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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(2): 658-666, mar.-abr. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1011263

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se avaliar as características de carcaça e carne de novilhos Aberdeen Angus castrados cirurgicamente em duas idades ou imunocastrados com dois protocolos. Foram utilizados 48 bezerros, monitorados a partir do nascimento e desmamados, com idade e peso médio inicial de seis meses e de 160±16,54kg, respectivamente. Os animais foram distribuídos aleatoriamente nos seguintes tratamentos: castração cirúrgica ao nascer; castração cirúrgica ao desmame; imunocastração com três doses da vacina Bopriva® e imunocastração com quatro doses da vacina Bopriva®. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso. Novilhos imunocastrados com três doses apresentaram maior quebra ao resfriamento e menor espessura de gordura ajustada para 100kg de carcaça fria que castrados cirurgicamente ao nascer (P<0,05). A imunocastração com três doses proporcionou incremento na participação de músculo, em relação às castrações cirúrgicas, mas reduziu a gordura em relação à castração cirúrgica ao nascimento (P<0,05). A relação músculo:osso foi superior nos imunocastrados com três doses em relação a castrados cirurgicamente no desmame (P<0,05). Apesar de variações na participação tecidual na carcaça, a castração imunológica mostrou-se viável em substituição à castração cirúrgica, não alterando os padrões qualitativos da carne.(AU)


The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcass and meat characteristics of Aberdeen Angus steers surgically castrated at two ages or immunocastrated with two protocols. Forty-eight calves we used, monitored from birth and weaned, with age and initial mean weight of six months and 160±16.54kg, respectively. The animals were randomly assigned to the following treatments: surgical castration at birth; surgical castration at weaning; immunocastration with three doses of the Bopriva ® vaccine and immunocastration with four doses of the Bopriva ® vaccine. The experimental design was completely randomized. Immunocastrated steers with three doses had a greater cooling break and lower fat thickness adjusted for 100kg of cold carcass than surgically castrated at birth (P< 0.05). Immunocastration with three doses provided an increase in muscle participation in relation to surgical castration but reduced fat in relation to surgical castration at birth (P< 0.05). The muscle:bone ratio was higher in the immunocastrated with three doses compared to surgically castrated at weaning (P< 0.05). Despite variations in tissue involvement in the carcass, the immunological castration proved to be viable to replace surgical castration, not changing the quality of the meat standards.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cattle , Orchiectomy/methods , Orchiectomy/veterinary , Meat/analysis
2.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(6)nov.-dez. 2018. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-970336

ABSTRACT

Objetivou-se com este trabalho comparar biomecanicamente os posicionamentos dorsal e medial da placa bloqueada na artrodese do carpo em cães. Para isso, foram utilizados sete pares de membros torácicos de cães eutanasiados por razões não relacionadas ao estudo, em que sete membros foram estabilizados com placa dorsal, e seus respectivos pares com placa em posicionamento medial. Os membros com as articulações radiocarpometacarpianas estabilizadas cirurgicamente foram submetidos a ensaio de compressão axial em máquina universal de ensaios de materiais, e os dados de limite de elasticidade, rigidez estrutural, carga máxima e carga no momento da fratura dos posicionamentos foram comparados por meio do teste de Student-Newman-Keuls, a um nível de significância de 5%. Todos os membros foram fraturados no terço distal do terceiro metacarpo; nos membros com placa dorsal, a fratura ocorreu distal ao orifício distal e, nos membros com placa medial, a fratura ocorreu no último orifício dos metacarpos dois e três. Não houve dobra ou quebra de placas e parafusos e não houve diferença significativa entre os posicionamentos dorsal e medial dos implantes quanto aos parâmetros avaliados.(AU)


The aim of this study was to compare biomechanically the dorsal and medial positions of the locking plates on carpal arthrodesis in dogs. For this, seven pairs of thoracic limbs of dogs were used, in which seven limbs were stabilized with dorsal plate and seven limbs with plate in medial positioning. The members with the surgically stabilized radiocarpal-metacarpal joints were submitted to axial compression testing in a universal testing machine and the yield load, structural rigidity, maximum load and ultimate load of the positioning were compared by Student-Newman-Keuls test at a significance level of 5%. All members fractured in the distal third of the third metacarpal, in the limbs with dorsal plate the fracture occurred distal to the distal hole and in the members with medial plate the fracture occurred in the last hole of the metacarpals two and three. There was no bending or broken implants. There was no significant biomechanical differencebetween the dorsal and medial positions of the implants.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Arthrodesis/veterinary , Biomechanical Phenomena , Dogs/abnormalities
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(5): 1181-1185, set.-out. 2017. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-877359

