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1.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 62-72, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-968419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#Many studies have revealed an association between fat mass and the obesity-related gene (FTO) and obesity. On the other hand, no meta-analysis was conducted with data from only Koreans. Therefore, this study performed a meta-analysis using Korean data to provide evidence for the association between FTO single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the risk of obesity among Korean adults.SUBJECT/METHODS: Meta-analysis was finally conducted with data extracted from seven datasets of four studies performed on Korean adults after the screening passed. Five kinds of FTO SNPs (rs9939609, rs7193144, rs9940128, rs8050136, and rs9926289) were included, and the relationship between FTO SNPs and body mass index (BMI) was investigated using linear regression with an additive model adjusted for covariants, such as age, sex, and area. @*RESULTS@#The minor alleles of FTO SNPs were associated with increased BMI (odds ratio [OR], 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21–1.42). In sub-group analysis, FTO rs9939609 T>A was significantly associated with BMI (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.06–1.42). The other FTO SNPs together were significantly associated with BMI (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.25–1.49). The publication bias was not observed based on Egger’s test. @*CONCLUSIONS@#This meta-analysis showed that minor alleles in the FTO SNPs were significantly associated with an increased BMI among Korean adults. This meta-analysis is the first to demonstrate that minor alleles in the FTO SNPs contribute significantly to the increased risk of obesity among Korean adults using data from a Korean population.

2.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 175-191, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-977284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES@#The scientific evidence of a sodium-obesity association is limited by sodium intake assessments. Our specific aim is to synthesize the association between dietary sodium intake and obesity across the sodium intake assessments as evidenced by systematic reviews in adults. @*SUBJECTS/METHODS@#A systematic search identified systematic reviews comparing the association of dietary sodium intakes with obesity-related outcomes such as body mass index (BMI), body weight, waist circumference, and risk of (abdominal) obesity. We searched PubMed on October 24, 2022. To assess the Risk of Bias in Systematic Reviews (ROBIS), we employed the ROBIS tool. @*RESULTS@#This review included 3 systematic reviews, consisting of 39 unique observational studies (35 cross-sectional studies and 4 longitudinal studies) and 15 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We found consistently positive associations between dietary sodium intake and obesity-related outcomes in cross-sectional studies. Studies that used 24-h urine collection indicated a greater BMI for those with higher sodium intake (mean difference = 2.27 kg/m2 ; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59–2.51; P < 0.001; I2 = 77%) compared to studies that used spot urine (mean difference = 1.34 kg/m2 ; 95% CI, 1.13–1.55; P < 0.001; I2 = 95%) and dietary methods (mean difference = 0.85 kg/m2 ; 95% CI, 0.1–1.51; P < 0.05; I2 = 95%). @*CONCLUSIONS@#Quantitative synthesis of the systematic reviews has shown that crosssectional associations between dietary sodium intake and obesity outcomes were substantially different across the sodium intake assessments. We need more high-quality prospective cohort studies and RCTs using 24-h urine collection to examine the causal effects of sodium intake on obesity.

3.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : s11-s20, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926846

ABSTRACT

Research articles were reviewed to validate the estimated energy requirements (EERs) equations developed by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (IOM). These equations are based on total energy expenditure (TEE) measured by the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. We subsequently aimed to provide the basis for the suitability to apply the IOM equations as EER equations for Koreans, and develop relevant equations for EER in the Dietary Reference Intake for Koreans (KDRI). Additionally, besides the EER(IOM) equations, other equations were examined for EER estimation. Research papers demonstrating the validation of the EER(IOM) equations based on TEE(DLW) were searched through PubMed (up to September 2019). Of the 637 potentially relevant articles identified, duplicates and unsuitable titles and abstracts were excluded. Furthermore, papers with irrelevant subject and inappropriate study design were also excluded. Finally, 11 papers were included in the review. Among the reviewed papers, 8 papers validated the application of the EER(IOM) equations for EER based on TEE(DLW). These included 3 studies for children (USA 1, Korea 2), 1 for adolescents (Portugal), 2 for adults (Korean), and 2 for the elderly (Korea, USA).EER(IOM) equations were found to be generally acceptable for determining EER by using the DLW method, except for Korean boys at 9–11 yrs (overestimated) and female athletes at 19–24 yrs (underestimated). Additionally, 5 papers include the validation of other EER equations, beside EER(IOM) for EER based on TEE(DLW). In Japanese dietary reference intake and recommended dietary allowance, EER equations are acceptable for determining EER based on TEE(DLW). The EER(IOM) equations is generally acceptable for determining EER using the DLW method in Koreans as well as several populations, although certain defined groups were found to be unfit for the estimation. Additionally, the concept of healthy body mass index of Koreans and physical activity levels need to be considered, thereby providing the basis for developing relevant equations of EER in KDRI.

