline. SSYX caused a significantly greater decline in the total number of VPCs than the placebo did (-2145 ± 2848 vs. -841 ± 3411, P < 0.05). The secondary endpoints of the LVEF, NYHA classification, NT-proBNP, 6MWD, and MLHFQ scores showed a greater improvements in the SSYX group than in the placebo group (ΔLVEF at 12th week: 4.75 ± 7.13 vs. 3.30 ± 6.53; NYHA improvement rate at the 8th and 12th week: 32.6% vs. 21.8%, 40.5% vs. 25.7%; mean level of NT-proBNP in patients with NT-proBNP ≥125 pg/ml at 12th week: -122 [Q1, Q3: -524, 0] vs. -75 [Q1, Q3: -245, 0]; Δ6MWD at 12th week: 35.1 ± 38.6 vs. 17.2 ± 45.6; ΔMLHFQ at the 4th, 8th, and 12th week: -4.24 ± 6.15 vs. -2.31 ± 6.96, -8.19 ± 8.41 vs. -3.25 ± 9.40, -10.60 ± 9.41 vs. -4.83 ± 11.23, all P < 0.05). CCEs were not different between the groups during the study period.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>In this 12-week pilot study, SSYX was demonstrated to have the benefits of VPCs suppression and cardiac function improvement with good compliance on a background of standard treatment for CHF.</p><p><b>TRIAL REGISTRATION</b>www.chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR-TRC-12002061 (http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=7487) and Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01612260 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01612260).</p>

10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6-9, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-231001

ABSTRACT

Along with the increase of clinical application, the safety of traditional Chinese medicine gained more and more attentions. In particular, the safety evaluation of Chinese medical injections has become a mandatory task should be completed by pharmaceutical companies under the supervision of China Food and Drug Administration(CFDA). Due to the weak foundation of previous studies, the safety issues of Chinese medical injections have not been fully understood, and lack of scientific and rational risk management programs. Clinical safety centralized monitoring(CSCM) is an important method for post-market safety evaluation of Chinese medicine. Due to the lack of appropriate norms and procedures, the quality of similar research is uneven, and the results vary. Combined with practical experience with experts' suggestions, we developed this expert consensus on the design and implementation of CSCM from three stages (design, implementation and report) with 20 technical points, which will provide technical support for future CSCM studies.

11.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 450-454, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-311392

ABSTRACT

We investigated the usage of secondary prevention drugs and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) products in individuals with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) at the community level in China. Among 2,407 participants with self-reported coronary heart disease (CHD) and 872 with stroke, nearly 80% of individuals with CHD and 73% of individuals with stroke were not taking any proven secondary prevention drug. However, 32.9% of them took TCM products. Patients with CVDs in rural areas used less secondary prevention treatment, but more TCM products than their counterparts in the urban regions. After adjusting for confounding factors, lower rates of secondary prevention treatment were evident in Western China compared with Eastern China, which was more developed. Systematic change is needed to promote the development of evidence-based medicine at the community level in China.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cardiovascular Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Cardiovascular Diseases , Drug Therapy , Epidemiology , China , Epidemiology , Drug Utilization , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis
12.
Biomedical and Environmental Sciences ; (12): 244-254, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-296490

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To establish the distribution of 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk among Chinese adults.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We estimated the 10-year ASCVD risk by applying the 2013 American College of Cardiology/ American Heart Association pooled cohort equations (PCEs) to the data obtained from the 2010 China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance that involved 61,541 participants (representing 520,158,652 Chinese adults) aged 40-79 years. We also compared the ASCVD risk with the 10-year ischemic cardiovascular disease (ICVD) risk, which was calculated using the simplified scoring tables recommended by the Chinese Guidelines for Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases (Chinese model).</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Based on the PCEs, the average 10-year ASCVD risk among adults without self-reported stroke or myocardial infraction was 12.5%. Approximately 247 million (47.4%) and 107 million (20.6%) adults had ⋝ 7.5% and > 20% 10-year ASCVD risks, respectively. The 10-year ASCVD risk > 20% was higher among men, less educated individuals, smokers, drinkers, and physically inactive individuals than among their counterparts. Overall, 29.0% of adults categorized using the Chinese model were overclassified with the PCEs.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Our results define the distribution of 10-year ASCVD risk among Chinese adults. The 10-year ASCVD risk predicted by the PCEs was higher than the ICVD risk predicted by the Chinese model.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Atherosclerosis , Epidemiology , China , Epidemiology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
13.
Singapore medical journal ; : 535-542, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-262407

