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1.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 236-240, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902266

ABSTRACT

Hepatopulmonary syndrome is a rare lung complication of liver cirrhosis, caused by pulmonary microvascular vasodilation that induces abnormal arterial oxygenation. Typical findings on physical examination are finger clubbing and cyanosis. Dyspnea is a common symptom and is worse in the upright position. Contrast echocardiography is a useful diagnostic test. Currently, the only effective treatment is liver transplantation. We report the case of a woman with cirrhosis who has hepatopulmonary syndrome with finger clubbing, confirmed by contrast echocardiography. The patient is waiting for a liver transplant.

2.
Gut and Liver ; : 430-439, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898454

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The clinical significance of partial virological response (PVR) in patients undergoing antiviral therapy is not well known. This study investigated whether PVR after 2 years of entecavir (ETV) therapy is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in cirrhotic patients. @*Methods@#A total of 472 naïve patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated cirrhosis who were treated with ETV for at least 2 years were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical characteristics, laboratory data, PVR, and noninvasive fibrosis markers (aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio and FIB-4 index) at 2 years after ETV commencement were analyzed for HCC risk. @*Results@#After excluding those who developed HCC within 2 years of ETV therapy, 359 patients (mean age, 51±10 years; male 64.3%) were examined. During a median follow-up of 82 months, 80 patients developed HCC. In the univariate analysis, older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.056; p<0.001), PVR (HR, 2.536; p=0.002), higher aspartate aminotransferase (HR, 1.018; p=0.005), lower albumin level (HR, 0.463; p<0.001), lower platelet count (HR, 0.993; p=0.01), and higher FIB-4 index (HR, 1.141; p<0.001) at 2 years after ETV commencement were risk factors for HCC. In the multivariate analysis, older age (HR, 1.046; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.022 to 1.072; p<0.001), PVR (HR, 2.358; 95% CI, 1.310 to 4.245; p=0.004), and higher FIB-4 index (HR, 1.103; 95% CI, 1.035 to 1.177; p=0.003) were independent risk factors. @*Conclusions@#PVR and higher FIB-4 index after 2 years of ETV therapy were independent risk factors for HCC. Therefore, efforts to accomplish a complete virological response and reduce the FIB-4 index should be made.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898118

ABSTRACT

Background@#Several noninvasive tools are available for the assessment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) including clinical and blood biomarkers, transient elastography (TE), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, such as proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) and magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether magnetic resonance (MR)-based examinations better discriminate the pathophysiologic features and fibrosis progression in NAFLD than other noninvasive methods. @*Methods@#A total of 133 subjects (31 healthy volunteers and 102 patients with NAFLD) were subjected to clinical and noninvasive NAFLD evaluation, with additional liver biopsy in some patients (n=54). @*Results@#MRI-PDFF correlated far better with hepatic fat measured by MR spectroscopy (r=0.978, P<0.001) than with the TE controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) (r=0.727, P<0.001). In addition, MRI-PDFF showed stronger correlations with various pathophysiologic parameters for cellular injury, glucose and lipid metabolism, and inflammation, than the TE-CAP. The MRI-PDFF and TE-CAP cutoff levels associated with abnormal elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase were 9.9% and 270 dB/m, respectively. The MRE liver stiffness measurement (LSM) showed stronger correlations with liver enzymes, platelets, complement component 3, several clinical fibrosis scores, and the enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) score than the TE-LSM. In an analysis of only biopsied patients, MRE performed better in discriminating advanced fibrosis with a cutoff value of 3.9 kPa than the TE (cutoff 8.1 kPa) and ELF test (cutoff 9.2 kPa). @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that MRI-based assessment of NAFLD is the best non-invasive tool that captures the histologic, pathophysiologic and metabolic features of the disease.

