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1.
Endocrinology and Metabolism ; : 1131-1141, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914257

ABSTRACT

Background@#Conventional diagnostic approaches for adrenal tumors require multi-step processes, including imaging studies and dynamic hormone tests. Therefore, this study aimed to discriminate adrenal tumors from a single blood sample based on the combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and machine learning algorithms in serum profiling of adrenal steroids. @*Methods@#The LC-MS-based steroid profiling was applied to serum samples obtained from patients with nonfunctioning adenoma (NFA, n=73), Cushing’s syndrome (CS, n=30), and primary aldosteronism (PA, n=40) in a prospective multicenter study of adrenal disease. The decision tree (DT), random forest (RF), and extreme gradient boost (XGBoost) were performed to categorize the subtypes of adrenal tumors. @*Results@#The CS group showed higher serum levels of 11-deoxycortisol than the NFA group, and increased levels of tetrahydrocortisone (THE), 20α-dihydrocortisol, and 6β-hydroxycortisol were found in the PA group. However, the CS group showed lower levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate derivative (DHEA-S) than both the NFA and PA groups. Patients with PA expressed higher serum 18-hydroxycortisol and DHEA but lower THE than NFA patients. The balanced accuracies of DT, RF, and XGBoost for classifying each type were 78%, 96%, and 97%, respectively. In receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis for CS, XGBoost, and RF showed a significantly greater diagnostic power than the DT. However, in ROC analysis for PA, only RF exhibited better diagnostic performance than DT. @*Conclusion@#The combination of LC-MS-based steroid profiling with machine learning algorithms could be a promising one-step diagnostic approach for the classification of adrenal tumor subtypes.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898174

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-898076

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThis study aimed to assess the effects of sarcopenia and A Body Shape Index (ABSI) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk according to obesity phenotypes.MethodsWe used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2012. A total of 25,270 adults were included and classified into the following groups: metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW), metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO), metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUNW), and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO). Sarcopenia was defined as the appendicular skeletal mass index ResultsThe MHNW participants with sarcopenia had higher risk for CVD than those without sarcopenia (OR, 2.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56 to 4.64). In the analysis with MHNW participants without sarcopenia as a reference, the participants with sarcopenia showed a higher OR for CVD than those without sarcopenia in both MHO (OR in participants without sarcopenia, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.94 to 5.64) (OR in participants with sarcopenia, 8.59; 95% CI, 2.63 to 28.04) and MUO participants (OR in participants without sarcopenia, 5.11; 95% CI, 3.21 to 8.15) (OR in participants with sarcopenia, 8.12; 95% CI, 4.04 to 16.32). Participants within the second and third tertiles of ABSI had higher ORs for CVDs than the counterpart of obesity phenotypes within the first tertile.ConclusionThese results suggest that clinical approaches that consider muscle and body shape are required.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890470

ABSTRACT

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare catecholamine-secreting neuroendocrine tumors but can be life-threatening. Although most PPGLs are benign, approximately 10% have metastatic potential. Approximately 40% cases are reported as harboring germline mutations. Therefore, timely and accurate diagnosis of PPGLs is crucial. For more than 130 years, clinical, molecular, biochemical, radiological, and pathological investigations have been rapidly advanced in the field of PPGLs. However, performing diagnostic studies to localize lesions and detect metastatic potential can be still challenging and complicated. Furthermore, great progress on genetics has shifted the paradigm of genetic testing of PPGLs. The Korean PPGL task force team consisting of the Korean Endocrine Society, the Korean Surgical Society, the Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine, the Korean Society of Pathologists, and the Korean Society of Laboratory Medicine has developed this position statement focusing on the comprehensive and updated diagnosis for PPGLs.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890372

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThis study aimed to assess the effects of sarcopenia and A Body Shape Index (ABSI) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk according to obesity phenotypes.MethodsWe used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2012. A total of 25,270 adults were included and classified into the following groups: metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW), metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO), metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUNW), and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO). Sarcopenia was defined as the appendicular skeletal mass index ResultsThe MHNW participants with sarcopenia had higher risk for CVD than those without sarcopenia (OR, 2.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56 to 4.64). In the analysis with MHNW participants without sarcopenia as a reference, the participants with sarcopenia showed a higher OR for CVD than those without sarcopenia in both MHO (OR in participants without sarcopenia, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.94 to 5.64) (OR in participants with sarcopenia, 8.59; 95% CI, 2.63 to 28.04) and MUO participants (OR in participants without sarcopenia, 5.11; 95% CI, 3.21 to 8.15) (OR in participants with sarcopenia, 8.12; 95% CI, 4.04 to 16.32). Participants within the second and third tertiles of ABSI had higher ORs for CVDs than the counterpart of obesity phenotypes within the first tertile.ConclusionThese results suggest that clinical approaches that consider muscle and body shape are required.

