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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e257402, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355856

ABSTRACT

Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an infectious disease predominant in countries located in the tropics. The prediction of occurrence of infectious diseases through epidemiologic modeling has revealed to be an important tool in the understanding of its occurrence dynamic. The objective of this study was to develop a forecasting model for the incidence of VL in Maranhão using the Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model (SARIMA). We collected monthly data regarding VL cases from the National Disease Notification System (SINAN) corresponding to the period between 2001 and 2018. The Box-Jenkins method was applied in order to adjust a SARIMA prediction model for VL general incidence and by sex (male or female) for the period between January 2019 and December 2013. For 216 months of this time series, 10,431 cases of VL were notified in Maranhão, with an average of 579 cases per year. With regard to age range, there was a higher incidence among the pediatric public (0 to 14 years of age). There was a predominance in male cases, 6437 (61.71%). The Box-Pierce test figures for overall, male and female genders supported by the results of the Ljung-Box test suggest that the autocorrelations of residual values act as white noise. Regarding monthly occurrences in general and by gender, the SARIMA models (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) and (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) were the ones that mostly adjusted to the data respectively. The model SARIMA has proven to be an adequate tool for predicting and analyzing the trends in VL incidence in Maranhão. The time variation determination and its prediction are decisive in providing guidance in health measure intervention.


Resumo A leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença de natureza infecciosa, predominante em países de zonas tropicais. A predição de ocorrência de doenças infecciosas através da modelagem epidemiológica tem se revelado uma importante ferramenta no entendimento de sua dinâmica de ocorrência. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um modelo de previsão da incidência da LV no Maranhão usando o modelo de Média Móvel Integrada Autocorrelacionada Sazonal (SARIMA). Foram coletados os dados mensais de casos de LV através do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN) correspondentes ao período de 2001 a 2018. O método de Box-Jenkins foi aplicado para ajustar um modelo de predição SARIMA para incidência geral e por sexo (masculino e feminino) de LV para o período de janeiro de 2019 a dezembro de 2023. Durante o período de 216 meses dessa série temporal, foram registrados 10.431 casos de LV no Maranhão, com uma média de 579 casos por ano. Em relação à faixa etária, houve maior registro no público pediátrico (0 a 14 anos). Houve predominância do sexo masculino, com 6437 casos (61,71%). Os valores do teste de Box-Pierce para incidência geral, sexo masculino e feminino reforçados pelos resultados do teste Ljung-Box sugerem que as autocorrelações de resíduos apresentam um comportamento de ruído branco. Para incidência mensal geral e por sexo masculino e feminino, os modelos SARIMA (2,0,0) (2,0,0), (0,1,1) (0,1,1) e (0,1,1) (2, 0, 0) foram os que mais se ajustaram aos dados, respectivamente. O modelo SARIMA se mostrou uma ferramenta adequada de previsão e análise da tendência de incidência da LV no Maranhão. A determinação da variação temporal e sua predição são determinantes no norteamento de medidas de intervenção em saúde.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Models, Statistical
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 557-565, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153389

ABSTRACT

Abstract Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a neglected tropical disease with a wide distribution in the Americas. Brazil is an endemic country and present cases in all states. This study aimed to describe the occurrence, the underlying clinical and epidemiological factors, and the correlation of climatic variables with the frequency of reported CL cases in the municipality of Caxias, state of Maranhão, Brazil. This is a retrospective and descriptive epidemiological study based on data extracted from the Brazilian Information System of Diseases Notification, from 2007 to 2017. Maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation, and relative air humidity data were provided by the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology. A total of 201 reported autochthonous CL cases were analyzed. The predominance of cases was observed in males (70.1%). The age range between 31 and 60 years old was the most affected, with 96 cases (47.9%). Of the total number of registered cases, 38.8% of the affected individuals were engaged in agriculture-related activities. The georeferenced distribution revealed the heterogeneity of disease occurrence, with cases concentrated in the Western and Southern regions of the municipality. An association was detected between relative air humidity (monthly mean) and the number of CL cases per month (p = 0.04). CL continues to be a concerning public health issue in Caxias. In this context, there is a pressing need to strengthen measures of prevention and control of the disease through the network of health services of the municipality, considering local and regional particularities.


