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Braz. dent. sci ; 23(4): 1-7, 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1122044


Objective: The use of medicinal plants may be an alternative method for the control of Candida spp. Responsible for human infections. This study evaluated the antifungal effect of Schinus terebinthifolius extract (Brazilian Peppertree) on C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, and C. krusei planktonic cultures and bio films. Material and Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungal concentration (MFC) of the plant extract were determined by the broth microdilution method. Biofilms formed in microplate wells were exposed to the extract for 5 min (50, 100 and 200 mg/mL) or 24 h (25, 50 and 100 mg/mL). After determination of colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL), the data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's Test (P ≤ 0.05). Results: Different MIC (mg/mL) were found, such as 0.39 (C. dubliniensis), 1.56 (C. albicans), and 3.13 (C. glabrata and C. krusei). Besides, MFC (mg/mL) of 0.78 (C. dubliniensis) and 3.13 (C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei) were also observed. Regarding the biofilms, significant reductions (log10) were found after 5 min and 24 h exposure to the plant extract, compared to the control group. However, C. dubliniensis was significantly affected only in 24 h treatment. Conclusion: S. terebinthifolius extract presented a significant antifungal effect on C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, and C. Krusei both in planktonic cultures and biofilms (AU)

Objetivo: O uso de plantas medicinais pode ser um método alternativo para o controle de Candida spp. responsáveis por infecções humanas. Este estudo avaliou o efeito antifúngico do extrato de Schinus terebinthifolius (pimenta rosa) sobre culturas planctônicas e biofilmes de C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata e C. krusei. Material e Métodos: Concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) e concentração fungicida mínima (CFM) do extrato vegetal foram determinadas pelo método de micro diluição em caldo. Biofilmes formados em poços de microplacas foram expostos ao extrato por 5 min (50, 100 e 200 mg/mL) ou 24 h (25, 50 e 100 mg/mL). Após determinação de unidades formadoras de colônias por mililitro (UFC/mL), os dados foram analisados por one-way ANOVA e Teste de Tukey (P ≤ 0,05). Resultados: Foram encontradas diferentes CIM (mg/mL), como 0,39 (C. dubliniensis),1,56 (C. albicans) e 3,13 (C. glabrata e C. krusei). Além disso, CFM (mg/mL) de 0,78 (C. dubliniensis) e 3,13 (C. albicans, C. glabrata e C. krusei) também foram observadas. Em relação aos biofilmes, foram encontradas reduções significativas (log10) após 5 min e 24 h de exposição ao extrato vegetal, em comparação ao grupo controle. No entanto, C. dubliniensis foi significativamente afetada apenas no tratamento de 24 h. Conclusão: O extrato de S. terebinthifolius apresentou efeito antifúngico significativo sobre C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata e C. Krusei, tanto em culturas planctônicas quanto em biofilmes. (AU)

Plants, Medicinal , Candida , Biofilms
Braz. dent. j ; 30(4): 356-362, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011557


Abstract This study was carried out to investigate the microbial profile and endotoxin levels of endodontic-periodontal lesions of periodontal origin. Periodontal and endodontic samples were taken from periodontal pockets and necrotic root canals of 10 teeth with endodontic-periodontal lesions. Evidencing of 40 different bacterial species were determined in each endodontic and periodontal sample using the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method and Kinetic chromogenic LAL assay was used for quantification of endotoxins. Fisher's exact test correlated the bacterial species with the endodontic or periodontal microbiota. The endotoxin levels (EU/mL) found in samples of the root canal and periodontal pocket were compared by the Wilcoxon test (p<0.05). Bacteria and LPS units were found in 100% of the endodontic and periodontal samples. The species E. faecium, P. acnes, G. morbillorum, C. sputigena and L. buccalis were strongly correlated with the endodontic microbiota and P. nigrescens with the periodontal microbiota. P. intermedia, P. endodontalis and V. parvula were more prevalent in both endodontic and periodontal microbiots. The endotoxin levels in the periodontal pocket (89600 EU/mL) were significantly higher than in the root canal (2310 EU/mL). It was concluded that the microbiota present in the periodontal and endodontic tissues is similar, with a higher prevalence of species of the orange complex and a higher level of endotoxin in the periodontal pockets.

Resumo Este estudo foi realizado para investigar o perfil microbiano e os níveis de endotoxina de lesões endoperiodontais de origem periodontal. Amostras periodontais e endodônticas foram obtidas de bolsas periodontais e canais radiculares necróticos de 10 dentes com lesões endoperiodontais. A investigação de 40 espécies bacterianas diferentes foram determinadas em cada amostra endodôntica e periodontal usando o método de hibridização de DNA-DNA (checkerboard) e o ensaio cinético cromogênico LAL foi usado para quantificação de endotoxinas. O teste exato de Fisher correlacionou as espécies bacterianas com a microbiota endodôntica ou periodontal. Os níveis de endotoxina (EU/mL) encontrados nas amostras do canal radicular e na bolsa periodontal foram comparados pelo teste de Wilcoxon (p<0,05). Bactérias e unidades de LPS foram encontradas em 100% das amostras endodônticas e periodontais. As espécies E. faecium, P. acnes, G. morbillorum, C. sputigena e L. buccalis foram fortemente correlacionadas com a microbiota endodôntica e P. nigrescens com a microbiota periodontal. P. intermedia, P. endodontalis e V. parvula foram mais prevalentes em ambas microbiotas endodôntica e periodontal. Os níveis de endotoxina na bolsa periodontal (89600 EU/mL) foram significativamente maiores do que no canal radicular (2310 EU/mL). Concluiu-se que a microbiota presente nos tecidos periodontal e endodôntico é semelhante, com maior prevalência de espécies do complexo laranja e maior nível de endotoxina nas bolsas periodontais.