6.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 225-237, 2021.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918905

ABSTRACT

The accuracy and convenience of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), which efficiently evaluates glycemic variability and hypoglycemia, are improving. There are two types of CGM: professional CGM and personal CGM. Personal CGM is subdivided into real-time CGM (rt-CGM) and intermittently scanned CGM (isCGM). CGM is being emphasized in both domestic and foreign diabetes management guidelines. Regardless of age or type of diabetes, CGM is useful for diabetic patients undergoing multiple insulin injection therapy or using an insulin pump. rt-CGM is recommended for all adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D), and can also be used in type 2 diabetes (T2D) treatments using multiple insulin injections. In some cases, short-term or intermittent use of CGM may be helpful for patients with T2D who use insulin therapy other than multiple insulin injections and/or oral hypoglycemic agents. CGM can help to achieve A1C targets in diabetes patients during pregnancy. CGM is a safe and cost-effective alternative to self-monitoring blood glucose in T1D and some T2D patients. CGM used in diabetes management works optimally with proper education, training, and follow up. To achieve the activation of CGM and its associated benefits, it is necessary to secure sufficient repetitive training and time for data analysis, management, and education. Various supports such as compensation, insurance coverage expansion, and reimbursement are required to increase the effectiveness of CGM while considering the scale of benefit recipients, policy priorities, and financial requirements.

7.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832347

ABSTRACT

Background@#This study aimed to assess the effects of sarcopenia and A Body Shape Index (ABSI) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk according to obesity phenotypes. @*Methods@#We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2012. A total of 25,270 adults were included and classified into the following groups: metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW), metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO), metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUNW), and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese (MUO). Sarcopenia was defined as the appendicular skeletal mass index <7 kg/m2 in men and <5.5 kg/m2 in women. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the odds ratio (OR) of sarcopenia and ABSI for CVD events according to the obesity phenotype. @*Results@#The MHNW participants with sarcopenia had higher risk for CVD than those without sarcopenia (OR, 2.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56 to 4.64). In the analysis with MHNW participants without sarcopenia as a reference, the participants with sarcopenia showed a higher OR for CVD than those without sarcopenia in both MHO (OR in participants without sarcopenia, 3.31; 95% CI, 1.94 to 5.64) (OR in participants with sarcopenia, 8.59; 95% CI, 2.63 to 28.04) and MUO participants (OR in participants without sarcopenia, 5.11; 95% CI, 3.21 to 8.15) (OR in participants with sarcopenia, 8.12; 95% CI, 4.04 to 16.32). Participants within the second and third tertiles of ABSI had higher ORs for CVDs than the counterpart of obesity phenotypes within the first tertile. @*Conclusion@#These results suggest that clinical approaches that consider muscle and body shape are required.

8.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831776

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#The aim of this study is to compare Friedewald-estimated and directly measured low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) values and assess the concordance in guideline risk classification between the two methods. @*Methods@#The data were derived from the 2009 to 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We included subjects with triglyceride (TG) levels < 400 mg/dL. Analysis was done for 6,454 subjects who had all lipid panels— total cholesterol, directly measured LDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and TG. @*Results@#The subjects ranged in age from 10 to 87 years old. The mean age was 41.5 ± 17.3 years. For subjects with TG < 400 mg/dL, overall concordance in guideline risk classification was 79.1%. The Friedewald formula tended to underestimate LDL-C more at higher TG or lower HDL-C levels. Especially, the percent of subjects who were misclassified into a lower risk category was 31% when TG were 200 to 299 mg/dL; and 45.6% when TG were 300 to 399 mg/dL. A greater underestimation of LDL-C occurred at higher TG and lower Friedewald-estimated LDL-C levels. Of subjects with a Friedewald-estimated LDL-C < 70 mg/dL, 55.4% had a directly measured LDL-C ≥ 70 mg/dL when TG were 200 to 399 mg/dL. @*Conclusions@#The Friedewald equation tends to underestimate LDL-C in highrisk subjects such as hypertriglyceridemia and hypo-HDL-cholesterolemia. For these individuals accurate assessment of LDL-C is crucial, and therefore additional evaluation is warranted.