ABSTRACT

Um caso de abiotrofia cerebelar em um gato com 45 dias de idade foi diagnosticado no Laboratório de Patologia Animal, Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande. O animal apresentava, havia 15 dias, apatia, anorexia, desidratação, ataxia, hipermetria, espasticidade dos membros torácicos e pélvicos, tremores de intenção, nistagmo, opistótono, déficit proprioceptivo e ausência de resposta de ameaça. Clinicamente, havia a suspeita de hipoplasia cerebelar, e, devido ao prognóstico desfavorável, o animal foi eutanasiado. Na necropsia, não foram observadas alterações macroscópicas. Microscopicamente, as lesões estavam restritas ao cerebelo e caracterizavam-se por alterações neurodegenerativas e necróticas, com desaparecimento segmentar dos neurônios de Purkinje. Nessas áreas, também se verificaram espaços em branco, denominado aspecto de cesto vazio, resultantes da perda dos neurônios de Purkinje, além de raros esferoides axonais e proliferação dos astrócitos de Bergmann. Em algumas áreas, a camada granular estava hipocelular e havia moderada gliose multifocal na camada molecular. O diagnóstico de abiotrofia cerebelar foi realizado com base nos dados epidemiológicos, clínicos e, principalmente, pelas alterações histopatológicas dos neurônios de Purkinje características da doença.(AU)


The aim of this report was to describe a case of cerebellar abiotrophy in cat with 45-year-old diagnosed at the Animal Pathology Laboratory, Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Campina Grande. The animal had presented 15-day apathy, anorexia, dehydration and neurological signs, characterized by ataxia, hypermetria, spasticity of fore and hindlimbs, intention tremor, nystagmus, opisthotonos, proprioceptive deficits, and absence of threat response. Clinically, cerebellar hypoplasia was suspected and the animal was euthanized due to poor prognosis. During necropsy, gross lesions were not observed. Microscopically the lesions were restricted to the cerebellum and were characterized by neurodegenerative and necrotic damage with segmental disappearance of the Purkinje cells. In these areas, there were also empty spaces, called the empty basket aspect, resulting from the loss of Purkinje cells, as well as rare axonal spheroids and proliferation of Bergmann's astrocytes. In some areas, the granular layer was hypocellular and there was moderate multifocal gliosis in the molecular layer. The diagnosis of cerebellar abiotrophy was based on epidemiological, clinical and mainly on histopathological changes in neurons of Purkinje disease characteristics.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Abiotrophia , Cerebellar Diseases/veterinary , Nerve Degeneration/veterinary , Purkinje Cells/pathology
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(4): 933-940, jul.-ago. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-876687

ABSTRACT

Fraturas costumam ocorrer com encavalgamento das extremidades ósseas, dificultando, assim, sua redução. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo desenvolver um equipamento de tração esquelética a ser utilizado em caninos acometidos de fraturas de ossos longos. Foram utilizados 21 cães de raças variadas, pesando entre dois e 27kg, com idade entre dois meses e 11 anos, com fraturas diafisárias ou metafisárias ocorridas entre três e 24 dias. Enquanto a fixação do corpo do paciente à mesa foi efetuada com cintas de náilon, a força de tração aplicada ao longo do eixo ósseo do membro fraturado foi realizada mediante cintas de náilon ou pinos transfixados e estribos (sendo os pinos implantados na epífise distal do osso fraturado), com a força de tração medida por um dinamômetro, não sendo aplicada carga maior que 25kg. Em todos os casos, a força de tração iniciava com o valor de cinco quilogramas, exceto em animais com peso inferior a esta, a qual começava com carga equivalente a esse peso; e em todos, se necessário, era aumentada a cada cinco minutos para se manter tração igual ao peso ou aos valores que oscilavam do seu peso até cinco quilogramas, dependendo do tamanho do animal, até se atingir a tração necessária para se proceder à redução. Para essa progressão de distensão, o equipamento possuía haste rosqueada de 25mm de diâmetro, uma porca com sistema timão e cilindro deslizante por fora da haste, este conectado ao animal por uma corrente, e o dinamômetro. Todos os animais tiveram as fraturas reduzidas sem haver perda óssea, o que evidencia que o aparelho se mostrou eficiente tanto na redução como na manutenção da redução da fratura, e eles não apresentaram, no pós-operatório, sinais de prejuízos neurológicos, vasculares, cutâneos e articulares. O distensor ósseo aqui desenvolvido tem como características: ser de simples confecção, ter baixo custo, não gerar danos ao paciente e facilitar a redução dos fragmentos tanto em fraturas recentes quanto em antigas.(AU)