Humans , Periapical Periodontitis , Periodontal Pocket , Root Canal Therapy , Dental Pulp Cavity , Endotoxins
Braz. dent. sci ; 22(2): 260-266, 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-997098


Objective: The resistance of fungi and bacteria to the available antimicrobials has increased and the development of alternative products to control them has become a very requirement. The use of plant products could be a viable option due to the efficacy, viability, and availability they present. Thereby, this study evaluated the effect of R. officinalis L. extract on C. albicans and S. mutans biofilms, by the total protein level analysis presented by the microorganisms. Material and Methods: For this purpose, monomicrobial biofilms were formed for 48 h and exposed to the R. officinalis L. extract for 5 min. Then, total protein quantification was performed by Lowry method. Results: The analysis showed significant total protein reduction of the biofilms after exposure to the plant extract, with 39 ± 11%, for C. albicans, and 32 ± 11%, for S. mutans. Conclusion: R. officinalis L. extract decreased the total protein level in both biofilms. Thus, C. albicans and S. mutans protein composition could be a target for action of antimicrobial agents. (AU)

Objetivo: A resistência de fungos e bactérias aos antimicrobianos disponíveis tem se elevado e o desenvolvimento de produtos alternativos para controlar micróbios tem se tornado uma necessidade real. A utilização de produtos de origem vegetal poderia ser uma opção viável, devido à eficácia, viabilidade e disponibilidade que apresentam. Sendo assim, este estudo avaliou o efeito do extrato de R. officinalis L. (alecrim) sobre biofilmes de C. albicans and S. mutans, analisando o nível de proteína total apresentada pelos micro-organismos. Material e Métodos: Para tanto, biofilmes monomicrobianos foram formados por 48 h e expostos ao extrato de R. officinalis L. por 5 min. Então, a quantificação de proteína total foi realizada por método de Lowry. Resultados: A análise demonstrou reduções significativas de proteína total de cada biofilme após exposição ao extrato, sendo 39 ± 11% no biofilme de C. albicans e 32 ± 11%, no caso de S. mutans. Conclusão: O extrato de R. officinalis L. diminuiu o nível de proteína total em ambos os biofilmes. Com isso, a composição proteica de C. albicans e S. mutans poderia ser um alvo para ação de agentes antimicrobianos. (AU)

Streptococcus mutans , Candida albicans , Proteins , Rosmarinus , Biofilms
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(2): 103-108, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-904147


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: A high-quality electronic search is essential for ensuring accuracy and comprehensiveness among the records retrieved when conducting systematic reviews. Therefore, we aimed to identify the most efficient method for searching in both MEDLINE (through PubMed) and EMBASE, covering search terms with variant spellings, direct and indirect orders, and associations with MeSH and EMTREE terms (or lack thereof). DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental study. UNESP, Brazil. METHODS: We selected and analyzed 37 search strategies that had specifically been developed for the field of anesthesiology. These search strategies were adapted in order to cover all potentially relevant search terms, with regard to variant spellings and direct and indirect orders, in the most efficient manner. RESULTS: When the strategies included variant spellings and direct and indirect orders, these adapted versions of the search strategies selected retrieved the same number of search results in MEDLINE (mean of 61.3%) and a higher number in EMBASE (mean of 63.9%) in the sample analyzed. The numbers of results retrieved through the searches analyzed here were not identical with and without associated use of MeSH and EMTREE terms. However, association of these terms from both controlled vocabularies retrieved a larger number of records than did the use of either one of them. CONCLUSIONS: In view of these results, we recommend that the search terms used should include both preferred and non-preferred terms (i.e. variant spellings and direct/indirect order of the same term) and associated MeSH and EMTREE terms, in order to develop highly-sensitive search strategies for systematic reviews.

Humans , Subject Headings , Review Literature as Topic , Information Storage and Retrieval/methods , Search Engine/methods , Anesthesiology , MEDLINE
Braz. dent. j ; 28(5): 604-611, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888689


Abstract The aims of this study were evaluate cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, antimicrobial activity of desensitizing toothpastes compared to a common one and the surface roughness of tooth enamel submitted to brushing with these toothpastes. Samples of three desensitizing toothpastes (Colgate Sensitive, Sensodyne and Oral B Sensitive) and common toothpaste (Colgate) were placed in contact with gingival human fibroblasts. Cytotoxicity and genotoxocity were measured by MTT assay and micronucleus test. Antimicrobial activity of the toothpastes extracts against C. albicans, S. mutans and S. aureus were assessed. For surface roughness evaluation, bovine teeth were submitted to 10.000 brushing cycles. The results were analyzed statically using Mann-Whitney U, ANOVA and Z tests (p<0.05). All toothpastes caused cytotoxic effect to the cells (p<0.05), except Colgate Sensitive. The toothpastes did not increase the number of micronuclei compared to the untreated control group. Colgate eliminated all the evaluated microorganisms at lower concentrations compared to Colgate Sensitive and Oral B Sensitive, which were not able to eliminate S. aureus. Sensodyne did not reach the minimum microbicidal concentration. The surface roughness of tooth enamel increased after brushing with Colgate Sensitive and Oral B Sensitive, however the comparison between groups showed no difference on the enamel surface roughness presented by desensitizing toothpastes when compared with the common one (p>0.05). Based on these results, we can conclude that although none toothpaste has induced genotoxicity, Colgate Sensitive was also not cytotoxic. Colgate was the most effective against the microorganisms, and there were no differences on the enamel surface roughness between the groups.

Resumo Os objetivos desse estudo foram avaliar a citotoxicidade, genotoxicidade, atividade antimicrobiana de dentifrícios dessensibilizantes em comparação com um comum e também a rugosidade superficial do esmalte dentário submetido à escovação com esses dentifrícios. Amostras de três dentifrícios dessensibilizantes (Colgate Sensitive, Sensodyne e Oral B Sensitive) e um dentifrício comum (Colgate) foram colocadas em contato com fibroblastos gengivais humanos e a citotoxicidade e genotoxidade foram mensuradas pelo ensaio MTT e teste do micronúcleo. A atividade antimicrobiana dos extratos dos dentifrícios contra C. albicans, S. mutans e S. aureus foi determinada. Para a avaliação da rugosidade superficial, espécimes de dentes bovinos foram submetidas à 10.000 ciclos de escovação. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente usando os testes Mann-Whitney U, ANOVA e Teste Z (P<0,05). Todos os dentifrícios causaram efeito citotóxico às células (P<0,05), exceto o Colgate Sensitive. Os dentifrícios não aumentaram o número de micronúcleos em comparação com o grupo não tratado. O Colgate foi capaz de eliminar todos os microorganismos avaliados em concentrações mais baixas em comparação com Colgate Sensitive e Oral B Sensitive, que não foram capazes de eliminar os S. aureus. O Sensodyne não atingiu a concentração microbicida mínima para qualquer microorganismo. A rugosidade superficial do esmalte dentário aumentou após a escovação com Colgate Sensitive e Oral B Sensitive, porém a comparação entre os grupos não mostrou diferença na rugosidade superficial do esmalte apresentada por dentifrícios dessensibilizantes quando comparados ao comum (p>0,05). Com base nesses resultados, podemos concluir que, embora nenhum dentifrício tenha induzido genotoxicidade, o Colgate Sensitive também não foi citotóxico. O Colgate foi o mais eficaz contra os microorganismos, e não houve diferença na rugosidade superficial do esmalte entre os grupos.