10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194645

ABSTRACT

An adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal mass found in an imaging examination performed for reasons unrelated to suspected adrenal disease. The prevalence of adrenal incidentaloma increases with age; there is no gender difference, but it is often accompanied by obesity, diabetes mellitus, or hypertension. The detection of adrenal incidentaloma is expected to rise with the rapid development of imaging technology and increasing frequency of imaging studies. The Korean Endocrine Society is promoting appropriate practice guidelines to meet the rising incidence of adrenal incidentaloma, in cooperation with the Korean Adrenal Gland and Endocrine Hypertension Study Group. In this paper, we discuss important core issues for treating adrenal incidentaloma, along with the most important factors for healthcare providers who treat and manage affected patients. Initially, we identified 47 recommendations using the Delphi technique, after evaluating core propositions. We reduced these to the 20 most critical recommendations.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Glands , Delphi Technique , Diabetes Mellitus , Health Personnel , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Obesity , Prevalence
11.
12.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 326-338, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174329

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes are well-established risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study investigated the prevalence and management status of these factors for dyslipidemia among Korean adults aged 30 years old and older. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prevalence and management status of dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes were analyzed among 12229 subjects (≥30 years) participating in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey 2010–2012. Dyslipidemia was defined according to treatment criteria rather than diagnostic criteria in Korea. Therefore, hyper-low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterolemia was defined if LDL cholesterol levels exceeded the appropriate risk-based threshold established by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. RESULTS: The age-standardized prevalence was highest for dyslipidemia (39.6%), followed by hypertension (32.8%) and diabetes (9.8%). The lowest patient awareness was found for dyslipidemia (27.9%). The treatment rate was 66.5% for diabetes and 57.3% for hypertension, but only 15.7% for dyslipidemia. The control rate among those undergoing treatment was highest for hypertension (64.2%), followed by dyslipidemia (59.2%) and diabetes (22.1%). The higher the risk levels of CVD were, the lower the control rate of dyslipidemia. CONCLUSION: While the prevalence of dyslipidemia was higher than hypertension and diabetes, awareness and treatment rates thereof were lower. Higher CVD-risk categories showed lower control rates of dyslipidemia. In order to improve awareness and control rates of dyslipidemia, diagnostic criteria should be reconciled with treatment targets based on cardiovascular risk in Korean populations.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases , Cholesterol , Cholesterol, LDL , Diabetes Mellitus , Dyslipidemias , Education , Humans , Hypertension , Korea , Lipoproteins , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence , Risk Factors
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-161476

ABSTRACT

An adrenal incidentaloma is an adrenal mass found in an imaging study performed for other reasons unrelated to adrenal disease and often accompanied by obesity, diabetes, or hypertension. The prevalence and incidence of adrenal incidentaloma increase with age and are also expected to rise due to the rapid development of imaging technology and frequent imaging studies. The Korean Endocrine Society is promoting an appropriate practice guideline to meet the rising incidence of adrenal incidentaloma, in cooperation with the Korean Adrenal Gland and Endocrine Hypertension Study Group. In this paper, we discuss important core issues in managing the patients with adrenal incidentaloma. After evaluating core proposition, we propose the most critical 20 recommendations from the initially organized 47 recommendations by Delphi technique.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Glands , Delphi Technique , Humans , Hypertension , Incidence , Obesity , Prevalence
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149593

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is a rare, potentially life-threatening condition. There are few Korean studies on PAI, and most have had small sample sizes. We aimed to examine the etiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, and mortality of PAI in Korean patients. METHODS: A nationwide, multicenter, registry-based survey was conducted to identify adults diagnosed with or treated for PAI at 30 secondary or tertiary care institutions in Korea between 2000 and 2014. RESULTS: A total of 269 patients with PAI were identified. The prevalence of PAI was 4.17 per million. The estimated incidence was 0.45 per million per year. The mean age at diagnosis was 49.0 years, and PAI was more prevalent in men. Adrenal tuberculosis was the most common cause of PAI in patients diagnosed before 2000; for those diagnosed thereafter, adrenal metastasis and tuberculosis were comparable leading causes. The etiology of PAI was not identified in 34.9% of cases. Of the patients receiving glucocorticoid replacement therapy, prednisolone was more frequently administered than hydrocortisone (69.4% vs. 26.5%, respectively), and only 27.1% of all patients received fludrocortisone. We observed an increased prevalence of metabolic disease and osteoporosis during the follow-up period (median, 60.2 months). The observed overall mortality and disease-specific mortality rates were 11.9% and 3.1%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of PAI is significantly lower in Koreans than in reports from Western countries. The high frequency undetermined etiology in patients with PAI suggests the need to reveal accurate etiology of PAI in Korea.