Fractures usually occur with overriding of bone fragments, thus hindering fracture reduction. The aim of this research was to develop and test a skeletal traction device for use in dogs with long bone fractures. Twenty-one dogs were included, regardless of breed or gender, weighing between two and 27kg, and between two months and 11 years of age, with metaphyseal or diaphyseal fractures that had occurred between three and 24 days prior to intervention. While fixation of the patient's body to the table was performed using nylon straps, the traction force applied along the bone axis of the fractured limb was performed using nylon straps or transfixed pins and stirrups (with the pins implanted in the distal epiphysis of the fractured bone). Tensile strength was measured by a dynamometer, and the maximum load applied was no greater than 25kg. In all cases, the distraction force began at five kilograms except in dogs below this weight, where the starting load was equivalent to the weight of the animal. If necessary, in all dogs, force was increased every five minutes to maintain equal traction to the dog's weight or values which ranged from the dog's weight to five kilograms depending on the size of the animal, until the necessary traction for reduction was obtained. For this progression of distension, the equipment had a 25-milimeter-diameter threaded rod, a nut with a rudder system and sliding cylinder outside the rod, which connected to the dog via a chain and the dynamometer. Fracture reduction was achieved in all dogs without bone loss, and the device was shown to be efficient in both allowing and maintaining fracture reduction, with no neurologic, vascular, cutaneous, or articular damage. The developed bone distractor has the following characteristics: simple to construct, low cost, does not harm the patient, and facilitates reduction of the fragments in recent and old fractures.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Fractures, Bone/veterinary , Orthopedic Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Orthopedic Equipment/veterinary , Traction/statistics & numerical data
5.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 16(4): 886-895, oct.-dic. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-729898

ABSTRACT

Hyptis leucocephala e Hyptis platanifolia (Lamiaceae) são espécies aromáticas endêmicas do semiárido nordestino e possuem grande importância econômica devido ao seu potencial medicinal. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo obter o protocolo para o estabelecimento inicial in vitro das espécies H. leucocephala e H. platanifolia. O meio de cultura WPM promoveu a maior porcentagem de germinação (96,81%) para H. leucocephala, porém não diferiu estatisticamente dos resultados obtidos no MS½ na última semana de cultivo. Para a germinação de sementes de H. platanifolia, o MS½ foi o meio que proporcionou a maior porcentagem (40,83%). O tipo de esterilização não interferiu na germinação in vitro para as duas espécies. Para a espécie H. platanifolia, quando se utilizou o fechamento dos tubos de ensaio com tampão de algodão, a hiperidricidade foi eliminada; porém, a porcentagem de germinação das sementes foi menor. Avaliando-se o tipo de meio de cultura no crescimento in vitro de H. leucocephala observou-se que este fator não influenciou no número de brotações, nem o comprimento de parte aérea e da matéria seca de raiz. O meio MS proporcionou incremento para o número de folhas, matéria seca da parte aérea, e comprimento da maior raiz, enquanto o meio MS½ foi o que promoveu maior número de raízes. O meio de cultura ideal para a germinação de H. leucocephala e H. platanifolia foi o MS½, podendo ser esterilizado com hipoclorito de sódio, enquanto que o MS foi o melhor meio de cultura para o crescimento in vitro de H. leucocephala.


The Hyptis leucocephala and Hyptis platanifolia (Lamiaceae) are aromatic species, endemic to the Brazilian Semiarid northeast, and they have great economic importance becaude of their pharmacological potential. This study aimed to obtain the protocol for the in vitro establishment of H. leucocephala and H. platanifolia plants. The WPM promoted higher germination percentage (96.81%) for H. leucocephala, but there was no difference between the results obtained in ½MS, in the last week of cultivation. For the germination of H. platanifolia, ½MS was the one that provided the highest percentage (40.83%). The type of sterilization did not affect the in vitro germination of both species. For the H. platanifolia species, when we closed the tubes with a cotton plug, hyperhydricity was eliminated, but the percentage of seed germination was the lowest one. Evaluating the type of culture medium on the in vitro growth of H. leucocephala, it did not influence the number of shoots, length of shoot or root dry matter. The MS medium promoted an increase of the number of leaves, dry shoot and longest root length, and the ½MS medium was more suitable for root induction. The optimal culture medium for the germination of H. leucocephala and H. platanifolia is ½MS, as it can be sterilized with sodium hypochlorite, while the MS was the best culture medium for the in vitro growth of H. leucocephala.


Subject(s)
Germination , Hyptis/growth & development , In Vitro Techniques/methods
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(4): 995-1002, 08/2014. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-722569

ABSTRACT

Com este trabalho objetivou-se avaliar o processo de cicatrização do tendão em coelhos, utilizando-se no grupo tratamento o filme de quitosana, por meio de uma análise clínico-cirúrgica e histológica. Foram utilizados 12 coelhos adultos, separados em grupo controle (GC) e grupo tratamento (GT), nos quais se realizou uma secção parcial do tendão gastrocnêmio de ambos os membros pélvicos. A avaliação clínica baseou-se na presença de reação inflamatória, infecção, dor e deiscência da sutura. Para a avaliação histológica, foi realizado um estudo comparativo do processo cicatricial por meio do tipo de células, da quantidade de tecido conjuntivo e da organização das fibras colágenas entre os grupos e os momentos. Nas feridas cirúrgicas, não foram observadas secreção, dor ou deiscência. Na histologia comparativa entre os grupos, o GC apresentou melhor processo cicatricial em relação ao GT, aos 60 dias. Aos 90 dias, no GT a cicatrização já esboça recuperação do tendão, com reorganização da celularidade e das fibras colágenas no tecido conjuntivo denso modelado. Concluiu-se que a quitosana estimula rápido crescimento celular, mas de forma desorganizada, e que a cicatrização completa só ocorre após 90 dias da sua implantação no tecido...