ABSTRACT

<p><b>INTRODUCTION</b>Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is a global health burden. However, there are heterogeneities among countries or regions in the risk factors and clinical manifestations of atherosclerotic diseases as well as management patterns.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We collected data from 25 centres in Thailand. Patients with documented coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease or peripheral arterial disease, or with at least three atherosclerosis risk factors were enrolled between April 2011 and March 2014. Data on demographics, atherosclerosis risk factors and the management pattern of risk factors, including laboratory findings, were recorded.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In total, 9,390 patients, including 4,861 patients with established atherosclerotic disease and 4,529 patients with multiple risk factors, were enrolled. The modifiable risk factors, other than current smoking habit (5.3%), were common: hypertension (83.8%), dyslipidaemia (85.9%) and diabetes mellitus (57.4%). A majority of patients with hypertension (96.3%), dyslipidaemia (93.8%) and diabetes mellitus (78.5%) received medications for their conditions. Antiplatelet agents were given to 73.9% of patients. The undertreatment rate of cardiovascular risk factors, such as blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, haemoglobin A1c and smoking status, was 35.8%, 59.0%, 45.3% and 5.3%, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Conventional atherosclerosis risk factors were common among Thai patients with established atherosclerotic disease. Even though most of the patients received recommended treatments according to established guidelines, a significant proportion of them were undertreated for atherosclerosis risk factors.</p>

14.
Singapore medical journal ; : 360-372, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-262394

ABSTRACT

The main areas of emphasis in the Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) guidelines are: early recognition of cardiac arrest and call for help; good-quality chest compressions; early defibrillation when applicable; early administration of drugs; appropriate airway management ensuring normoventilation; and delivery of appropriate post-resuscitation care to enhance survival. Of note, it is important to monitor the quality of the various care procedures. The resuscitation team needs to reduce unnecessary interruptions to chest compressions in order to maintain adequate coronary perfusion pressure during the ACLS drill. In addition, the team needs to continually look out for reversible causes of the cardiac arrest.

15.
Singapore medical journal ; : 373-390, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-262390

ABSTRACT

We present the revised 2016 Singapore paediatric resuscitation guidelines. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation's Pediatric Taskforce Consensus Statements on Science and Treatment Recommendations, as well as the updated resuscitation guidelines from the American Heart Association and European Resuscitation Council released in October 2015, were debated and discussed by the workgroup. The final recommendations for the Singapore Paediatric Resuscitation Guidelines 2016 were derived after carefully reviewing the current available evidence in the literature and balancing it with local clinical practice.

16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2541-2546, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-248948

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Intralesional excision with curettage is the standard method of giant cell tumor (GCT) treatment, but the ideal filling material after curettage remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare the oncological and functional outcomes which underwent cementation or bone grafting after GCT curettage around the knee.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>We reported 136 cases with GCTs in distal femur or proximal tibia who accepted curettage from five clinical centers during the last 15 years. All patients were divided into two groups according to filling materials. Recurrence-free survival proportions were used to evaluate oncological outcomes while the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) 93 functional score was used to evaluate functional outcomes. Other parameters including surgical complication, general condition, and radiological classification had been analyzed. The valid statisitical data was analyzed using SPSS 13.0 software.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After GCT curettage, 86 patients (63.2%) accepted bone grafting while 50 patients (36.8%) accepted cementation. There was no statistical difference in age, gender, tumor location, radiological classification, fixation, follow-up time, and MSTS 93 functional score between cementation group and bone grafting group. The recurrence-free survival proportions showed that the recurrence rate in bone grafting group was higher than it in cementation group (P = 0.034). Surgical complication was lower in cementation group than that in bone grafting group but without statistically significant difference (P = 0.141).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Parameters including patients' age, gender, tumor location, and radiological classification did not affect surgeons' treatments in cavity filling after GCT curettage. Cementation should be recommended because of easy usage, the similar postoperative knee function with bone grafting, and the better local tumor control than bone grafting.</p>

17.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 150-153, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-229544

ABSTRACT

Literature review shows that Chinese medicine and other related treatment are still the main stream treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Currently, there is short of handbook guiding Chinese medicine from evidence-based medical evidence, so it is a top priority to develop a clinical guideline from the expert consensus. After several rounds of discussion during the conference and examination by letter, which has collected opinions from nearly one hundred experts, consensus was reached. Nonpharmacologic interventions include health education, medical exercise, acupuncture, massage, acupotomology, and physiotherapy. Pharmacological interventions are as follows. Topical application includes fumigation, application, hot compressed, ironing and iontophoresis with Chinese herbs, etc. Chinese patent medicine for external use includes plaster, ointment, etc. Western medicine for external use mainly includes emulsion, ointment, plaster and embrocation containing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Intraarticular injection mainly includes sodium hyaluronic acid, chitosan (for injection) with prudent use of glucocorticoid. Chinese herbal medicine and Chinese patent medicine can be taken referring to syndrome differentiation which mainly includes syndromes of qi stagnation and blood stasis, cold dampness, deficiency of Gan (Liver) and Shen (Kidney), deficiency of qi and blood. Western medicine mainly includes analgesic, NSAIDs, diseases modifying drugs. Surgery procedures mainly include joint irrigation, arthroscopic surgery, osteotomy, arthroplasty, etc.