Humans , Animals , Cattle , Toothpastes , Biocompatible Materials , Dentin Sensitivity/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Streptococcus mutans/drug effects , Surface Properties , Candida albicans/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Mutagenicity Tests
Braz. dent. j ; 28(4): 423-427, July-Aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888675


Abstract The aim of this study was to isolate Enterobacteria and Pseudomonas from the oral cavity of hospitalized newborns (NB) and determine their prevalence and the sensitivity profile to most commonly used antibiotics for this age group. Samples from the oral cavity of NB from 24 to 48 h age were collected using swabs. The samples were inoculated on MacConkey agar, incubated and the colonies counted and identified. For each strain, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using agar dilution test. Tests for enterobacteria producing extended spectrumβ-lactamases (ESBL) were performed using agar diffusion. Descriptive statistics was used for data analysis. Two of the isolated strains were submitted to the susceptibility test in biofilm. Of the collected samples, 8% presented Enterobacteria (mean of 6,141 CFU/mL) and no Pseudomona species was isolated. Positive samples were from NB in accommodation set or in the NB nursery. Enterobacter was the most prevalent genus and some strains were resistant to ampicillin, gentamicin and cephalothin. No ESBL strain was detected. Microorganisms in biofilms were resistant to all antibiotics, with concentrations four times higher than MIC. The presence of enterobacteria in the oral cavity of newborns, especially some strains resistant to normally used antibiotics, warns to the need for care to avoid the early colonization of this niche and the occurrence of a possible hospital infection in this age group.

Resumo O objetivo foi isolar enterobactérias e Pseudomonas da cavidade oral de recém-nascidos hospitalizados (RN) e determinar a prevalência e o perfil de sensibilidade aos antibióticos mais comumente utilizados para este grupo etário. Foram coletadas amostras da cavidade oral de NB com idade de 24-48 horas, usando swab. As amostras foram inoculadas em ágar MacConkey, incubadas e, as colônias contadas e identificadas. Para cada cepa, a concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) foi determinada utilizando teste de ágar diluição. Testes para enterobactérias produtoras de b-lactamases de espectro estendido (ESBL) foram realizados utilizando difusão em ágar. Estatística descritiva foi utilizada para análise dos resultados. Duas das cepas isoladas foram submetidas ao teste de susceptibilidade em biofilme. Das amostras coletadas, 8% apresentaram enterobactérias (média de 6,141 UFC / ml) e nenhuma espécie de Pseudomonas foi isolada. As amostras positivas foram de RN de alojamento conjunto ou RN de berçário. Enterobacter foi o gênero mais prevalente e algumas cepas foram resistentes à ampicilina gentamicina e cefalotina. Não foi detectada cepa ESBL. Micro-organismos em biofilme foram resistentes a todos os antibióticos, em concentrações quatro vezes superiores ao MIC. A presença de enterobactérias em cavidade oral de recém-nascidos, especialmente algumas cepas resistentes aos antibióticos normalmente utilizados, alerta para a necessidade de cuidados, evitando a colonização precoce deste nicho e a ocorrência de possível infecção nosocomial neste grupo etário.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Mouth/microbiology , Pseudomonas/drug effects , Biofilms , Colony Count, Microbial , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pseudomonas/isolation & purification
Braz. dent. sci ; 20(1): 64-69, 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-836732


Objetivo: No presente estudo foi avaliado o efeito do extrato de alecrim sobre a viabilidade de biofilmes monomicrobianos de Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans e Pseudomonas aeruginosa, bem como, sobre biofilmes polimicrobianos de C. albicans associada com S. aureus, E. faecalis, S. mutans ou P. aeruginosa. Material e métodos: Em placa de microtitulação foram formados os biofilmes mono e polimicrobianos por 48 h. Em seguida, foram expostos por 5 min ao extrato de alecrim (200 mg/mL). Solução salina (NaCl 0,9%) foi utilizada como controle. Após, foram realizadas lavagens com salina para remoção de células não aderidas. Para verificação da viabilidade dos biofilmes, após o tratamento, foi aplicado o teste colorimétrico MTT. A absorbância dos poços foi lida em espectrofotômetro de microplacas (570 nm) e os dados foram convertidos em percentual de redução e analisados estatisticamente por ANOVA e Tukey Test (P ≤ 0,05). Resultados: Após aplicação do extrato de alecrim, com exceção do biofilme de E. faecalis, foram observadas reduções significativas da viabilidade dos biofilmes monomicrobianos e polimicrobianos. Conclusão: Biofilmes monomicrobianos de C. albicans, S. aureus, S. mutans e P. aeruginosa, foram afetados pelo extrato de alecrim, bem como, os biofilmes polimicrobianos de C. albicans associada com S. aureus, E. faecalis, S. mutans ou P. aeruginosa em biofilmes polimicrobianos, apresentando significativas reduções de viabilidade.(AU)

Objective: This study evaluated the effect of rosemary extract on Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa monomicrobial biofilms viability, as well as on C. albicans associated with S. aureus, E. faecalis, S. mutans or P. aeruginosa in polymicrobial biofilms. Material and Methods: In microtiter plate, mono- and polymicrobial biofilms for 48 h were formed. Then, they were exposed for 5 min to rosemary extract (200 mg/mL). Saline (0.9% NaCl) was used as control. After, washes were done with saline to remove the non-adhered cells. Biofilm viability was checked by MTT colorimetric assay, after treatment. Absorbance of the wells was read in microplate spectrophotometer (570 nm) and data were converted to reduction percentage and statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (P ≤ 0.05). Results: After application of rosemary extract, with exception of the E. faecalis biofilm, significant reductions in mono- and polymicrobial biofilms viability were observed. Conclusion: C. albicans, S. aureus, S. mutans and P. aeruginosa monomicrobial biofilms were affected by rosemary extract, as well as C. albicans associated with S. aureus, E. faecalis, S. mutans or P. aeruginosa in polymicrobial biofilms, presenting significant viability reductions. (AU)