Resumo A leishmaniose cutânea (CL) é uma doença tropical negligenciada, com ampla distribuição nas Américas. O Brasil é um país endêmico e apresenta casos em todos os estados. Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever a ocorrência, os fatores clínicos e epidemiológicos subjacentes e a correlação de variáveis climáticas com a frequência de casos de CL notificados no município de Caxias, estado do Maranhão, Brasil. Este é um estudo epidemiológico retrospectivo e descritivo, com base em dados extraídos da Notificação do Sistema Brasileiro de Informação de Doenças, de 2007 a 2017. Dados máximos e mínimos de temperatura, precipitação e umidade relativa do ar foram fornecidos pelo Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia. Foram analisados 201 casos de CL autóctones relatados. A predominância de casos foi observada no sexo masculino (70,1%). A faixa etária entre 31 e 60 anos foi a mais afetada, com 96 casos (47,9%). Do número total de casos registrados, 38,8% dos indivíduos afetados estavam envolvidos em atividades relacionadas à agricultura. A distribuição georreferenciada revelou a heterogeneidade da ocorrência da doença, com casos concentrados nas regiões oeste e sul do município. Foi detectada associação entre a umidade relativa do ar (média mensal) e o número de casos de CL por mês (p = 0,04). O CL continua sendo uma questão preocupante de saúde pública em Caxias. Nesse contexto, há uma necessidade premente de fortalecer medidas de prevenção e controle da doença por meio da rede de serviços de saúde do município, considerando as particularidades locais e regionais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Cities , Environment
3.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 711-720, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278355

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the productive performance, dry matter intake, apparent digestibility and ingestive behavior of feedlot calves fed corn silage from the feed out face of trench silos with different types of sealing. The animals were divided into three treatments with four repetitions: Conventional seal - double-sided polyethylene of 110µm thickness; Double-sided seal - double-sided polyethylene of 200µm thickness; and Double seal - composed of double face polyethylene with a thickness of 80µm superimposed on a polyamide translucent vacuum film with a thickness of 20µm. The use of double face sealing provided 12.63% increase in average daily gain and improved food conversion by 0.62 percentage points. The apparent digestibility of the diet with double-face sealing system silage was 4.30% higher than the diet with double-face sealing silage and 11.00% higher than the diet with conventional sealing silage. It is recommended to use the double face sealing with 200µm polyethylene and double face sealing with 80µm thick polyethylene on top of a 20µm thick polyamide translucent vacuum film.(AU)


Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho produtivo, o consumo de matéria seca, a digestibilidade aparente e o comportamento ingestivo de novilhos confinados, alimentados com silagem de milho da porção inicial de silos do tipo trincheira, conservada sob distintos tipos de vedação. Os animais foram divididos em três tratamentos, com quatro repetições: vedação convencional - polietileno tipo dupla face, com espessura de 110µm; vedação dupla face - polietileno tipo dupla face, com espessura de 200µm; e dupla vedação - polietileno tipo dupla face, com espessura de 80µm sobreposto a um filme vácuo translúcido de poliamida, com espessura de 20µm. O uso da vedação dupla face proporcionou incremento de 12,63% no ganho de peso médio diário e melhorou em 0,62 ponto percentual a conversão alimentar. A digestibilidade aparente da dieta com silagem do sistema de vedação dupla face foi 4,30% superior em relação à dieta com silagem da dupla vedação e 11,00% superior à dieta com silagem da vedação convencional. Recomenda-se a utilização tanto da vedação dupla face com polietileno de 200µm quanto da dupla vedação com polietileno tipo dupla face, com espessura de 80µm, sobreposto a um filme vácuo translúcido de poliamida com espessura de 20µm.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cattle , Silage/analysis , Weight Gain , Polyethylene , Eating , Food Storage/methods , Food Packaging/methods
4.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(1): 117-121, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-888081