4.
Korean Journal of Medicine ; : 236-240, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894562

ABSTRACT

Hepatopulmonary syndrome is a rare lung complication of liver cirrhosis, caused by pulmonary microvascular vasodilation that induces abnormal arterial oxygenation. Typical findings on physical examination are finger clubbing and cyanosis. Dyspnea is a common symptom and is worse in the upright position. Contrast echocardiography is a useful diagnostic test. Currently, the only effective treatment is liver transplantation. We report the case of a woman with cirrhosis who has hepatopulmonary syndrome with finger clubbing, confirmed by contrast echocardiography. The patient is waiting for a liver transplant.

5.
Gut and Liver ; : 430-439, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890750

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The clinical significance of partial virological response (PVR) in patients undergoing antiviral therapy is not well known. This study investigated whether PVR after 2 years of entecavir (ETV) therapy is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in cirrhotic patients. @*Methods@#A total of 472 naïve patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated cirrhosis who were treated with ETV for at least 2 years were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical characteristics, laboratory data, PVR, and noninvasive fibrosis markers (aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio and FIB-4 index) at 2 years after ETV commencement were analyzed for HCC risk. @*Results@#After excluding those who developed HCC within 2 years of ETV therapy, 359 patients (mean age, 51±10 years; male 64.3%) were examined. During a median follow-up of 82 months, 80 patients developed HCC. In the univariate analysis, older age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.056; p<0.001), PVR (HR, 2.536; p=0.002), higher aspartate aminotransferase (HR, 1.018; p=0.005), lower albumin level (HR, 0.463; p<0.001), lower platelet count (HR, 0.993; p=0.01), and higher FIB-4 index (HR, 1.141; p<0.001) at 2 years after ETV commencement were risk factors for HCC. In the multivariate analysis, older age (HR, 1.046; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.022 to 1.072; p<0.001), PVR (HR, 2.358; 95% CI, 1.310 to 4.245; p=0.004), and higher FIB-4 index (HR, 1.103; 95% CI, 1.035 to 1.177; p=0.003) were independent risk factors. @*Conclusions@#PVR and higher FIB-4 index after 2 years of ETV therapy were independent risk factors for HCC. Therefore, efforts to accomplish a complete virological response and reduce the FIB-4 index should be made.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890414

ABSTRACT

Background@#Several noninvasive tools are available for the assessment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) including clinical and blood biomarkers, transient elastography (TE), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, such as proton density fat fraction (MRI-PDFF) and magnetic resonance elastography (MRE). In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether magnetic resonance (MR)-based examinations better discriminate the pathophysiologic features and fibrosis progression in NAFLD than other noninvasive methods. @*Methods@#A total of 133 subjects (31 healthy volunteers and 102 patients with NAFLD) were subjected to clinical and noninvasive NAFLD evaluation, with additional liver biopsy in some patients (n=54). @*Results@#MRI-PDFF correlated far better with hepatic fat measured by MR spectroscopy (r=0.978, P<0.001) than with the TE controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) (r=0.727, P<0.001). In addition, MRI-PDFF showed stronger correlations with various pathophysiologic parameters for cellular injury, glucose and lipid metabolism, and inflammation, than the TE-CAP. The MRI-PDFF and TE-CAP cutoff levels associated with abnormal elevation of serum alanine aminotransferase were 9.9% and 270 dB/m, respectively. The MRE liver stiffness measurement (LSM) showed stronger correlations with liver enzymes, platelets, complement component 3, several clinical fibrosis scores, and the enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) score than the TE-LSM. In an analysis of only biopsied patients, MRE performed better in discriminating advanced fibrosis with a cutoff value of 3.9 kPa than the TE (cutoff 8.1 kPa) and ELF test (cutoff 9.2 kPa). @*Conclusion@#Our results suggest that MRI-based assessment of NAFLD is the best non-invasive tool that captures the histologic, pathophysiologic and metabolic features of the disease.