Dental Plaque , Feasibility Studies , Rosmarinus
Braz. dent. j ; 27(5): 573-577, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828032


Abstract This clinical study investigated the effects of endodontic treatment by using different irrigants (limewater + NaOCl and polymyxin B + NaOCl) and intracanal medication on endotoxins in teeth with primary endodontic infection and radiographically visible apical periodontitis. Thirty-three teeth with necrotic pulp and periapical lesions from different patients were selected for this study. Samples were collected after the coronal opening (S1) and after instrumentation (S2). Root canals were divided in 3 groups (n = 11) according to the irrigant combination used: NaOCl + LW: 2.5% NaOCl + calcium hydroxide solution (0.14%, limewater); NaOCl + PmB: 2.5% NaOCl + 10.000 UI/mL polymyxin B; 2.5% NaOCl (control). The third sampling (S3) was performed after ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and the fourth (S4) after samples got 14 days with intracanal medication with 2% chlorhexidine gel + calcium hydroxide. Endotoxins (lipopolysaccharide) were quantified by chromogenic Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL). Endotoxins were detected in all root canals after the coronal opening (S1). NaOCl + PmB group presented the greatest endotoxin reduction after instrumentation (76.17%), similar to NaOCl + LW group (67.64%, p<0.05) and different from NaOCl group (42.17%, p<0.05). After intracanal medication period (S4), there was significant increase of endotoxins neutralization. It was concluded that NaOCl + PmB promoted the greatest reduction of endotoxin levels, followed by NaOCl + LW. Intracanal medications had no significant complementary role in the reduction of endotoxins at the end of the treatment

Resumo Este estudo clínico investigou os efeitos do tratamento endodôntico com uso de diferentes irrigantes (NaOCl + água de cal e NaOCl + polimixina B) e medicação intracanal sobre endotoxinas em dentes com infecção endodôntica primária e presença de lesão periapical visível radiograficamente. Foram selecionados para o estudo trinta e três dentes de pacientes que apresentavam necrose pulpar e presença de lesão periapical. As amostras foram coletadas após a abertura coronária (S1) e após a instrumentação (S2). Os canais radiculares foram divididos em 3 grupos (n = 11) de acordo com a combinação de irrigantes utilizada: NaOCl + LW:- hipoclorito de sódio 2,5% + solução de hidróxido de cálcio (água de cal 0,14%); NaOCl + PmB: hipoclorito de sódio a 2,5% + polimixina B 10.000 UI/mL; NaOCl (controle): hipoclorito de sódio a 2,5%. A terceira coleta (S3) foi realizada após aplicação do ácido etilenodiamino tetra acético (EDTA) e a quarta coleta (S4) após 14 dias de medicação intracanal de hidróxido de cálcio + clorexidina gel 2%. Endotoxinas (lipopolissacarídeos) foram quantificadas pelo ensaio cromogênico do lisado de amebócitos de Limulus (LAL). Endotoxinas foram detectadas em todos os canais radiculares após abertura coronária (S1). Grupo NaOCl + PmB apresentou a maior redução de endotoxinas após a instrumentação (76,17%), sendo similar ao grupo NaOCl + LW (67,64%, P >.05) e diferente do grupo NaOCl (42,17%, P <.05). Após o período de medicação intracanal, houve aumento significativo da neutralização de endotoxinas. Concluiu-se que NaOCl + PmB promoveu a maior redução dos níveis de endotoxinas, seguido de NaOCl + LW. A medicação intracanal não teve um papel complementar significativo na redução de endotoxinas no final do tratamento.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Endotoxins/administration & dosage , Polymyxin B/administration & dosage , Root Canal Therapy/methods
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 44(3): 131-136, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-749887


Aim The present study evaluated the morphological and chemical changes of dentin produced by different sterilization methods, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) analysis. Material and method Five human teeth were sectioned into 4 samples, each divided into 3 specimens. The specimens were separated into sterilization groups, as follows: wet heat under pressure; cobalt 60 gamma radiation; and control (without sterilization). After sterilization, the 60 specimens were analyzed by SEM under 3 magnifications: 1500X, 5000X, and 10000X. The images were analyzed by 3 calibrated examiners, who assigned scores according to the changes observed in the dentinal tubules: 0 = no morphological change; 1, 2 and 3 = slight, medium and complete obliteration of the dentinal tubules. The chemical composition of dentin was assessed by EDS, with 15 kV incidence and 1 μm penetration. Result The data obtained were submitted to the statistical tests of Kruskall-Wallis and ANOVA. It was observed that both sterilization methods – with autoclave and with cobalt 60 gamma radiation – produced no significant changes to the morphology of the dentinal tubules or to the chemical composition of dentin. Conclusion Both methods may thus be used to sterilize teeth for research conducted in vitro. .

Objetivo O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as alterações morfológicas e químicas na dentina geradas por diferentes métodos de esterilização, através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e da análise por espectrometria de energia dispersiva de raios-X. Material e método Seccionaram-se 5 dentes humanos em 4 amostras, as quais foram divididas em 3 espécimes cada, totalizando 60 espécimes. Os espécimes foram separados conforme os grupos de esterilização: calor úmido sob pressão; radiação gama cobalto 60; controle (sem esterilização). Após a esterilização, os 60 espécimes foram analisados por MEV, usando 3 aumentos: 1500X, 5000X, 10000X. As imagens foram analisadas por 3 examinadores previamente calibrados, que distribuíram escores referentes às alterações observadas nos túbulos dentinários: 0 = sem alteração morfológica, 1 = baixa obliteração dos túbulos dentinários, 2 = moderada obliteração, 3 = completa obliteração. A composição química da dentina foi avaliada por meio do processo EDS, com 15 kV de incidência e penetração de 1 μm. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos ao teste estatístico de Kruskall-Wallis com nível de significância de 5%. Resultado De acordo com os resultados obtidos, verificou-se que a esterilização tanto por autoclave quanto por radiação gama cobalto 60 não provocou alterações significativas na morfologia dos túbulos dentinários e na constituição química da dentina. Conclusão Concluiu-se que ambos os métodos podem ser utilizados para a esterilização de dentes em pesquisa in vitro. .