4.
Journal of Nutrition and Health ; : 670-683, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967620

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To provide the primary data on dietary guidelines for the management of obesity, we analyzed the intake rate of food groups and dish groups according to obesity and age.Data were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANSE, 2013–2018). @*Methods@#This study analyzed the data of 21,184 adults aged 19-64 years, obtained from the KNHANSE 2013–2018. The 24-hour recall was performed and the food groups were classified into six representative food groups (grains, meat·fish·eggs·legumes, vegetables, fruits, milk and dairy, and oil and sugar), and ‘alcohol’ and ‘others’. The dish groups were classified into a total of twenty-four types. @*Results@#The normal group included 9,004 subjects (42.5%), while the obese group had 12,180 subjects (57.5%). The food groups showing significant differences according to obesity were grains (p < 0.001), meat/fish/egg/legumes (p < 0.001), and vegetables (p < 0.001); similar results were obtained in both male and female. Comparing the intake rate of food groups and dish groups targeting only the obese group according to age, the food groups showing significance between the obese group and the normal group were grains (p < 0.001) and vegetables (p < 0.001), with significantly increased intake in both genders. Considering the dish groups, significant increases were determined for stews (p < 0.001), seasoned vegetables (p < 0.001), and kimchi (p < 0.001) in male, and for rice (p < 0.001), seasoned vegetables (p < 0.001), kimchi (p < 0.001), and rice cakes (p < 0.001) in female. @*Conclusion@#The results of this study determined that the intake ratio of food and dish groups differs by age in obese adults. We believe that our results can be used as primary data for forming dietary guidelines for obese adults in the future.

5.
Journal of Nutrition and Health ; : 642-655, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967619

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We examined the effects of the 8-week moderate-intensity Pilates exercise program on body composition, balance ability, metabolic parameters, arterial condition, and eating habits among overweight and obese women. @*Methods@#From the general sample of overweight or obese Korean women (body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m2 ), those who had not been diagnosed with any chronic degenerative diseases were enrolled in the study (n = 39). After 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program, the participants were subdivided into adherence and non-adherence groups. Among the study participants, 24 women were matched for age and menopausal status to reduce the bias, and then finally included for the comparison (Pilates-adherence, n = 12; Pilates-non-adherence, n = 12). @*Results@#The body balance measured by the Y-balance test, body mass index, and subcutaneous fat areas were significantly improved in both groups. However, the Pilatesadherence group showed more positive changes in body balance and had significant improvement in body composition parameters such as waist size, visceral fat area, systolic blood pressure, arterial aging index, fasting blood glucose, and glycated hemoglobin than the Pilates-non-adherence group. In addition, the nutrition quotient for Korean adults (balance,moderation, and behavior except diversity) were significantly improved in both groups after dietary education. However, the participants did not show dramatic improvement in the metabolic parameters, because all the study subjects were in relatively good health and did not have any diagnosed diseases. @*Conclusion@#This study demonstrated that higher adherence to the Pilates exercise program together with a modification of eating habits may effectively improve body balance, body composition, and obesity-related parameters among overweight and obese women.