Subject(s)
Addison Disease , Adult , Autoimmune Diseases , Diagnosis , Fludrocortisone , Follow-Up Studies , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Hydrocortisone , Incidence , Korea , Male , Metabolic Diseases , Mortality , Neoplasm Metastasis , Osteoporosis , Prednisolone , Prevalence , Sample Size , Tertiary Healthcare , Tuberculosis
15.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 202-211, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-726771

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypoglycemia is an important obstacle in the treatment of diabetes. When diabetic patients experience hypoglycemia, thorough glycemic control is more difficult. We evaluated the factors associated with risk of hypoglycemia and identified whether the demographic and clinical characteristics or the medication pattern changed during the study period. METHODS: This study was conducted retrospectively with 7 years of data from one university hospital emergency department. We evaluated the medical records of 396 diabetic patients who visited the emergency room with hypoglycemia between January 2008 and December 2014. Hypoglycemia was defined as a serum glucose level less than 70 mg/dL or an event requiring the assistance of another person to actively corrective action. RESULTS: The mean age, duration of diabetes, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) of the study subjects were 71 ± 12.2 years, 12.7 ± 8.8 years, and 6.7 ± 1.39%, respectively. Among the subjects, 55% had a HbA1c level lower than 6.5%. Two-thirds of the study subjects received sulfonylurea, and one-third were treated with insulin. We observed a decreasing trend in the number of hypoglycemia cases during the study period. This trend might be partly explained by the decrease in sulfonylurea use and increase in dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor prescription during the study period. CONCLUSION: The clinical characteristics of subjects with hypoglycemia were old age, long duration of diabetes, relatively low HbA1c, and comorbidities. We found that hypoglycemia events in diabetic patients decreased in number in conjunction with the changing pattern of use of hypoglycemic agents.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 , Emergencies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Hypoglycemia , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Medical Records , Prescriptions , Retrospective Studies
16.
Journal of Korean Diabetes ; : 257-260, 2016.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-726763

ABSTRACT

Communication with patients is a very important process in medical care to establish close relation (rapport) for diabetes management. Medical personnel have to communicate differently according to the characteristics, socioeconomic status, and family support available for each patient. We can use two different communication tools (verbal and non-verbal) to build rapport with patients. It is necessary to choose suitable language based on patient education level and background. We can reinforce patient' motivation regarding diabetes management by using positive messages (i.e., the benefits of diabetes management) or negative messages (i.e., the harmfulness of uncontrolled diabetes). We have to consider every patient as a human being, not just their disease. Understanding, careful listening, and empathy for diabetic patients will make rapport and lead to better diabetes management.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Disease Management , Empathy , Humans , Motivation , Patient Education as Topic , Social Class
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-104682

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Type 2 diabetes, a leading cause of cardiovascular disease, is well known for its association with accelerated atherosclerosis. Adiponectin and tumor necrosis factor - alpha (TNF-alpha), which are produced and secreted in adipose tissue, have been suggested as predictors for cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the influence of adiponectin and TNF-alpha ratio on the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of serum adiponectin/TNF-alpha levels on the progression of carotid atherosclerosis. METHODS: One hundred eleven newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients were enrolled. Anthropometric and biochemical data including serum adiponectin, TNF-alpha were measured for each participant. Also we measured carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) at baseline and at 1 year follow-up (n=81). We finally examined the relationship among serum adiponectin over TNF-alpha levels (ADPN/TNF-alpha), baseline CIMT, and progression of CIMT at 1 year. RESULTS: ADPN/TNF-alpha negatively correlated with baseline CIMT (r=-0.231, p=0.025). Moreover, progression of CIMT was significant at 1 year (0.011+/-0.138 mm). There was a negative correlation between ADPN/TNF-alpha and progression of CIMT at 1 year (r=-0.172, p=0.038). In multiple regression analysis, age and HbA1c were found to be independent risk factors for baseline CIMT. However, only HbA1c was an independent risk factor for the progression of CIMT. CONCLUSION: ADPN/TNF-alpha was negatively associated with baseline CIMT and the progression of CIMT at 1 year. Overall glycemic control is the most important factor in the progression of CIMT in patients with type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Adiponectin , Adipose Tissue , Atherosclerosis , Cardiovascular Diseases , Carotid Artery Diseases , Carotid Intima-Media Thickness , Diabetes Mellitus , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Risk Factors , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180436