Braz. oral res ; 28(1): 28-32, Jan-Feb/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-696999


Adhesion and colonization of the oral cavity by Candida albicans is an initial step in candidosis. Orthodontic and other oral appliances seem to favor candidal presence. The aim of this work was to compare the presence of Candida species in saliva, their adherence to oral epithelial cells, and the levels of anti-C. albicans IgA in children with or without orthodontic appliances. This study included 30 children 5 to 12 years old (9.1 ± 1.7 years old) who were users of removable orthodontic devices for at least 6 months and 30 control children of similar ages (7.7 ± 1.5 years old). The presence of yeast species in the saliva was evaluated by microbiological methods. Candida species were identified using phenotypic methods. Anti-C. albicans IgA levels in saliva were analyzed by ELISA. The yeasts adhering to oral epithelial cells were assessed by exfoliative cytology. No statistically significant differences were observed for saliva yeast counts and anti-C. albicans IgA levels between the studied groups. Children with orthodontic devices exhibited more yeast cells adhering to oral epithelial cells and a higher percentage of non-albicans species relative to the control group. In conclusion, orthodontic appliances may favor the adherence of Candida to epithelial cells but do not influence the presence of these yeasts in saliva, and the levels of anti-C. albicans IgA do not correlate with yeast adherence or presence of Candida in the oral cavity.

Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Candida/physiology , Epithelial Cells/microbiology , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Orthodontic Appliances, Removable/microbiology , Saliva/microbiology , Analysis of Variance , Case-Control Studies , Cell Adhesion , Colony Count, Microbial , Candida/isolation & purification , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Mouth Mucosa/microbiology , Reference Values
J. appl. oral sci ; 21(2): 118-123, Mar-Apr/2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-674353


ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of auxiliary chemical substances and natural extracts on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis inoculated in root canals. Material and Methods: Seventy-two human tooth roots were contaminated with C. albicans and E. faecalis for 21 days. The groups were divided according to the auxiliary chemical substance into: G1) 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), G2) 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX), G3) castor oil, G4) glycolic Aloe vera extract, G5) glycolic ginger extract, and G6) sterile saline (control). The samples of the root canal were collected at different intervals: confirmation collection, at 21 days after contamination; 1st collection, after instrumentation; and 2nd collection, seven days after instrumentation. Microbiological samples were grown in culture medium and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Results: The results were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn (5%) statistical tests. NaOCl and CHX completely eliminated the microorganisms of the root canals. Castor oil and ginger significantly reduced the number of CFU of the tested bacteria. Reduction of CFU/mL at the 1st and 2nd collections for groups G1, G2, G3 and G4 was greater in comparison to groups G5 and G6. Conclusion: It was concluded that 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine gel were more effective in eliminating C. albicans and E. faecalis, followed by the castor oil and glycolic ginger extract. The Aloe vera extract showed no antimicrobial activity. .

Humans , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Dental Pulp Cavity/drug effects , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Aloe/chemistry , Castor Oil/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Ginger/chemistry , Materials Testing , Reproducibility of Results , Statistics, Nonparametric , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Time Factors
Braz. dent. sci ; 16(3): 77-83, 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-707566


Objetivo: Avaliar potencial antifúngico dos extratos de Equisetum arvense L. (cavalinha), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (alcaçuz), Punica granatum L. (romã) e Stryphnodendron barbati-mam Mart. (barbatimão) sobre biofilme de Candida albicans em resina acrílica. Material e métodos: Cepa-padrão de C. albicans foi cultivada em ágar Sabouraud-dextrose por 24 h a 37°C. Após padronização do inóculo (106 células/mL) em espectrofotômetro, foram mantidos em caldo Brain Heart Infusion suplementado comsacarose (5%) um disco de resina acrílica estéril com 100 μL do inóculo padronizado, por 5 dias a 37 °C. As amostras dos grupos tratados (n = 10) foram expostas separadamente à concentração de 50 mg/mL de cada extrato por 5 min e ao antifúngico nistatina (48.83 UI/mL). Para o grupo não tratado (controle, n = 10) foi utilizada solução fisiológica estéril (NaCl 0,9%). Os biofilmes foram desagregados dos discos de resina acrílica por homogeneizador ultrassônico por 30 s. Após diluições decimais, foram feitas semeaduras em placas de Sabouraud-dextrose e incubação por 48 h a 37 ºC. Posteriormente, foram contadas as UFC/mL e os valores foram convertidos em log10 e realizada análise estatística (ANOVA e Tukey Test; p ≤ 0,05). Resultados: Todos os extratos naturais e a nistatina proporcionaram reduções significativas (p < 0,01) do biofilme de C. albicans em comparação ao grupo controle (NaCl 0,9%), no entanto, não houve diferença estatística entre os extratos (p = 0,1567). Conclusões: Houve formação de biofilme de C. albicans em resina acrílica e todos os extratos vegetais foram efetivos para esta levedura, atuando semelhantemente à nistatina.

Objective: Evaluating the antifungal potential of Equisetum arvense L. (horsetail), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (licorice), Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) and Stryphnodendron barbatimam Mart. (barbatimão) extracts, after Candida albicans biofilm formation on acrylic resin. Material and methods: C. albicans standard strain was cultured on Sabourauddextrose agar for 24 h at 37 °C. After standardized in a spectrophotometer, 100 μL of the inoculums (106 cells/mL) and a sterile acrylic resin disc were maintained in Brain Heart Infusion broth supplemented with sucrose (5%), for 5 days at 37ºC. The samples of the treated groups (n = 10) were separately exposed to a concentration of 50 mg/mL of each extract for 5 minutes or to nystatin (48.83 IU/mL). For the untreated group (control, n = 10), it was used sterile saline (0.9% NaCl). Biofilms were disaggregated from the acrylic resin discs by an ultrasonic homogenizer for 30 s. After decimal dilutions, sowings in Sabouraud-dextrose plates were made with incubation for 48 h at 37°C. Later, CFU/mL was verified and the values were converted to log10 and they had their statistical analysis done (ANOVA and Tukey Test, p ≤ 0.05). Results: It was found that all plant extracts and nystatin resulted in significant reduction of C. albicans biofilm (p < 0.01) compared to the control group (0.9% NaCl). However, all of them showed similar reductions to each other (p = 0.1567). Conclusion: There was biofilm formation of C. albicans on acrylic resin and all plant extracts were effective against this yeast, acting similarly to nystatin.