7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834095

ABSTRACT

Although rare patients with chronic hepatitis B can achieve HBsAg loss on oral nucleos(t)ide analog (NA), the optimal timing of stopping oral NAs safely has been considered when HBsAg and HBV DNA are negative in the serum because HBsAg loss induced by nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) appears to be durable if immunosuppressive therapy or chemotherapy are not done. On the other hand, the author experienced a case of HBsAg seroreversion and acute decompensation after the discontinuation of NA in a patient with HBsAg loss. This rare case highlights the need for the close monitoring of patients who achieved HBsAg loss and stopped NA.

8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765662

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze uptake patterns and intensity of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and ¹⁸F-sodium fluoride (NaF) radioligands in carotid atheroma among stroke patients according to carotid atheroma characteristics. METHODS: Between September 2015 and January 2017, consecutive acute stroke or transient ischemic attack patients with 50% or more proximal internal carotid artery stenosis on brain computed tomography angiography were prospectively enrolled. All patients received FDG and NaF positron emission tomography (PET) evaluation when their neurological status was stabilized. Uptake values of FDG and NaF were compared by target to blood ratio (TBR) according to the calcification burden, atheroma volume and the presence of a necrotic core of carotid atheroma. RESULTS: A total of 18 patients with 36 carotid arteries were finally enrolled, with 10 patients diagnosed as acute cerebral infarction due to symptomatic carotid stenosis. FDG uptake at symptomatic carotid arteries was significantly more increased than that at asymptomatic arteries (TBR: 1.17±0.23 vs. 1.01±0.15, Mann-Whitney U-test, p=0.02), but NaF uptake was not different (TBR: 1.38±0.49 vs. 1.51±0.40, p=0.40). In terms of calcification degree, NaF uptake increased as calcification burden increased (none, 1.28±0.36; spotty, 1.29±0.29; linear, 1.74±0.44; analysis of variance, p=0.02). CONCLUSION: Carotid evaluation by FDG is superior to NaF PET in the detection of symptomatic carotid atherosclerosis among stroke patients. NaF PET uptake reflects the overall calcification burden.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Arteries , Atherosclerosis , Brain , Carotid Arteries , Carotid Artery Diseases , Carotid Stenosis , Cerebral Infarction , Electrons , Fluorides , Glucose , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prospective Studies , Stroke
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term data with direct acting antiviral agents were rare. This study investigated the durability of a sustained virologic response (SVR) and the improvement of fibrosis after daclatasvir and asunaprevir (DCV/ASV) treatment in genotype 1b (GT1b) hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. METHODS: A total of 288 HCV GT1b patients without baseline non-structural 5A (NS5A) resistance-associated substitution (RAS) treated with DCV/ASV were enrolled. Virologic response was measured at 12 weeks and 1 year after treatment completion. In cirrhotic patients, liver function, aspartate transaminase to platelet ratio index (APRI), FIB-4 index, fibrosis index (FI), and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) at baseline and 1 year after treatment completion were evaluated. RESULTS: SVR12 was obtained in 278 patients (96.5%). Six patients who checked NS5A RAS after treatment failure were RAS positive. Only one patient showed no durability of SVR. In cirrhotic patients who achieved SVR12 (n = 59), the changes of albumin (3.8 [2.2–4.7] to 4.3 [2.4–4.9] g/dL; P < 0.001), platelet count (99 [40–329] to 118 [40–399] × 103/mm3; P < 0.001), APRI (1.8 [0.1–14.8] to 0.6 [0.1–4.8]; P < 0.001), FIB-4 index (5.45 [0.6–32.8] to 3.3 [0.4–12.2]; P < 0.001), FI (5.5 [0.6–32.8] to 3.3 [0.4–12.2]; P < 0.001), and LSM (17.2 [5.3–48.0] to 11.2 [3.7–28.1] kPa; P = 0.001) between baseline and 1 year after treatment completion were observed. CONCLUSION: DCV/ASV treatment for HCV GT1b infected patients without RAS achieved high SVR rates and showed durable SVR. Cirrhotic patients who achieved SVR12 showed the improvement of liver function and fibrosis markers.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blood Platelets , Fibrosis , Genotype , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C , Hepatitis , Humans , Liver , Platelet Count , Treatment Failure
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916965