6.
Journal of Nutrition and Health ; : 601-616, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-967617

ABSTRACT

In the era of the fourth industrial revolution technology, the inclusion of personalized nutrition for healthcare (PNH), when establishing a healthcare platform to prevent chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease, pulmonary disease, and inflammatory diseases, enhances the national competitiveness of global healthcare markets. Furthermore, since the government experienced COVID-19 and the population dead cross in 2020, as well as numerous health problems due to an increasing super-aged Korean society, there is an urgent need to secure, develop, and utilize PNHrelated technologies. Three conditions are essential for the development of PNH technologies. These include the establishment of causality between obesity genome (genotype) and prevalence (phenotype) in Koreans, validation of clinical intervention research, and securing PNH-utilization technology (i.e., algorithm development, artificial intelligence-based platform, directto-customer [DTC]-based PNH, etc.). Therefore, a national control tower is required to establish appropriate PNH infrastructure (basic and clinical research, cultivation of PNHrelated experts, etc.). The post-corona era will be aggressive in sharing data knowledge and developing related technologies, and Korea needs to actively participate in the large-scale global healthcare markets. This review provides the importance of scientific evidence based on a huge dataset, which is the primary prerequisite for the DTC obesity gene-based PNH technologies to be competitive in the healthcare market. Furthermore, based on comparing domestic and internationally approved DTC obese genes and the current status of Korean obesity genome-based PNH research, we intend to provide a direction to PNH planners (individuals and industries) for establishing scientific PNH guidelines for the prevention of obesity.

7.
Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis ; : 240-250, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-900254

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Dietary factors are important contributors to obesity and related metabolic disorders. Few studies have evaluated the impact of dietary habits (e.g., breakfast consumption frequency and meal regularity) on metabolic health. We investigated the effects of breakfast consumption frequency and meal time regularity on nutrient intake and cardiometabolic status in Korean adults. @*Methods@#Participants without diagnosed diseases (n=217) were examined for anthropometric and biochemical parameters, lifestyle, dietary habits, and nutrient intake.They were categorized into 4 groups by breakfast consumption frequency (≥6 or <6 times/ week) and meal time regularity (regular or irregular): breakfast ≥6 times/week and regular eating (HBRE), breakfast ≥6 times/week and irregular eating (HBIE), breakfast <6 times/week and regular eating (LBRE) and breakfast <6 times/week and irregular eating (LBIE). @*Results@#Participants in the LBIE group were the youngest, had higher waist circumference, body mass index, triglyceride levels, and inflammation, and consumed the highest daily total caloric intake (TCI), the highest proportion of fats, and the lowest proportion of carbohydrates. The LBIE group also had the lowest proportion of energy intake at breakfast and the highest proportion at dinner. The LBIE group consumed the lowest amounts of fiber, beta-carotene, vitamin K, folate, calcium and iron, and had the highest prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake for TCI, protein, vitamins A, C, B6, and B12, folate, calcium, iron, zinc, and copper. @*Conclusion@#Regular breakfast consumption and meal times are related to healthy lifestyle habits and adequate nutrient intake, which affect metabolic health, thereby helping prevent obesity and related metabolic disorders.

8.
Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis ; : 240-250, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-892550

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Dietary factors are important contributors to obesity and related metabolic disorders. Few studies have evaluated the impact of dietary habits (e.g., breakfast consumption frequency and meal regularity) on metabolic health. We investigated the effects of breakfast consumption frequency and meal time regularity on nutrient intake and cardiometabolic status in Korean adults. @*Methods@#Participants without diagnosed diseases (n=217) were examined for anthropometric and biochemical parameters, lifestyle, dietary habits, and nutrient intake.They were categorized into 4 groups by breakfast consumption frequency (≥6 or <6 times/ week) and meal time regularity (regular or irregular): breakfast ≥6 times/week and regular eating (HBRE), breakfast ≥6 times/week and irregular eating (HBIE), breakfast <6 times/week and regular eating (LBRE) and breakfast <6 times/week and irregular eating (LBIE). @*Results@#Participants in the LBIE group were the youngest, had higher waist circumference, body mass index, triglyceride levels, and inflammation, and consumed the highest daily total caloric intake (TCI), the highest proportion of fats, and the lowest proportion of carbohydrates. The LBIE group also had the lowest proportion of energy intake at breakfast and the highest proportion at dinner. The LBIE group consumed the lowest amounts of fiber, beta-carotene, vitamin K, folate, calcium and iron, and had the highest prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake for TCI, protein, vitamins A, C, B6, and B12, folate, calcium, iron, zinc, and copper. @*Conclusion@#Regular breakfast consumption and meal times are related to healthy lifestyle habits and adequate nutrient intake, which affect metabolic health, thereby helping prevent obesity and related metabolic disorders.