Candida albicans , Dental Plaque , Nystatin , Plants, Medicinal
J. appl. oral sci ; 21(1): 25-31, 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-684991


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of glycolic propolis (PRO) and ginger (GIN) extracts, calcium hydroxide (CH), chlorhexidine (CLX) gel and their combinations as ICMs (ICMs) against Candida albicans,Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and endotoxins in root canals. Material and Methods: After 28 days of contamination with microorganisms, the canals were instrumented and then divided according to the ICM: CH+saline; CLX, CH+CLX, PRO, PRO+CH; GIN; GIN+CH; saline. The antimicrobial activity and quantification of endotoxins by the chromogenic test of Limulus amebocyte lysate were evaluated after contamination and instrumentation at 14 days of ICM application and 7 days after ICM removal. Results and Conclusion: After analysis of results and application of the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn statistical tests at 5% significance level, it was concluded that all ICMs were able to eliminate the microorganisms in the root canals and reduce their amount of endotoxins; however, CH was more effective in neutralizing endotoxins and less effective against C. albicans and E. faecalis, requiring the use of medication combinations to obtain higher success.

Humans , Candida albicans/drug effects , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Endotoxins/analysis , Enterococcus faecalis/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Ginger/chemistry , Propolis/pharmacology , Calcium Hydroxide/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Endotoxins/chemistry , Root Canal Preparation , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
Braz. oral res ; 26(1): 24-28, Jan.-Feb. 2012. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622921


Due to the increase in life expectancy, new treatments have emerged which, although palliative, provide individuals with a better quality of life. Artificial saliva is a solution that contains substances that moisten a dry mouth, thus mimicking the role of saliva in lubricating the oral cavity and controlling the existing normal oral microbiota. This study aimed to assess the influence of commercially available artificial saliva on biofilm formation by Candida albicans. Artificial saliva I consists of carboxymethylcellulose, while artificial saliva II is composed of glucose oxidase, lactoferrin, lysozyme and lactoperoxidase. A control group used sterile distilled water. Microorganisms from the oral cavity were transferred to Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Colonies of Candida albicans were suspended in a sterile solution of NaCl 0.9%, and standardisation of the suspension to 106 cells/mL was achieved. The acrylic discs, immersed in artificial saliva and sterile distilled water, were placed in a 24-well plate containing 2 mL of Sabouraud Dextrose Broth plus 5% sucrose and 0.1 mL aliquot of the Candida albicans suspension. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 5 days, the discs were washed in 2 mL of 0.9% NaCl and placed into a tube containing 10 mL of 0.9% NaCl. After decimal dilutions, aliquots of 0.1 mL were seeded on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar and incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. Counts were reported as CFU/mL (Log10). A statistically significant reduction of 29.89% (1.45 CFU/mL) of Candida albicans was observed in saliva I when compared to saliva II (p = 0.002, considering p≤0.05).

Humans , Biofilms/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Saliva, Artificial/pharmacology , Acrylic Resins , Biofilms/growth & development , Colony Count, Microbial , Candida albicans/physiology , Saliva, Artificial/chemistry
J. appl. oral sci ; 19(2): 106-112, May-Apr. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-586030


OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effcacy of auxiliary chemical substances and intracanal medications on Escherichia coli and its endotoxin in root canals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Teeth were contaminated with a suspension of E. coli for 14 days and divided into 3 groups according to the auxiliary chemical substance used: G1) 2.5 percent sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); G2) 2 percent chlorhexidine gel (CLX); G3) pyrogenfree solution. After, these groups were subdivided according to the intracanal medication (ICM): A) Calcium hydroxide paste (Calen®), B) polymyxin B, and C) Calcium hydroxide paste+2 percent CLX gel. For the control group (G4), pyrogen-free saline solution was used without application of intracanal medication. Samples of the root canal content were collected immediately after biomechanical preparation (BMP), at 7 days after BMP, after 14 days of intracanal medication activity, and 7 days after removal of intracanal medication. The following aspects were evaluated for all collections: a) antimicrobial activity; b) quantifcation of endotoxin by the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate test (LAL). Results were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests at 5 percent signifcance level. RESULTS: The 2.5 percent NaOCl and CLX were able to eliminate E. coli from root canal lumen and reduced the amount of endotoxin compared to saline. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that 2.5 percent NaOCl and CLX were effective in eliminating E. coli. Only the studied intracanal medications were to reduce the amount of endotoxin present in the root canals, regardless of the irrigant used.

Humans , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Endotoxins/analysis , Escherichia coli/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Root Canal Irrigants/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Calcium Hydroxide/pharmacology , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Dental Pulp Cavity/chemistry , Polymyxin B/pharmacology , Root Canal Preparation , Statistics, Nonparametric , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology
Rev. odontol. UNESP (Online) ; 39(1): 15-19, jan.-fev. 2010. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-874776