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of how the trauma care system applied on the management of trauma patient within the region.@*METHODS@#We divided the patients in a pre-trauma system group and a post-trauma system group according to the time when we began to apply the trauma care system in the Halla Hospital after designation of a trauma center. We compared annual general characteristics, injury severity score, the average numbers of the major trauma patients, clinical outcomes of the emergency department, and mortality rates between the two groups.@*RESULTS@#No significant differences were found in the annual patients' average age (54.1±20.0 vs. 52.8±18.2, p=0.201), transportation pathways (p=0.462), injury mechanism (p=0.486), injury severity score (22.93 vs. 23.96, p=0.877), emergency room (ER) stay in minutes (199.17 vs. 194.29, p=0.935), time to operation or procedure in minutes (154.07 vs. 142.1, p=0.767), time interval to intensive care unit (ICU) in minutes (219.54 vs. 237.13, p=0.662). The W score and Z score indicated better outcomes in post-trauma system group than in pre-trauma system group (W scores, 2.186 vs. 2.027; Z scores, 2.189 vs. 1.928). However, when analyzing survival rates for each department, in the neurosurgery department, in comparison with W score and Z score, both W score were positive and Z core was higher than +1.96. (pre-trauma group: 3.426, 2.335 vs. post-trauma group: 4.17, 1.967). In other than the neurosurgery department, W score was positive after selection, but Z score was less than +1.96, which is not a meaningful outcome of treatment (pre-trauma group: −0.358, −0.271 vs. post-trauma group: 1.071, 0.958).@*CONCLUSIONS@#There were significant increases in patient numbers and improvement in survival rate after the introduction of the trauma system. However, there were no remarkable change in ER stay, time to ICU admission, time interval to emergent procedure or operation, and survival rates except neurosurgery. To achieve meaningful survival rates and the result of the rise of the trauma index, we will need to secure sufficient manpower, including specialists in various surgical area as well as rapid establishment of the trauma center.

11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916964

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#The Essential Surgical Procedures in Trauma (ESPIT) course was developed as a model to teach necessary surgical procedures to trauma physicians. Its goals are to improve knowledge, self-confidence, and technical competence.@*METHODS@#The ESPIT course consisted of five lectures and a porcine lab operative experience. The ESPIT course has been run seven times between February 2014 and April 2016. ESPIT participants completed a questionnaire to assess self-efficacy regarding essential surgical procedures in trauma before and immediately after taking the ESPIT course. Sixty-three participants who completed both pre- and post-course questionnaires on self-efficacy were enrolled in this study.@*RESULTS@#The overall post-ESPIT mean self-efficacy score was higher than the pre-ESPIT mean self-efficacy score (8.3±1.30 and 4.5±2.13, respectively) (p5 years) were also statistically significant (p<0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The data of the ESPIT participants indicated that they felt that the ESPIT course improved their self-efficacy with regard to essential surgical procedures in trauma. The ESPIT course may be an effective strategy for teaching surgical procedures, thus promoting better management of traumatic injuries.

12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916950

ABSTRACT

Bilateral chylothorax due to blunt trauma is extremely rare. We report a 74-year-old patient that developed delayed bilateral chylothorax after falling off a ladder. The patient had a simple 12th rib fracture and T12 lamina fracture. All other findings seemed normal. He was sent home and on the 5th day visited our emergency center at Halla Hospital with symptoms of dyspnea and lower back pain. Computer tomography of his chest presented massive fluid collection in his right pleural cavity and moderate amounts in his left pleural cavity with 12th rib fracture and T11-12 intervertebral space widening with bilateral facet fractures. Chest tubes were placed bilaterally and chylothorax through both chest tubes was discovered. Conservative treatment for 2 weeks failed, and thus, thoracic duct ligation was done by video assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Thoracic duct embolization was not an option. Postoperatively, the patient is now doing well and happy with the results. Early surgical treatment must be considered in the old patient, whom large amounts of chylothorax are present.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916948