9.
Journal of Nutrition and Health ; : 573-583, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-915774

ABSTRACT

Energy requirement is defined as energy expenditure in an energy equilibrium state.The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is considered the gold standard for measuring total energy expenditure (TEE). In 2002, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies established dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for Americans and Canadians, and the equations for estimated energy requirement (EER) were developed by using pooled data from studies that had applied the DLW method. Since 2005, these equations have been used for establishing EER in the DRI for Koreans. These equations based on age group include the physical activity (PA) coefficient determined by the PA level (PAL; sedentary, low active, active and very active) as well as body weight and height. The PAL values of Koreans calculated using the DLW method and PA diaries were determined to fall in the low active category (1.40~1.59). Therefore, the PA coefficient corresponding to ‘low active’ was applied to the EER equations. In recent years, with increasing number of people regularly engaging in various physical activities in Korea, EER is now separately presented for people with ‘active’ and ‘very active’ PALs. In the future, like the United States and Japan, Korea needs to expand the DLW research for developing EER predictive equations for Koreans. In addition, standardized guidelines should be prepared to accurately evaluate the PAL using the physical activity diary and the new PA classification table for Koreans.

10.
Journal of the Korean Dietetic Association ; : 1-14, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874981

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between meal regularity (i.e. breakfast intake and meal-times), and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among generally healthy Korean single-person household adults (≤60 years, n=594) based on the Seventh Korean National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey (KNHANES) (2016∼2018).Among men (n=325), the breakfast intake frequency was not significantly associated with the pervalence of MetS. However, men consuming a regular meal at least once a day showed a lower prevalence of MetS compared to those whose meals were irregular. These patterns remained after adjusting for age, smoking and drinking habits, individual income, education level, exercise, and total calorie intake. An association between meal regularity and MetS risk was observed in post-menopausal women (n=84), but not in pre-menopausal women (n=185). More specifically post-menopausal women with irregular breakfast eating habits or eating no breakfast at all showed a significantly higher risk of MetS than those eating breakfast regularly after the adjustment. The analysis revealed an odds ratio (OR) of 8.46, confidence intervals (CIs): 1.149∼62.199, P<0.05 in irregular breakfast eaters, and an OR of 13.377, CIs: 1.665∼ 107.511, P<0.05, in those who ate no breakfast. Furthermore, post-menopausal women who had irregular meals daily showed a higher risk of MetS than those consuming one or more regular meals/day after the adjustment (OR:16.888, CIs: 1.258∼226.655, P<0.05). In conclusion, the results from this study may be used for formulating optimal dietary guidelines for the prevention and the management of MetS in adults in single-person households.

11.
Journal of Nutrition and Health ; : 76-94, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874880

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study was implemented to develop and validate a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SQ-FFQ) to assess the dietary intake of married migrant women in multicultural families. @*Methods@#The SQ-FFQ consisting of 41 food items was selected based on the information of frequently consumed foods from the preliminary studies on dietary intake survey for married migrant women or a Korean Health and Nutrition Examination survey. Thirty-five subjects who visited the Multicultural Family Support Center in Seoul and Daejeon area completed their three-day diet records and SQ-FFQ 2 times. The reproducibility and relative validity of SQ-FFQ were assessed by comparing the 1st and 2nd SQ-FFQ and by comparison with the three-day diet records, respectively. @*Results@#The reliability of SQ-FFQ, which was examined 1–2 weeks apart, showed no significant difference in the energy and macronutrient intake (carbohydrate, fat, protein), while the average intakes of vitamin A, riboflavin, calcium, and potassium were slightly higher in the 2nd than 1st SQ-FFQ. All correlation coefficients for the reliability for nutrients were statistically significant, ranging from 0.453 to 0.885. The mean intakes of energy, carbohydrate, vitamin C, thiamin, folate, vitamin B 12 , calcium, and sodium obtained from the SQ-FFQ were greater than those of the 3-day dietary records. The Spearman's correlation coefficient between the 2 methods was the highest for plant fat (r = 0.602; p < 0.001) and relatively higher for energy, carbohydrate, fat, and thiamin ranging from 0.512 to 0.599; and protein, riboflavin, niacin, folate ranging from 0.335 to 0.499, while no significant correlation was observed for vitamin A, C, calcium, iron, and sodium. @*Conclusion@#The developed SQ-FFQ for married migrant women in multicultural families in this study appears to be useful for estimating the nutritional status, particularly energy, carbohydrates, fat, and vitamin B group.