A proposta deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade antimicrobiana de enxaguatórios bucais, à base de clorexidina, sem álcool na sua composição, sobre Candida albicans. Foram avaliados vinte isolados clínicos de C. albicans e uma cepa de referência (ATCC 18804) frente a dois enxaguatórios à base de digluconato de clorexidina 0,12% e sem etanol ("Ca" e "Or"), em comparação ao enxaguatório de gluconato de clorexidina com etanol (controle positivo). A máxima diluição inibitória (MDI) e a máxima diluição fungicida (MDF) foram determinadas pelo método de microdiluição. Foram realizadas 12 diluições seriadas dos produtos (de 50 a 0,02%) em duplicata. Em seguida, foram acrescentados 100 µL da suspensão de C. albicans (106 células.mL-1) nos poços das placas. Após incubação (37 °C/24 horas), a MDI foi determinada por meio da leitura das densidades ópticas. Para determinar a MDF, foram realizadas semeaduras do conteúdo dos poços em ágar Sabouraud. Não houve diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos Or e controle para a MDI, mas o grupo Ca mostrou uma MDI estatisticamente maior (Kruskal-Wallis, p = 0,0012). Já para MDF, não houve diferenças estatísticas entre os grupos Ca e controle (Teste de Mann-Whitney, p = 0,1631). Pode-se concluir que o grupo Ca apresentou atividade fungicida sobre C. albicans semelhante ao controle, mas menor ação fungistática em comparação ao controle, enquanto que o Or apresentou apenas ação fungistática semelhante ao controle sobre os isolados avaliados.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of alcohol-free mouthwashes on Candida albicans. Twenty clinical isolates of C. albicans and one reference strain (ATCC 18804) were evaluated after exposure to two 0.12% chlorhexidine-based and alcohol-free ("Ca" and "Or") in comparison to gluconate chlorhexidine with ethanol (positive control). The maximum inhibitory dilution (MID) and maximum fugal dilution (MFD) were determined by the microdilution method. Twelve serial dilutions (from 50 to 0.02%) were prepared in duplicate. Then, 100 µL of C. albicans suspension (106 cells.mL-1) were added to the wells. After incubation (37 °C/24 hours), MID was determined by reading the optical density. For MFD determination, the content of the wells were plated on Saouraud agar. For MID, there were no differences between groups Or and control, but Ca group showed a MID statistically higher (Kruskal-Wallis, p = 0.0012). For MFD, there were no differences between Ca and control (Mann-Whitney test, p = 0.1631). It can be concluded that Ca group showed a fungicid activity against C. albicans similar to the control, but lower fungistatic activity when compared to the control. Group Or showed only a fungistatic action similar to control.

Mouthwashes , Antifungal Agents , Candida albicans , Chlorhexidine
Braz. dent. sci ; 13(1/2): 31-38, 2010. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-642688


A eliminação total dos microrganismos dos canais radiculares é um procedimento de dificuldade extrema. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar in vitro a efetividade da instrumentação associada à Terapia Fotodinâmica (TFD) na eliminação de Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 nos canais radiculares. Foram utilizadas 20 raízes dentárias humanas contaminadas com Enterococcus faecalis tendo 14 dias como período de incubação. Após esse tempo, foi realizada coleta do conteúdo intracanal que foi semeado em meio de cultura Tryptic Soy Agar. Das 20 raízes dentárias humanas, 10 foram utilizadas no grupo teste, em que os canais foram instrumentados e preenchidos com associação do corante azuleno 25% e Endo-PTC (5g azuleno/15g Endo-PTC) durante 5 minutos e irradiados com laser ArGaAl por 3 minutos; as outras 10 raízes dentárias foram utilizadas no grupo controle, em que houve apenas a fase de instrumentação e não foi realizada a TFD. Outras duas coletas foram feitas, sendo uma imediatamente e outra após 7 dias da TFD, as quais receberam medicação intracanal (polimixina B com clorexidina gel 2%) por 14 dias. A última coleta foi realizada depois de 7 dias da remoção da medicação. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística Mann-Whitney (5%). Concluiu-se que a instrumentação associada à TFD frente a Enterococcus faecalis foi efetiva, mas não eliminou totalmente o biofilme intracanal monoespécie. Após o uso de medicação intracanal com clorexidina gel 2% associada à polimixina B, não houve diferença no número de UFCs de Enterococcus faecalis entre o grupo tratado com TFD e aquele em que foi utilizada apenas a instrumentação

The total elimination of microorganisms in root canals is an extremely difficult procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) associated to instrumentation for the elimination of Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 in root canals. Twenty human dental roots were inoculated with E. faecalis. After 14 days of incubation, the results of intracanal content sampling were plated on tryptic soy agar. The canals were instrumented and filled with a mixture of 25% azulene and Endo-PTC for 5 min, and the test group was irradiated with an ArGaAl laser for 3 min. Two more samplings that received intracanal medication (polymixin B with 2% chlorhexidine gel) for 14 days were performed, one immediately and another 7 days after the photodynamic therapy. The last sampling was performed 7 days after removing the medication. The data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. It could be concluded that the photodynamic therapy associated to instrumentation was effective against E. faecalis but did not totally eliminate the intracanal monospecies biofilm. After using the 2% chlorhexidine gel and polymixin B intracanal medication, no significant difference in the number of Enterococcus faecalis colony-forming unit (CFU) was observed between the group treated with PDT and the group treated with instrumentation only.

Humans , Endodontics , Enterococcus faecalis , Lasers , Photochemotherapy
Braz. dent. sci ; 13(3/4): 42-48, 2010. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-642721


O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar in vitro a ação do laser de Nd:YAG no selamento apical da dentina radicular preparada retroapicalmente com ultrassom ou broca convencional e retro-obturada com MTA ou polímero derivado do óleo da mamona. Foram utilizados 80 dentes humanos unirradiculados cujas coroas foram removidas e o terço radicular apical seccionado em 3 mm. As raízes foram divididas em 8 grupos (n=10): G1: preparo retroapical com ultrassom, aplicação do laser e retro-obturação com MTA; G2: preparo retroapical com ultrassom, aplicação do laser e retro-obturação com cimento à base do polímero da mamona; G3: preparo retroapical com brocas diamantadas, aplicação do laser e retro-obturação com MTA; G4: preparo retroapical com brocas, aplicação do laser e retro-obturação com cimento de mamona; G5: preparo retroapical com ultrassom, retro-obturação com MTA, sem irradiação prévia pelo laser; G6: preparo retroapical com ultrassom, retro-obturação com cimento de mamona, sem irradiação prévia pelo laser; G7: preparo retroapical com o uso de brocas e retro-obturação com MTA, sem irradiação prévia pelo laser; G8: preparo retroapical com brocas e retro-obturação com cimento de mamona, sem irradiação prévia pelo laser. Os espécimes foram imersos em corante, clivados e levados à leitura da infiltração máxima para cada espécime. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância ANOVA e teste de Tukey (5%). Os menores valores de infiltração foram verificados nos grupos G2, G4, G5, G6 e G8, com diferença significante em relação aos grupos G1, G3 e G7 (p<0,05), que apresentaram maiores valores de infiltração. Pôde-se concluir que o uso do laser só apresentou bons resultados quando associado ao polímero da mamona. O melhor material retro-obturador foi o polímero da mamona, em todos os grupos (preparo retroapical com broca ou ultrassom, com ou sem laser). O MTA só apresentou bons resultados quando associado ao ultrassom e sem irradiação pelo laser.