This work aimed to evaluate the process of tendon healing in rabbits, using the treatment group in chitosan film through a clinical, surgical and histological analysis. In the experiment, 12 adult rabbits were used, divided into control group (CG) and treatment group (TG), which were held in the partial section of the gastrocnemius tendon of both limbs. Clinical assessment was based on the presence of inflammation, infection, pain and suture dehiscence. For histological evaluation a comparative study of the healing process through the cell type, amount of connective tissue and collagen fiber organization was performed between groups and times. In surgical wounds no secretion, pain or dehiscence were observed. In the comparative histology between groups, the CG showed better healing compared to TG, at 60 days. On day 90 the TG already outlines tendon recovery with reorganization of cellularity and collagen fibers in the dense connective tissue modeled. It was concluded that chitosan stimulates faster cell growth, but it is haphazardly, and that complete healing occurs after 90 days of their implantation in tissue...


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits/injuries , Pelvis/injuries , Chitosan/therapeutic use , Regeneration , Tendon Injuries/rehabilitation , Tissue Adhesives/therapeutic use , Biocompatible Materials
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 66(1): 185-194, fev. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-704023

ABSTRACT

The objective was to evaluate the use of ractopamine (RAC) in the diet for pacu (Piaractus mesopotaminus) in the finishing phase on some quality parameters of the fillets. Thirty-five animals weighing 0.868±0.168kg were distributed in a completely randomised design with five treatments (0.0 - control; 11.25, 22.50, 33.75 and 45 ppm of RAC) and seven replicates with two fillets obtained from the same animal. The diets were isocaloric and isoprotein and experimental time was 90 days. RAC did not affect (P>0.05) the initial pH or ph after 24 hours of the fillets. Compared to the control, RAC increased (P<0.05) the moisture content of the fillets in natura and lipid oxidation of samples stored for 12 days in the refrigerator or freezer for 60 days. The RAC in 11.25 ppm reduced (P<0.05) the lipid content, while 45 ppm reduced (P<0.05) the crude protein in the fillets. Considering only RAC, there was a linear increase (P<0.05) in the lipid content (P<0.05) and a linear reduction in crude protein and weight loss after cooking the fillets. There was a quadratic effect (P<0.05) on the ash content, weight loss and lipid oxidation in fillets stored in the refrigerator or freezer. A RAC dose of 33.75 ppm resulted in a lower lipid oxidation index. In conclusion, ractopamine at 11.25 ppm is effective for reducing the fat content in fillets of pacu, although it increases the formation of peroxides in samples kept in the freezer for longer than 60 days. At 33.75 ppm, ractopamine is effective in reducing the effect of oxidation during storage in the refrigerator or freezer.


O objetivo foi avaliar a influência do uso de ractopamina na alimentação de pacus (Piaractus mesopotaminus) na fase de terminação sobre alguns parâmetros de qualidade dos filés. Trinta e cinco animais com peso de 0,868±0,168kg foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com cinco tratamentos (0,0 - controle; 11,25; 22,50; 33,75 e 45ppm de ractopamina) e sete repetições, sendo a parcela representada por dois filés provenientes de um animal. As rações foram isoenergéticas e isoproteicas, e o tempo experimental foi de 90 dias. A ractopamina não influenciou (P>0,05) o pH inicial dos filés e nem após 24 horas. Comparado ao controle, a RAC aumentou (P<0,05) a umidade dos filés in natura e a oxidação lipídica dos mesmos quando armazenados por 12 dias em geladeira ou 60 dias em freezer. Na dose de 11,25 reduziu (P<0,05) o teor de extrato etéreo e, na dose de 45 ppm, reduziu (P<0,05) o de proteína bruta dos filés. Considerando somente a RAC, houve aumento linear (P<0,05) do teor de gordura e redução linear (P<0,05) da proteína bruta e perda de peso por cocção. Houve efeito quadrático (P<0,05) sobre o teor de cinzas, perda de peso por descongelamento e oxidação lipídica para os filés armazenados em geladeira ou em freezer, sendo 33,75 ppm o nível de RAC que resultou em menor índice de oxidação lipídica. Conclui-se que a ractopamina a 11,5 ppm é efetiva em reduzir o teor de lipídeos em filés de pacu, embora aumente a formação de peróxidos em amostras mantidas em freezer após 60 dias. A 33,75 ppm a ractopamina é efetiva em reduzir os efeitos da oxidação durante o armazenamento em geladeira ou freezer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Food Quality , Lipids/analysis , Oxidation , Fishes/classification
8.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 14(4): 592-597, 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-664009

ABSTRACT

A aroeira-do-sertão (Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All.) é espécie arbórea que apresenta grande valor econômico devido às propriedades químicas da casca com elevado teor de taninos. Em decorrência da exploração predatória encontra-se inserida na lista oficial de espécies da flora brasileira ameaçadas de extinção na categoria vulnerável. A micropropagação vem sendo colocada como importante forma de multiplicação dessa espécie, na busca de alternativa para a exploração sustentável. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de induzir calos a partir de segmentos foliares usando 2,4-D e caracterizá-los quanto aos aspectos morfológicos e bioquímicos. Os resultados obtidos indicam que é possível induzir calos a partir de segmentos foliares de aroeira-do-sertão utilizando-se 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D). Os calos obtidos foram compactos e não-embriogênicos, apresentando valores médios de 43,32 mg g-1 de açúcares solúveis totais; 23,62 mg g-1 de açúcares redutores; 3,157 mg g-1 de proteína total; 3,147 mg g-1 de aminoácidos livres e 0,914 mg g-1 de compostos fenólicos totais na matéria fresca.