12.
Clinical Nutrition Research ; : 107-121, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914040

ABSTRACT

We investigated the association between fast-food (FF) consumptions and the risk of overweight/obesity and dyslipidemia in Korean adults (20–39 years) based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2013–2014). We also examined the effect of breakfast intake on the risk of overweight/obesity and dyslipidemia according to their frequencies of FF consumption. FF consumption was categorized into 3 groups: < 1 time/month (n = 79); 1–3 times/month (n = 1,173); and ≥ 1 time/week (n = 474). People consuming FF ≥ 1 time/week had unhealthy lifestyles, higher intake of total calorie, fat, and protein, and higher levels of blood pressure, total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol than those consuming FF < 1 time/month. Logistic regression analysis showed higher risk of overweight/obesity in people consuming FF 1–3 times/month (odds ratio [OR], 2.525; confidence intervals [CIs], 1.169–5.452; p = 0.018) and ≥ 1 time/week (OR, 2.646; CIs, 1.128–6.208; p = 0.025) than those consuming FF < 1 time/month after the adjustment. The risk of dyslipidemia was also higher in people consuming FF ≥ 1 time/week than those consuming FF < 1 time/month after the adjustment (OR, 2.444; CIs, 1.047–5.704; p = 0.039). Furthermore, among people consuming FF ≥ 1 time/week, irregular breakfast consumers (≤ 2 times/week, n = 215) had significantly higher levels of triglyceride, TC, and LDL-C than regular breakfast consumers (5–6 times/week, n=180). Irregular breakfast consumers also showed a higher risk of dyslipidemia than regular breakfast consumers after the adjustment (OR, 2.913; CIs, 1.463–5.801; p = 0.002). In conclusion, frequent FF consumption increases the risk of obesity and dyslipidemia in Korean adults aged 20–39 years. Particularly amongthe frequent FF consumers, irregular breakfast intake may contribute to the increased risk of dyslipidemia. It may provide an evidence for proper dietary education to reduce the risk of overweight/obesity and dyslipidemia in Koreans adults aged 20–39 years.

13.
Clinical Nutrition Research ; : 171-183, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763494

ABSTRACT

We investigated weight loss effect of personalized diet education in overweight/obese Korean adults. Overweight/obese Korean adults (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 23 kg/m2 or waist circumference [WC] ≥ 90 cm for men, ≥ 85 cm for women) were recruited, and 40 participants who completed the 10-week intervention were finally included in the analyses. At first visit, study participants (small group with individual counseling) were educated for optimal diet by clinical dietitian, and checked for their compliance through telephone/text message every 1–2 week during the intervention. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters and dietary intake were investigated. Body weight, BMI, WC, and body fat mass were significantly reduced in whole participants. Hemoglobin A1c, insulin, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were also significantly decreased after the intervention. Total energy intake (EI) during the intervention was not significantly decreased compared to the baseline value, but the proportions of energy derived from macronutrients were within the ranges recommended by 2015 Dietary Reference Intake for Koreans. Based on actual EI, participants were classified into high-adherence (HA) (prescribed EI ± 25%, n = 29), low-adherence I (LA-I) ( 125% of prescribed EI, n = 4). Only HA group showed significant improvements in anthropometric parameters, glycemic control and lipid profile. Interestingly, LA-I group showed significant increases in glucose, insulin, C-peptide and insulin resistance. In conclusion, a shift from overweight/obesity to healthy weight can be accomplished by high adherence to personalized diet modification, not by EI reduction.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Adipose Tissue , Body Weight , C-Peptide , Cholesterol , Compliance , Diet , Education , Energy Intake , Feeding Behavior , Glucose , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Lipoproteins , Nutritionists , Obesity , Overweight , Recommended Dietary Allowances , Waist Circumference , Weight Loss
14.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 302-309, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760618