ABSTRACT

We investigated the frequency of sleep disturbances and the association between sleep disturbances and glucoregulation in type 2 diabetic patients. The frequency of sleep disturbances in 614 type 2 diabetic patients was investigated using validated sleep questionnaires. There were 381 male and 233 female patients. The mean age was 59.7 +/- 11.1 yr; the mean body mass index was 24.9 +/- 4.4 kg/m2; the mean HbA1c was 7.8% +/- 1.5%; and the mean duration of diabetes was 10.3 +/- 8.4 yr. The questionnaires revealed insomnia in 48.2% of the patients while 8.5% reported excessive daytime sleepiness. A total of 49% of the patients was poor sleepers, while 28.5% had depression. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that there was no significant association between HbA1c and other sleep disturbances, such as poor sleep, insomnia, and short duration of sleep. Sleep disturbances were very common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas there was no association between poor or short sleep and glucoregulation. Awareness and identifying sleep complaints in such patients are necessary to improve their quality of daily life.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Body Mass Index , Depression/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sleep Wake Disorders/complications , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-108339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent epidemiological studies revealed a striking inverse relationship between vitamin D levels, glucose intolerance/insulin resistance (IR), and cardiovascular disease. However, few interventional studies have evaluated the effect of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular risk, such as IR and arterial stiffness, in diabetes. We investigated the role of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes patients, including metabolic parameters, IR, and arterial stiffness. METHODS: We enrolled patients who were taking antidiabetic medications or managed their diabetes using lifestyle changes. We excluded patients who were taking vitamin D or calcium supplements. We randomized participants into the vitamin D group (cholecalciferol 2,000 IU/day + calcium 200 mg/day, n = 40) or the placebo group (calcium 200 mg/day, n = 41). We compared their IR (homeostasis model of assessment [HOMA]-IR) and arterial stiffness (brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and radial augmentation index) before and after 24 weeks of intervention. RESULTS: The baseline characteristics of the two groups were similar. A total of 62 participants (placebo, 30; vitamin D, 32) completed the study protocol. At the end of the study period, the 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels were significantly higher in the vitamin D group than in the placebo group (35.4 +/- 8.5 ng/mL vs. 18.4 +/- 7.3 ng/mL, p < 0.001). There was no difference in HOMA-IR or changes in arterial stiffness (placebo, 21, vitamin D, 24) between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that high-dose vitamin D supplementation might be effective in terms of elevating 25(OH)D levels. However, we identified no beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes, including IR and arterial stiffness.


Subject(s)
Calcium, Dietary/administration & dosage , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Insulin Resistance , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Vascular Stiffness/drug effects , Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727597

ABSTRACT

The possible roles of spinal histamine receptors in the regulation of the blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. Mice were intrathecally (i.t.) treated with histamine 1 (H1) receptor agonist (2-pyridylethylamine) or antagonist (cetirizine), histamine 2 (H2) receptor agonist (dimaprit) or antagonist (ranitidine), histamine 3 (H3) receptor agonist (alpha-methylhistamine) or antagonist (carcinine) and histamine 4 (H4) receptor agonist (VUF 8430) or antagonist (JNJ 7777120), and the blood glucose level was measured at 30, 60 and 120 min after i.t. administration. The i.t. injection with alpha-methylhistamine, but not carcinine slightly caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. In addition, histamine H1, H2, and H4 receptor agonists and antagonists did not affect the blood glucose level. In D-glucose-fed model, i.t. pretreatment with cetirizine enhanced the blood glucose level, whereas 2-pyridylethylamine did not affect. The i.t. pretreatment with dimaprit, but not ranitidine, enhanced the blood glucose level in D-glucose-fed model. In addition, alpha-methylhistamine, but not carcinine, slightly but significantly enhanced the blood glucose level D-glucose-fed model. Finally, i.t. pretreatment with JNJ 7777120, but not VUF 8430, slightly but significantly increased the blood glucose level. Although histamine receptors themselves located at the spinal cord do not exert any effect on the regulation of the blood glucose level, our results suggest that the activation of spinal histamine H2 receptors and the blockade of spinal histamine H1 or H3 receptors may play modulatory roles for up-regulation and down-regulation, respectively, of the blood glucose level in D-glucose fed model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Glucose , Cetirizine , Dimaprit , Down-Regulation , Glucose , Histamine , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Ranitidine , Receptors, Histamine H2 , Receptors, Histamine H3 , Receptors, Histamine , Spinal Cord , Up-Regulation
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