"Aroeira-do-sertão" (Myracrodruon urundeuva Fr. All.) is a tree species that has great economic value due to the chemical properties of its bark, which has high tannin content. On account of the predatory exploitation it has been placed in the official list of threatened species of the Brazilian flora, in the vulnerable category. Micropropagation has been considered an important form of multiplication of this species in the search for an alternative for its sustainable exploitation. This study was conducted with the aim of inducing callus from leaf segments using 2,4-D and characterizing them according to their morphological and biochemical aspects. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to induce callus from leaf segments of M. urundeuva using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic (2,4-D). The obtained calluses were compact and non-embryogenic, with average values of 43.32 mg g-1 total soluble sugars, 23.62 mg g-1 reducing sugars, 3.157 mg g-1 total protein, 3.147 mg g-1 free-form amino acids and 0.914 mg g-1 phenolic compounds in the fresh matter.


Subject(s)
Biochemistry , Bursera/growth & development , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning/methods , Plant Breeding
9.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 13(1): 73-78, 2011. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-582772

ABSTRACT

O gênero Hyptis (Lamiaceae) apresenta metabolismo especial de notável variabilidade, possuindo predominância de óleos essenciais, que têm muito valor junto a diversas comunidades que utilizam essas plantas pelas propriedades terapêuticas. Diversos estudos com esse gênero têm demonstrado que os óleos essenciais apresentam propriedades antimicrobiana, antifúngica, citotóxica, antiinflamatória, anti-HIV e inseticida, entretanto, poucos são os estudos voltados para a exploração sustentável dessas espécies. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes tipos de estaca e diferentes concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (AIB) sobre a taxa de sobrevivência, crescimento e enraizamento de estacas de Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. e Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth., espécies endêmicas do semi-árido nordestino cujo valor medicinal tem sido amplamente comprovado. O experimento teve duração de quatro meses. Foram utilizadas estacas apicais, médio-apicais, médio-basais e basais tratadas com soluções de 0, 1000, 2000 e 4000 mg L-1 de ácido indolbutírico (AIB), durante 5 minutos. A utilização de estacas apicais, médio/apicais e médio/basais induzidas com 2000 e 4000 mg L-1 de AIB possibilitaram melhores resultados para propagação vegetativa de Hyptis leucocephala. Para Hyptis platanifolia os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a utilização de estacas médio/basais e basais tratadas com AIB na concentração de 2000 e 4000 mg L-1.


The genus Hyptis (Lamiaceae) has a special metabolism with remarkable variability and predominance of essential oils of great value to the various communities that use these plants due to their therapeutic properties. A number of studies on this genus have demonstrated that its essential oils present antimicrobial, antifungal, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, anti-HIV and insecticidal activities. However, few studies have focused on the sustainable exploitation of these species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different types of cuttings and different concentrations of indolebutyric acid (IBA) on the survival, growth and rooting rates of cuttings from Hyptis leucocephala Mart. ex Benth. and Hyptis platanifolia Mart. ex Benth., species endemic to the semi-arid region of Northeastern Brazil and with largely proven medicinal value. The experiment lasted four months. Apical, middle-apical, middle-basal and basal cuttings were treated with 0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg L-1 IBA solutions for 5 min. The use of apical, middle-apical and middle-basal cuttings induced by 2000 and 4000 mg L-1 IBA led to the best results for vegetative propagation of H. leucocephala. For H. platanifolia, the best results were obtained using middle-basal and basal cuttings treated with IBA at 2000 and 4000 mg L-1.


Subject(s)
Hyptis/growth & development , Plants/growth & development , Aromatic Extracts , Oils, Volatile , Plant Extracts , Plant Structures , Reproduction
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 32(9): 1133-43, Sept. 1999. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-241609