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vascular inflammation is an important feature in the atherosclerotic process. Recent studies report that leaves and branches of Carpinus turczaninowii (C. turczaninowii) have antioxidant capacity and exert anti-inflammatory effects. However, no study has reported the regulatory effect of C. turczaninowii extract on the arterial inflammatory response. This study therefore investigated modulation of the arterial inflammatory response after exposure to C. turczaninowii extract, using human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HAoSMCs). MATERIALS/METHODS: Scavenging activity of free radicals, total phenolic content (TPC), cell viability, mRNA expressions, and secreted levels of cytokines were measured in LPS-stimulated (10 ng/mL) HAoSMCs treated with the C. turczaninowii extract. RESULTS: C. turczaninowii extract contains high amounts of TPC (225.6 ± 21.0 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of the extract), as well as exerts time-and dose-dependent increases in strongly scavenged free radicals (average 14.8 ± 1.97 µg/mL IC50 at 40 min). Cell viabilities after exposure to the extracts (1 and 10 µg/mL) were similar to the viability of non-treated cells. Cytokine mRNA expressions were significantly suppressed by the extracts (1 and 10 µg/mL) at 6 hours (h) after exposure. Interleukin-6 secretion was dose-dependently suppressed 2 h after incubation with the extract, at 1–10 µg/mL in non-stimulated cells, and at 5 and 10 µg/mL in LPS-stimulated cells. Similar patterns were also observed at 24 h after incubation with the extract (at 1–10 µg/mL in non-stimulated cells, and at 10 µg/mL in the LPS-stimulated cells). Soluble intracellular vascular adhesion molecules (sICAM-1) secreted from non-stimulated cells and LPS-stimulated cells were similarly suppressed in a dose-dependent manner after 24 h exposure to the extracts, but not after 2 h. In addition, sICAM-1 concentration after 24 h treatment was positively related to IL-6 levels after 2 h and 24 h exposure (r = 0.418, P = 0.003, and r = 0.524, P < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that C. turczaninowii modulates the arterial inflammatory response, and indicates the potential to be applied as a therapeutic use for atherosclerosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antioxidants , Arteries , Atherosclerosis , Betulaceae , Cell Survival , Cytokines , Free Radicals , Gallic Acid , Inflammation , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Interleukin-6 , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Phenol , RNA, Messenger
15.
Clinical Nutrition Research ; : 1-10, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739623

ABSTRACT

Lipocalin-2 (LCN2), a secreted glycoprotein belonging to the lipocalin superfamily was reported to participate in various biological processes including cell migration, cell survival, inflammatory responses, and insulin sensitivity. LCN2 is expressed in the multiple tissues such as kidney, liver, uterus, and bone marrow. The receptors for LCN2 were additionally found in microglia, astrocytes, epithelial cells, and neurons, but the role of LCN2 in the central nervous system (CNS) has not been fully understood yet. Recently, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies reported the association between LCN2 and the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we reviewed the significant evidences showing that LCN2 contributes to the onset and progression of AD. It may suggest that the manipulation of LCN2 in the CNS would be a crucial target for regulation of the pathogenesis and risk of AD.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Astrocytes , Biological Phenomena , Bone Marrow , Brain , Cell Movement , Cell Survival , Central Nervous System , Diagnosis , Epithelial Cells , Glycoproteins , In Vitro Techniques , Inflammation , Insulin Resistance , Kidney , Lipocalins , Liver , Microglia , Neurons , Prognosis , Uterus
16.
Clinical Nutrition Research ; : 102-111, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714190