ABSTRACT

Although hemothorax and pneumothorax are common complications seen in rib fractures, focal extrapleural hematoma is quite rare. We report a 63-year-old female patient that developed large focal extrapleural hematoma after falling off a second floor veranda. The patient had sustained 3, 4, 5th costal cartilage rib fractures and a sternum fracture. She had developed suspected empyema with loculations with small amount of hemothorax. She underwent a planned early decortication/adhesiolysis by video assisted thoracoscopic surgery at the 12th post-trauma day due to failed drainage. Unexpectedly, she had no adhesions or any significant retained hematoma mimicking a mass, but was found with the focal extrapleural chest wall hematoma. She was discharged on postoperative 46th day for other reasons and is doing fine today.

14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717115

ABSTRACT

A primary benign schwannoma of the liver is extremely rare. Only 30 cases have been reported in the medical literature worldwide, and only one case has been reported in Korea previously. A 56-year-old man was admitted to Gil Medical Center with incidental findings of a hepatic mass by abdominal computed tomography. The computed tomography and magnetic resonance image revealed a 3×2 cm-sized solid mass in the left lobe of the liver. Histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of a benign schwannoma, proven by positive immunoreaction with the neurogenic marker S-100 protein and a negative response to CD34, CD117, and smooth muscle actin. We report a primary benign schwannoma of the liver and review the literature.


Subject(s)
Actins , Diagnosis , Humans , Incidental Findings , Korea , Liver , Middle Aged , Muscle, Smooth , Neurilemmoma , Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms , S100 Proteins
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716128

ABSTRACT

Simple hepatic cysts are common benign liver lesions that usually have no malignant capability. They are generally asymptomatic and are often found incidentally by abdominal imaging procedures. Treatment becomes necessary, however, when huge hepatic cysts cause symptoms and develop complications, such as hemorrhage, adjacent organ damage, and infection. Several therapeutic options have been performed for symptomatic and huge cysts, including the aspiration of cystic fluid, infusion of various sclerosing agents, and surgical intervention. The optimal management of huge hepatic cysts is controversial and each option has its complications and limitations. This paper reports a case of a 66-year-old woman diagnosed with a simple hepatic cyst 2 years earlier, who was referred to hospital due to abdominal pain. The diagnosis was a huge hepatic cyst with symptoms by abdominal imaging studies. During the follow-up period, the huge cysts resolved spontaneously without treatment.


Subject(s)
Abdominal Pain , Aged , Diagnosis , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Liver , Sclerosing Solutions
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916910

ABSTRACT

Rib fixations for flail chest or displaced rib fractures are not a new technique. However, reports on rib fixations involving costal cartilage fractures are very few and surprisingly there are no reports of internal fixations involving only the costal cartilage in the English literature. The diagnosis is difficult and the necessity of the procedure may be quite controversial. Placing plates in screws into the costal cartilage alone may seem unstable and easily dislodged or stripped through the cartilage. We report a 31-year-old male scuba diver instructor who underwent rib fixations over his 7th and 8th costal cartilage ribs for severe pain. The procedure was done with conventional plates and screws. He had the plates and screws removed 2 months later due to lingering pain, but with them removed he is now quite happy with the results without pain. The procedure for fixation of painful overlapped costal cartilage is quite simple and can be done with the usual conventional methods, fixating plate and screws directly over the cartilage alone without fixation over the bony rib.

17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-916909

ABSTRACT

Delayed esophageal rupture due to blunt injury is not new. However, rupture due to suspected barotrauma is very rare. We describe a case of esophageal rupture in a male 24-year-old patient after diving in shallow waters. The patient was quadriplegic and could not experience the typical chest pain related to rupture and resulting mediastinitis. The rupture was discovered 4 days after emergency decompressive laminectomy and fusion for his cervical spine. The rupture was evidently caused by barotrauma and was discovered four days after admission. He underwent primary closure and pericardial flap as a life-saving procedure.