ABSTRACT

The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic value (clinical application) of brain measures and cognitive function. Alzheimer and multiinfarct patients (N = 30) and normal subjects over the age of 50 (N = 40) were submitted to a medical, neurological and cognitive investigation. The cognitive tests applied were Mini-Mental, word span, digit span, logical memory, spatial recognition span, Boston naming test, praxis, and calculation tests. The brain ratios calculated were the ventricle-brain, bifrontal, bicaudate, third ventricle, and suprasellar cistern measures. These data were obtained from a brain computer tomography scan, and the cutoff values from receiver operating characteristic curves. We analyzed the diagnostic parameters provided by these ratios and compared them to those obtained by cognitive evaluation. The sensitivity and specificity of cognitive tests were higher than brain measures, although dementia patients presented higher ratios, showing poorer cognitive performances than normal individuals. Normal controls over the age of 70 presented higher measures than younger groups, but similar cognitive performance. We found diffuse losses of tissue from the central nervous system related to distribution of cerebrospinal fluid in dementia patients. The likelihood of case identification by functional impairment was higher than when changes of the structure of the central nervous system were used. Cognitive evaluation still seems to be the best method to screen individuals from the community, especially for developing countries, where the cost of brain imaging precludes its use for screening and initial assessment of dementia


Subject(s)
Middle Aged , Female , Humans , Aging/physiology , Brain , Cognition/physiology , Dementia/diagnosis , Age Factors , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease/diagnosis , Analysis of Variance , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Dementia, Vascular/diagnosis , Dementia , Educational Status , Health Status , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Sensitivity and Specificity , Social Class
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 32(8): 975-83, Aug. 1999.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-238966

ABSTRACT

Mother-pup interaction, as well as other behavioral reactions were studied during the lactation period in 24 litters of Wistar rats and their dams fed either a 16 percent (control - C; 12 litters) or a 6 percent (malnourished - M; 12 litters) protein diet. The diets were isocaloric. Throughout lactation there was a 36.4 percent weight loss of M dams and a 63 percent body weight deficit in the M pups when compared to control pups. During this period, half of the litters were exposed daily to additional tactile stimulation (CS or MS), while the other half were submitted to normal rearing conditions (CN or MN). The tactile stimulation of pups (handling) consisted of holding the animal in one hand and gently touching the dorsal part of the animal's body with the fingers for 3 min. A special camera and a time-lapse video were used to record litter behavior in their home cages. Starting at 6 p.m. and ending at 6 a.m., on days 3, 6, 12, 15, 18 and 21 of lactation, photos were taken at 4-s intervals. An increase in the frequency (154.88 + or - 16.19) and duration (455.86 + or - 18.05 min) of suckling was observed throughout the lactation period in all groups compared to birth day (frequency 24.88 + or - 2.37 and duration 376.76 + or - 21.01 min), but the frequency was higher in the C (84.96 +- 8.52) than in the M group (43.13 + or - 4.37); however, the M group (470.2 + or - 11.87 min) spent more time suckling as compared with the C group (393.67 + or - 13.09 min). The M dams showed a decreased frequency of resting position throughout the lactation period (6.5 + or- 2.48) compared to birth day (25.42 + or - 7.74). Pups from the C group were more frequently observed separated (73.02 + or - 4.38) and interacting (258.99 + or - 20.61) more with their mothers than the M pups (separated 66.94 + or - 5.5 and interacting 165.72 + or - 12.05). Tactile stimulation did not interact with diet condition, showing that the kind of stimulation used in the present study did not lead to recovery from the changes induced by protein malnutrition. The changes in mother-pup interaction produced by protein malnutrition of both may represent retardation in neuromotor development and a higher dependence of the pups on their mothers. These changes may represent an important means of energy saving and heat maintenance in malnourished pups


Subject(s)
Rats , Female , Animals , Behavior, Animal , Lactation , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/physiopathology , Touch/physiology , Analysis of Variance , Animals, Suckling , Body Weight
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 31(1): 127-31, Jan. 1998.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-212548

ABSTRACT

An apparently paradoxical role for IFN-gamma in human Chagas'disease was observed when studying the pattern of cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from two groups of chagasic patients after specific stimulation with Trypanosoma cruzi-derived antigens. The groups studied were 1) patients treated with bendnidazole during the acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection and 2) chronically infected untreated patients. In the treated group, higher levels of IFN-gamma were produced by PBMC from individuals cured after treatment when compared to non-cured patients. In contrast, in the chronically infected group (not treated) higher levels of IFN-gamma were produced by PBMC from cardiac patients in comparison with asymptomatic (indeterminate) patients. This apparently paradoxical role for IFN-gamma in human Chagas'disease is discussed in terms of the possibility of a temporal difference in IFN-gamma production during the initial stages of the infection (acute phase) in the presence or absence of chemotherapy. The maintenance of an immune response with high levels of IFN-gamma production during the chronic phase of the infection may favor cure or influence the development of the cardiac form of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chagas Disease/immunology , Chagas Disease/physiopathology , Interferon-gamma/physiology , Chagas Disease/blood , Leukocytes, Mononuclear
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 31(1): 171-7, Jan. 1998.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-212553