Subject(s)
Humans , Consensus , Disease Progression , Expert Testimony , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Osteoarthritis, Knee , Diagnosis , Therapeutics , Specialization , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2829-2833, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-230872

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease with an increasingly significant prevalence. The prevalence of AD depends greatly on how its diagnosis is done. The UK Working Party's diagnostic criteria for AD are simple and easy to apply without invasive laboratory tests. This study assessed the clinical utility of these criteria in China.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Data were collected from 6208 patients at 31 tertiary hospitals in 13 Chinese provinces/municipalities from March 2014 to May 2014. . The agreement between the UK diagnostic criteria and the clinical records for AD was assessed by Cohen's kappa.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The overall agreement between the UK diagnostic criteria and clinical diagnosis was fair (kappa = 0.40). A slightly better agreement was found in patients aged between 4 and 9 years (kappa = 0.48), while fair agreement was found in the group <4 years and the group ≥10 years (kappa = 0.27 and 0.39, respectively). Using the UK party's criteria as the standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the clinical diagnosis of AD were 62.3%, 89.2%, 38.0%, and 95.7%, respectively.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Our study indicates a modest ability among Chinese dermatologists to apply the UK Working Party's diagnostic criteria for AD, especially in patients aged <4 years and ≥10 years. Since there is no gold standard for AD diagnosis, it is important to determine how AD is identified when evaluating a diagnostic tool.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Age Factors , China , Dermatitis, Atopic , Diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Methods , Reference Standards , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , United Kingdom
19.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2967-2973, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-230846

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Sepsis is the leading cause of death among critically ill patients. Herein, we conducted a national survey to provide data on epidemiology and treatment of sepsis in the clinical practice in China, which has no detailed epidemiological data available on sepsis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>This was a prospective cross-sectional survey from December 1, 2015 to January 31, 2016 in all provinces/municipalities of the mainland of China. The primary outcome of this study was the incidence of sepsis, and the secondary outcome was its etiology in China. Patients with sepsis admitted to the Intensive Care Units were included in this study. The demographic, physiological, bacteriological, and therapeutic data of these patients were recorded. The incidence of sepsis was estimated using the data from the sixth census in China, reported by the Chinese National Health and Family Planning Commission and the National Bureau of Statistics as the standard population. The independent risk factors for increased mortality from sepsis were calculated.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>This study indicated the incidence and outcome of sepsis in China. It also showed the most common etiology of different sites and types of infection, which could guide empiric antibiotic therapy. Moreover, it provided information on the independent risk factors for increased mortality due to sepsis. The findings provide evidence to guide clinical management and may help improve the outcome in septic patients.</p><p><b>TRIAL REGISTRATION</b>ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02448472; https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02448472.</p>


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , China , Epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epidemiologic Studies , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Prospective Studies , Sepsis , Epidemiology
20.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 473-480, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-229536

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To survey the reporting quality of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) case reports published in recent years and understand the common problems. The assessment results would lay the foundation for the development of recommendations for case report in Chinese medicine.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>This survey determined the reporting quality of cases with Chinese herbal decoction, Chinese proprietary medicine, acupuncture, moxibustion and other traditional therapies published in 20 core medical journals of China by searching the China Academic Journals Full-text Database from 2006 to 2010. Fifty survey items in 16 domains were used to determine the reporting quality. One point was assigned to each item (Yes=1 point; No=0 point), and total score was 50 points. The domain of treatment was assessed independently, ranging from 2 to 9 items for different TCM interventions.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The total of 1,858 case reports, covering 3,417 cases were included to analyze from 13 out of 20 core medical journals of China. There were 74.8% of them did not identify the nature of study in title, while 73.9% did not comprise an abstract. Incomplete reporting was found in discussions/ comment, and only 38.9% had made recommendations or take-away messages. Figures and tables were infrequently used. Three cases cited the full names of patients, but without declaring that any consent was obtained. Over 90% reported the symptoms and signs of TCM, and characteristics on tongue and pulse, but less than 50% did mention other medical history and diagnostic rationale. More than 90% treatments of the included cases were herbal decoction, with clear reporting on the ingredients and dosages. However, the reporting rate of the dosages of each ingredient was just 48.4%. Almost none reported the quality control of crude herbs, manufacturers and lot numbers of herbal proprietary medicine. Besides, advices and precautions on diet, emotions and living were rare to be illustrated.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Systematic reporting recommendations are urged to develop for improving the contents and format of case reports in TCM.</p>


Subject(s)
Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Periodicals as Topic , Quality Assurance, Health Care , Research Report , Reference Standards
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