18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-165097

ABSTRACT

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) may be one of the important causes of cryptogenic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). NAFLD-related HCCs (NAFLD-HCCs) have the following clinical features: high body mass index, deranged lipid profiles, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. Among them, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and high Fe contents in the liver are risk factors of developing HCC in patients with NAFLD. Inflammatory cytokines, adipokines, insulin like growth factor-I, and lipotoxicity are intermingled and may cross react with each other to develop HCC. Because there is no guideline for early detection of HCC in patients with NAFLD, NAFLD-HCCs tend to be greater in size and in advanced stages when detected compared with hepatitis virus-related HCCs. Therefore, there is an urgent need of a surveillance program for the early detection of HCC. Treatment of NAFLD-HCCs is not different from other causes-related HCCs. However, patients with NAFLD-HCCs have cardiovascular disease and other metabolic problems, which may complicate treatment.


Subject(s)
Adipokines , Body Mass Index , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cytokines , Diabetes Mellitus , Hepatitis , Humans , Hypertension , Insulin , Liver , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease , Obesity , Risk Factors
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51509

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The translocation of bacteria and their lipopolysaccharides from the gut can promote fibrosis in cirrhotic patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rifaximin on hepatic fibrosis in a bile duct-ligated rat model. METHODS: The bile duct ligation (BDL) was carried out for eight days (acute injury model: sham-operated rats [G1], BDL rats [G2], and BDL rats treated with rifaximin [G3]) or 22 days (chronic injury model: sham-operated rats [G4], BDL rats [G5], and BDL rats treated with rifaximin [G6]). Rifaximin (50 mg/kg/day) was administered daily via gavage after BDL. Liver function, serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and hepatic hydroxyproline levels were measured. Moreover, a histological analysis of fibrosis contents was performed using sirius red stain. RESULTS: In the acute injury model, the liver function and TNF-α level were not improved after the rifaximin treatment. The hydroxyproline levels (µg/g liver tissue) in G1, G2, and G3 were 236.4±103.1, 444.8±114.4, and 312.5±131.6, respectively; and fibrosis contents (%) were 0.22±0.04, 1.64±0.53, and 1.66±0.44, respectively. The rifaximin treatment did not ameliorate acute BDL-induced fibrosis. In the chronic injury model, the hydroxyproline levels in G4, G5, and G6 were 311.5±72.9, 1,110.3±357.9, and 944.3±209.3, respectively; and fibrosis contents (%) were 0.19±0.03, 5.04±0.18, and 4.42±0.68, respectively (G5 vs. G6, p=0.059). The rifaximin treatment marginally ameliorated chronic BDL-induced fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Rifaximin did not reduce inflammation and fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rat model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacteria , Bile Ducts , Bile , Fibrosis , Humans , Hydroxyproline , Inflammation , Ligation , Lipopolysaccharides , Liver , Liver Cirrhosis , Models, Animal , Rats , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-30375

ABSTRACT

Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare autoimmune disease that is characterized by inflammatory reaction of unknown etiology and destruction of cartilaginous structures. Characteristic symptoms of this disease include cartilage inflammation of the ear, nose, larynx, trachea, bronchi, joints, eyes, heart and skin. Concomitance with neurologic symptom is very rare in RP, and the detailed underlying mechanism of neurological involvement associated with RP is not fully understood. We herein described an unusual recurrent case of inflammatory brain lesions associated with RP, with attention to clinical manifestations, autoimmune disease involvement, and therapeutic effects.


Subject(s)
Atrophy , Autoimmune Diseases , Brain , Bronchi , Cartilage , Ear , Encephalitis , Heart , Inflammation , Joints , Larynx , Multiple Sclerosis , Neurologic Manifestations , Neuromyelitis Optica , Nose , Polychondritis, Relapsing , Skin , Therapeutic Uses , Trachea
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