ABSTRACT

The role of diferent cytokines in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferative response and in in vitro granuloma formation was evaluated in a cross-sectional study with patients with the different clinical forms and phases of Schistosoma mansoni infection, as well as a group of individuals "naturally" resistant to infection named normal endemic (NE). The blockage of IL-4 and IL-5 using anti-IL-4 and anti-IL-5 antibodies significantly reduced the PBMC proliferative response to soluble egg (SEA) and adult worm (SWAP) antigens in acute (ACT), chronic intestinal (INT) and hepatosplenic (HS) patients. Similar esults were obtained in the in vitro granuloma formation. Blockage of IL-10 had no significant effect on either assay using PBMC from ACT or HS. In contrast, the addition of anti-IL-10 antibodies to PBMC cultures from INT patients significantly increased the proliferative response to SEA and SWAP as well as the in vitro granuloma formation. Interestingly, association of anti-IL-4 and anti-IL-10 antibodies did not increase the PBMC proliferative response of these patients, suggesting that IL-10 may act by modulating IL-4 and IL-5 secretion. Addition of recombinant IL-10 decreased the proliferative response to undetectable levels when PBMC from patients with the different clinical forms were used. Analysis of IFN-gamma in the supernatants showed that PBMC from INT patients secreted low levels of IFN-gamma upon antigenic stimulation. In contrast, PBMC from NE secreted high levels of IFN-gamma. These data suggest that IL-10 is an important cytokine in regulating the immune response and possibly controlling morbidity in human schistosomiasis mansoni, and that the production of IFN-gamma may be associated with resistance to infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cytokines/physiology , Immunity, Innate/physiology , Schistosoma mansoni/pathogenicity , Schistosomiasis mansoni/immunology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/physiopathology , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-11 , Interleukin-4
14.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 30(8): 985-8, Aug. 1997. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-197256

ABSTRACT

Studies on rats maintained on low-protein-calorie diets during the lactation period show that food intake decreases. This process results in weight loss and a delay in litter development. The purpose of the present study was to determine the alterations in food intake, maternal weight and litter growth during lactation when dams were exposed to diets with different levels os protein and carbohydrate. Female Wistar rats receiving one of 4 different diets, A (N = 14), B (N = 14), C (N = 9) and D (N = 9), were used. Diet A contained 16 per cent protein and 66 per cent carboydrate; diet B, 6 per cent protein and 77 per cent carboydrate; diet C, 6 per cent protein and 66 per cent carboydrate; diet D, 16 per cent protein and 56 per cent carboydrate. Thus, C and D diets were hypocaloric, while A and B were isocaloric. The intake of a low-protein diet in group B and C affected the weight of dams and litters during the last two weeks of lactation, while the low-calorie diets limited the growth of D litters at 21 days compared with A litters, but had no effect on the weight of D dams. Group B showed an increase in intake during the first five days of lactation, resulting in a behavioral calorie compensation due to the increase in carboydrate content, but the intake decreased during the last part of lactation. Food intake regulation predominantly involves the recruitment of a variety of peripheral satiety systems that attempt to decrease the central feeding command system.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Female , Body Weight , Diet , Eating , Energy Intake , Growth , Lactation , Nutrition Disorders , Protein-Energy Malnutrition , Rats, Wistar
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 30(3): 407-13, Mar. 1997. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-191353

ABSTRACT

Two animal models of pain were used to study the effects of short-term protein malnutrition and environmental stimulation on the response threshold to aversive stimuli. Eighty male Wistar rats were used. Half of the pups were submitted to malnutrition by feeding their mothers a 6 per cent protein diet from 0 to 21 days of age while the mothers of the other half (controls) were well nourished, receiving 16 per cent protein. From 22 to 70 days all rats were fed commercial lab chow. Half of the animals in the malnourished and control groups were maintained under stimulating conditions, including a 3-min daily handling from 0 to 70 days and an enriched living cage after weaning. The other half was reared in a standard living cage. At 70 days, independent groups of rats were exposed to the shock threshold or to the tail-flick test. The results showed lower body and brain weights in malnourished rats when compared with controls at weaning and testing. In the shock threshold test the malnourished animals were more sensitive to electric shock and environmental stimulation increased the shock threshold. No differences due to diet or environmental stimulation were found in the tail-flick procedure. These results demonstrate that protein malnutrition imposed only during the lactation period is efficient in inducing hyperreactivity to electric, shock and that environmental stimulation attenuates the differences in shock threshold produced by protein malnutrition.


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Male , Infant, Newborn , Aversive Therapy , Body Weight/physiology , Brain/physiology , /complications , Rats, Wistar
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 28(5): 569-74, May 1995. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-154878

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to determine the consequences of Zn²+ deficiency on the gestational process. The study was conducted on adult Wistar virgin female rats fed isocaloric diets containing 16 percent protein and different Zn²+ concentrations, i.e., 2 ppm (severe restriction), 6 ppm (moderate restriction), and 20 ppm (control). Rats recived the diets and wather ad libitum for 7, 14 or 21 days before mating and throughout pregnancy. Survival of dams and pups decreased with increasing Zn²+ restriction and with time of exposure to the deficient diet. Mean survival rate for control dams and pups was 100 percent, whereas severe restriction (2 ppm for 21 days premating and during pregnancy) resulted in survival rates of 25 percent and 0 for dams and pus, respectively. Dam and pup survival rates for moderate restriction (6 ppm) for the same period were 83 percent and 72 percent, respectively. These results indicate the importance of Zn²+ before and during pregnancy and show that Zn²+ deficiency causes metabolic alterations which impair normal reproductive processes