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to examine the relationship between nutrition intake and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) indicating kidney function in Korean individuals without diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Study participants from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013–2014 (n = 4,378, 30–65 years) were classified by their eGFR levels (mL/min/1.732 m²): ≥ 120 (n = 299), 119–105 (n = 789), 104–90 (n = 1,578), 89–60 (n = 1,685), < 60 (n = 27). After adjusted for confounding factors (age, sex, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, total caloric intake [TCI], income status, education level, body mass index, and physical activity), blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin were higher, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were lower in participants with lower eGFR levels than those with higher eGFR levels. n-3 fatty acid (FA) and n-6 FA (% of TCI/day) intake were also significantly higher in participants with higher eGFR levels than in those with lower eGFR levels. Based on the above results, participants were subdivided into 3 groups according to n-6 FA intake levels (Q1: ≥ 2.93%, n = 1,462; Q2: 2.92%–1.88%, n = 1,463; Q3: < 1.88%, n = 1,453). People consuming higher n-6 FAs, particularly the Q1 group showed higher eGFR levels and lower levels of LDL cholesterol and creatinine. In conclusion, higher intake of n-6 FAs within the range of dietary reference may be beneficial to maintain healthy kidney function.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Alanine Transaminase , Alcohol Drinking , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blood Pressure , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Body Mass Index , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, HDL , Cholesterol, LDL , Creatinine , Education , Energy Intake , Fasting , Glomerular Filtration Rate , Glucose , Glycated Hemoglobin , Kidney , Korea , Lipoproteins , Nutrition Surveys , Smoking
17.
Nutrition Research and Practice ; : 61-68, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to test the association between APOA5 3'-UTR variants (rs662799) and cardiometabolic traits in Koreans. SUBJECTS/METHODS: For this study, epidemiological data, Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) genotype information, and lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) biospecimens from a subset of the Ansung-Ansan cohort within the Korean Genome and Epidemiology study (KoGES-ASAS; n = 7,704) as well as epidemiological data along with genomic DNA biospecimens of participants from a subset of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2011-12; n = 2,235) were obtained. APOA5 mRNA expression was also measured. RESULTS: APOA5 rs662799 genotype distributions in both the KoGES-ASAS and KNHANES groups were 50.6% for TT, 41.3% for TC, and 8.1% for CC, which are similar to those in previous reports. In both groups, minor C allele carriers, particularly subjects with CC homozygosity, had lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and higher triglyceride levels than TT homozygotes. Linear regression analysis showed that the minor C allele significantly contributed to reduction of circulating HDL cholesterol levels [β = −2.048, P < 0.001; β = −2.199, P < 0.001] as well as elevation of circulating triglyceride levels [β = 0.053, P < 0.001; β = 0.066, P < 0.001] in both the KoGES-ASAS and KNHANES groups. In addition, higher expression levels of APOA5 in LCLs of 64 healthy individuals were negatively associated with body mass index (r = −0.277, P = 0.027) and circulating triglyceride level (r = −0.340, P = 0.006) but not significantly correlated with circulating HDL cholesterol level. On the other hand, we observed no significant difference in the mRNA level of APOA5 according to APOA5 rs662799 polymorphisms. CONCLUSIONS: The C allele of APOA5 rs662799 was found to be significantly associated with cardiometabolic traits in a large Korean population from the KoGES-ASAS and KNHANES. The effect of this genotype may be associated with post-transcriptional regulation, which deserves further experimental confirmation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alleles , Apolipoproteins , Asian People , Body Mass Index , Cell Line , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, HDL , Cohort Studies , DNA , Epidemiologic Studies , Epidemiology , Genome , Genotype , Hand , Homozygote , Korea , Linear Models , Lipoproteins , Nutrition Surveys , RNA, Messenger , Triglycerides
18.
Journal of Lipid and Atherosclerosis ; : 66-74, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-209183