The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the effect of an Nd:YAG laser on the apical sealing of roots retroapically prepared with ultrasound or conventional bur and using MTA or castor oil bean (COB) polymer as the retrofilling materials. Eighty single-rooted human teeth had their crowns sectioned, and the apical thirds of the roots were cut into 3 mm sectionsand divided into 8 groups (n = 10): G1, retroapical preparation with ultrasound and cavities irradiated by an Nd:YAG laser and MTA as the retrofilling; G2, retroapical preparation using ultrasound with the cavities irradiated by an Nd:YAG laser and retrofilled with COB polymer; G3, retroapical preparation with diamond drills and the cavities irradiated byan Nd:YAG laser and retrofilled with MTA; G4, preparation with retroapical burs, the cavities irradiated by an Nd:YAG laser and COB polymer used as the retrofilling; G5, retroapical preparation with ultrasound, retrofilling with MTA and without laser irradiation; G6, retroapical preparation with ultrasound, retrofilling with COB and without laser irradiation; G7,retroapical preparation with burs, retrofilling with MTA and without previous irradiation; and G8, retroapical preparationwith burs, retrofilling with COB and no laser irradiation. The specimens were immersed in dye and cleaved, and the maximum infiltration for each specimen was read. The values were analyzed using an ANOVA model and the Tukey test. The lowest infiltration values were found in the G2, G4, G5, G6 and G8 groups, significantly different from the G1, G3 and G7 groups (p <0.05), which had higher infiltration values. The laser produced better results only when associated with the COB polymer. The COB polymer was the best material in all of the groups (retroapical preparation with bur or ultrasound, with or without the laser). The MTA produced favorable results only when combined with ultrasound and not with laser irradiation

Humans , Ricinus , Ultrasonography
Braz. dent. sci ; 12(3): 38-43, jul.-set. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-587927


A proposta deste estudo foi avaliar a efetividade da solução de clorexidina 2% e medicações intracanais sobre Eschericha coli e endotoxina em canais radiculares. Os canais radiculares de 48 dentes unirradiculados foram contaminados com E. coli por 14 dias, instrumentados com solução de clorexidina 2% e divididos em 3 grupos de acordo com a medicação intracanal (MIC) utilizada: pasta de Ca(OH)2, polimixina B, Ca(OH)2 + clorexidina gel 2% (CLX). No grupo controle foi utilizada somente solução fisiológica. Foram realizadas coletas do conteúdo do canal radicular imediatamente após a instrumentação (S1), após 7 dias da instrumentação (S2), imediatamente após 14 dias da ação da MIC (S3) e 7 dias após remoção da MIC (S4). Para todas as coletas foram realizados os seguintes testes: a) análise microbiológica; b)quantificação de endotoxina pelo teste cromogênico do lisado de amebócitos do Limulus. Os resultados foram analisados pelo teste de ANOVA e Dunn (5%). Na amostra S2 a sol. CLX 2% apresentou melhores resultados em relação à solução fisiológica. Na amostra S3 houve diferença estatística do Ca(OH)2 + CLX em relação ao Ca(OH)2 e polimixina B. Na amostra S4 não houve diferenças estatísticas significantes entre os grupos. Conclui-se que somente as medicações intracanais são capazes de diminuir significativamente a quantidade de endotoxinas.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the 2% chlorhexidine solution and medications on Eschericha coli and endotoxin in root canals. The root canals of 48 single-rooted teeth were contaminated with E. coli for 14 days, instrumented with 2% chlorhexidine solution and divided into 3 groups according to the intracanal medication (ICM) used: Ca(OH)2 paste, polymyxin B (PB), Ca(OH)2 + 2% chlorhexidine gel (CLX). The control group it was only used physiological solution. Samples of the root canal content were collected immediately after PBM (S1), at 7 days after PBM(S2), immediately after 14 days of ICM activity (S3), and 7 days after removal of ICM (S4). The following aspects wereevaluated for all collections: a) antimicrobial activity; b) quantification of endotoxin by the Limulus amebocyte lysate Test. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Dunn (5%) statistical tests. In the S2 sample the 2% CLX presented better resulted in relation to the physiological solution. In the S3 sample the Ca(OH)2 was statistically different from Ca(OH)2 and polymyxin B. In the S4 sample it did not have significant statistical differences between the groups. It was conclude that only the intracanals medications are capable to reduce the amount of endotoxins significantly.

Dental Pulp Cavity , Chlorhexidine , Escherichia coli , Calcium Hydroxide , Root Canal Irrigants , Polymyxins
J. appl. oral sci ; 17(3): 220-223, May-June 2009. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-514037


OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of castor oil polymer (COP), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and glass ionomer cement (GIC) as root-end filling materials. Forty-five single-rooted human teeth were cleaned and prepared using a step-back technique. The apical third of each root was resected perpendicularly to the long axis direction. All teeth were obturated with gutta-percha and an endodontic sealer. After, a root-end cavity with 1.25-mm depth was prepared using a diamond bur. The specimens were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n=15), according to the root-end filling material used: G1) COP; G2) MTA; G3) GIC. The external surfaces of the specimens were covered with epoxy adhesive, except the root-end filling. The teeth were immersed in rhodamine B dye for 24 hours. Then, the roots were sectioned longitudinally and the linear dye penetration at the dentin/material interface was determined using a stereomicroscope. ANOVA and Tukey's tests were used to compare the three groups. The G1 group (COP) presented smaller dye penetration, statistically different than the G2 (MTA) and G3 (GIC) groups (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference in microleakage was observed between G2 and G3 groups (p>0.05). The results of this study indicate that the COP presented efficient sealing ability when used as a root-end filling material showing results significantly better than MTA and GIC.

Humans , Biopolymers , Castor Oil , Dental Leakage/prevention & control , Retrograde Obturation , Root Canal Filling Materials , Aluminum Compounds , Calcium Compounds , Dental Marginal Adaptation , Drug Combinations , Glass Ionomer Cements , Oxides , Silicates