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Male , Rats , Pregnancy , Diet , Pregnancy, Animal/physiology , Zinc/deficiency , Body Weight , Rats, Wistar
17.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 27(10): 2443-52, Oct. 1994. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-152626

ABSTRACT

1. In order to investigate the role of avoidance response and shock intensity in avoidance learning in malnourished rats, three avoidance responses (jumping, two-way shuttle-box and bar press) and three shock intensities (0.4, 0.6 and 1.0 mA) were used. Independent groups of 6 rats were used for each response topography and shock intensity. 2. Malnourished male Wistar rats were suckled by mothers fed a 12 percent casein diet during the lactation period (0-21 days of age) while the mothers of well-nourished controls received a 25//casein diet. After weaning (21 st day), all animals received a commercial lab chow diet until 70 days of age, when the avoidance training started. 3. Malnutrition did not affect the acquisiton of the avoidance response, but malnourisheed groups required more trials to extinguish jumping and two-way shuttle-box. During the acquisitiion phase all animals learned the jump response faster in comparison to bar press and shuttle-box avoidance responses. Both groups in the acquisition phase responded faster with 1.0 mA when compared to lower intensities (0.6 and 0.4 mA). The malnourished animals showed lower latency of avoidance in the jumping response when compared with well-nourished animals. During the extinction phase there was a significant effect of diet, response topography and shock intensity in the latency to respond and trials to criterion. The increased resistance to extinctio in malnourished rats was particularly evident with 1.0 mA in the two-way shuttle-box response. 4. These results suggest that contradictory data related to the acquisition of the avoidance response in malnourished animals cannot be attributed to response topography or variations in shock intensity. Furthermore, our results also indicate that resistance to extinction and latency to respond are appropriate for detecting differences between well-nourished and malnourished animals


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Avoidance Learning/physiology , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/physiopathology , Body Weight , Electric Stimulation
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 26(10): 1069-76, Oct. 1993. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-148783

ABSTRACT

1. In order to study the effects of protein quantity and quality on development, Wistar rats were submitted to four different diets during lactation and post-lactation periods. Three isocaloric diets were utilized with 6 per cent (M), 16 per cent (W16) and 20 per cent (W20) of protein (casein), and the fourth diet (C) consisted of a commercial lab chow containing 22 per cent protein. 2. During the lactation and post-lactation periods the body weights of dams and pups were recorded weekly. On the 49th day of age (21 days of suckling and 28 days of ad libitum chow), all animals were sacrificed and the brains removed and weighed. 3. Dams from all groups increased food intake during the lactation period, but dams of the M group consumed a lower amount of diet as compared with other groups. Only the body weight of M dams was affected by diet during the lactation period, but the body weight of pups from the M and C groups was lower than in the other two groups. At 49 days of age C and M pups showed a significantly lower brain weight compared with W16 and W20 pups. 4. Thus, a commercial lab chow diet does not promote normal body and brain development as compared with balanced diets containing 16 or 20 per cent protein. These results emphasize the need for further studies in order to evaluate other biological and behavioral parameters that might be altered by a lab chow diet


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Body Weight , Cerebrum/growth & development , Diet , Dietary Proteins/pharmacology , Analysis of Variance , Caseins/administration & dosage , Nutritional Status , Organ Size , Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage , Rats, Wistar
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 21(5): 1033-6, 1988. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-63607

ABSTRACT

In order to study the functional consequences of brain changes caused by early malnutrition, rats were fed a protein-deficient diet from birth until 49 days of age and a balanced diet from day 50 to day 70. The animals were submitted to a step-down inhibitory avoidance task and to the flinch-jump nociceptive test at 49 and 70 days of age. Malnourished rats showed longer step-down latencies and lower flinch and junp theresholds than eutrophic animals. Chlordiazepoxide (5 mg/Kg, ip) shortened step-down latency of well-nourished rats, whereas it failed to do so in malnourished rats. Since well-nourished animals also became resistant to chlordiazepoxide when tested with a higher shock intensity, generating avoidance latencies comparable to those of malnourished animals, we conclude that the drug resistance induced by malnutrition may be secondary to enhanced pain sensitivity and/or reactivity


Subject(s)
Rats , Animals , Male , Chlordiazepoxide/pharmacology , Nociceptors , Protein-Energy Malnutrition/physiopathology , Runaway Behavior/drug effects , Cerebrum/physiopathology , Diet
20.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 39(1): 25-31, 1981.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-2390

ABSTRACT

Sao estudados 100 casos de tumores raqueanos quanto a distribuicao etaria, tipo histologico, topografia, evolucao e manifestacoes clinicas. Os diversos achados sao comparados com os da literatura


Subject(s)
Spinal Cord Neoplasms , Spinal Neoplasms
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