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) and the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein in the brain, leading to the increase in inflammation and neuronal loss. Recently, evidences to support the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and AD have markedly increased by clinical researches and experimental studies. Reduced insulin action and impaired glucose metabolism in the brain leads to diabetes induced AD. Androgen, a male sex hormone, was known to regulate inflammatory response, Aβ deposition in AD, insulin signaling, and synaptic plasticity in brain. Clinical studies demonstrated that androgen deficiency results in the increased risk of AD and its severe progression in male subjects. We reviewed the significant evidences to support that low testosterone levels are linked to diabetes-induced AD based on previous studies. Thus, we highlight the therapeutic potential of androgen in diabetes induced AD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid , Brain , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Glucose , Inflammation , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Metabolism , Neuronal Plasticity , Neurons , tau Proteins , Testosterone
19.
Clinical Nutrition Research ; : 172-182, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166003

ABSTRACT

We investigated the association between dietary habits/food group consumption patterns and early risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS), a main cause for metabolic disease. Study participants were recruited from the health promotion center in Dong-A University Hospital and public advertisement. Study subjects (n = 243, 21–80 years) were categorized into three groups: Super-healthy (MetS risk factor [MetS RF] = 0, n = 111), MetS-risk carriers (MetS RF = 1–2, n = 96), and MetS (MetS RF ≥ 3, n = 27). Higher regularity in dietary habits (breakfast-everyday, regular eating time, non-frequent overeating, and non-frequent eating-out) was observed in the Super-healthy group than in the MetS-risk carriers, and particularly in the MetS subjects. The relationship between food group consumption patterns and MetS-risk related parameters were investigated with adjustment for confounding factors. Fruit consumption was positively associated with HDL-cholesterol, and tended to be negatively associated with waist circumference, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, and insulin resistance (IR). The consumption of low-fat meats and fish, and vegetables was negatively associated with hs-CRP. Specifically, the consumption of sea-foods belonging to the low-fat fish was negatively associated with fasting glucose, hs-CRP, and interleukin (IL)-6. Anchovy/dried white baits consumption was negatively associated with fasting insulin and IR. Green-yellow vegetables consumption was negatively associated with fasting insulin, IR, and hs-CRP. On the other hand, sugars and fast-foods were positively associated with LDL-cholesterol. Additionally, fast-foods consumption was positively associated with hs-CRP and IL-6 levels. In conclusion, dietary habits/food group consumption patterns are closely associated with MetS-risk related parameters in Koreans. It may suggest useful information to educate people to properly select healthy foods for early prevention of MetS.


Subject(s)
Carbohydrates , Eating , Fasting , Feeding Behavior , Fruit , Glucose , Hand , Health Promotion , Hyperphagia , Inflammation , Insulin , Insulin Resistance , Interleukin-6 , Interleukins , Meat , Metabolic Diseases , Risk Factors , Seafood , Triglycerides , Vegetables , Waist Circumference
20.
Clinical Nutrition Research ; : 89-98, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-197949

ABSTRACT

This present study aimed to investigate the association effect of obesity status, physical symptom, insecure attachment, and depression on psychological well-being in non-diabetic healthy Koreans. Height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and socio-psychological questionnaires (insecure attachment, depression, and physical symptom psychological well-being, etc.) were examined in 123 healthy Koreans. Student t-test, correlation analysis, and mediation analysis were performed. Study subjects were divided into 2 groups based on body mass index (BMI, kg/m²): obesity (BMI ≥ 25, n = 36) and non-obesity (BMI < 25, n = 87). Obese people were older and showed higher proportion of males than non-obese ones. Regarding the values of socio-psychological test, obesity group showed lower insecure attachment, and higher physical symptom than non-obesity group. In correlation and mediation analyses, depression was positively related to insecure attachment and physical symptom in both BMI groups. Positive relationship between physical symptom and insecure attachment was observed only in non-obesity group, but not in obesity group. The effect of insecure attachment on psychological well-being was completely mediated by depression in both BMI groups. On the other hand, the effect of physical symptom on psychological well-being was completely mediated by depression in obesity group, but not in non-obesity group. In conclusion, this study presented that the effects of physical symptom and insecure attachment on psychological well-being were completely mediated by depression in obese healthy Koreans, but not in non-obese ones. It will provide useful data for extending the knowledge on the relationship between the physical health and mental health.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Blood Pressure , Body Mass Index , Depression , Hand , Mental Health , Negotiating , Obesity , Waist Circumference
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