ABSTRACT

São poucos os dados publicados sobre a aplicabilidade ou a confiabilidade dos métodos digitais para mensuração do ângulo do platô tibial (APT) em comparação à mensuração manual. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o APT obtido pelo cálculo manual padrão, em filmes radiográficos, com os valores obtidos por cálculos em imagens digitais, por meio do software do computador. Foram analisadas radiografias digitais do membro pélvico, direito e esquerdo, em perfil verdadeiro, de 20 cães saudáveis, com idade superior a um ano. Três observadores com graus de experiência semelhantes em cálculo do APT realizaram as mensurações em cada radiografia. Primeiramente, foram calculados os ângulos dos platôs tibiais manualmente nas películas radiográficas e, posteriormente, os cálculos foram realizados na imagem digital, por meio do software para medicina veterinária do sistema de raios X digital. Os resultados do presente estudo demonstraram diferenças significativas entre os métodos, com valor das médias do cálculo digital 20,48±3.71 e do cálculo manual 23.90±4.02. Valor de P foi < 0,01 na comparação entre médias dos dois grupos. Na avaliação interobservadores, houve diferença significativa no cálculo manual no perfil direito, o que sugere maior variação no cálculo manual quando comparado ao digital. O cálculo realizado pelo software apresentou menor variação nos valores interobservadores. Acredita-se que a menor variação obtida nos resultados aqui apresentados se dê em razão das facilidades proporcionadas pelo software. Conclui-se que houve diferença entre os valores obtidos por meio dos métodos convencional e digital no cálculo do ângulo do platô tibial, sendo os valores digitais menores entre os observadores, e que o método digital no cálculo do ângulo do platô tibial levou à menor variação quando comparado ao método manual.(AU)


There are few published data on the applicability and reliability of digital methods for measuring the TPA compared with manual measurement. The objective of this study was to compare the TPA obtained by calculating standard manual on conventional radiographs, with the values obtained by calculations in digital images through a computer program. Bilateral digital radiographs of hind limb were analyzed in true profile for 20 healthy dogs older than two years. Three observers with similar levels of experience in calculating the TPA conducted measurements on each radiograph. First we calculated the angle of the tibial plateaus manually in x-ray film and then the calculations were made through the program offered by the computer program in the digital image. The results of this study showed significant differences between the methods, with average value of 20.48±3.71 digital calculating average and 23.90±2.4 in the manual calculation. P value was < 0.01 when comparing averages. No significant difference in manual calculation in right profile were found between interobserver assessments, suggesting greater variation in manual calculation compared to digital. The calculation performed by the software showed less variation in values. The slight variation obtained in our results is believed to be due to the facilities provided by the software. There was a difference between the values obtained by means of conventional and digital methods for calculating the angle of the tibial plateau, and the smaller digital values between the observers and the digital method in the calculation of the tibial plateau angle led to less variation when compared to the manual method.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Comparative Study , Anterior Cruciate Ligament/abnormalities , Dogs/abnormalities , Knee/abnormalities
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 70(6): 1736-1746, nov.-dez. 2018. graf, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-969662

ABSTRACT

Avaliou-se a resposta dos parâmetros fisiológicos de frequência cardíaca (FC) e respiratória (FR), temperatura retal (TR) e a atividade sérica das enzimas creatina quinase (CK) e lactato desidrogenase (LDH) em cães adultos hígidos, machos e fêmeas, sob duas modalidades de hidroterapia. Dez cães foram distribuídos em dois grupos de cinco animais, denominados de grupo I (caminhada em esteira aquática) e grupo II (natação) e submetidos a duas sessões por semana com duração inicial de 10 minutos, acrescida de cinco minutos por sessão até 30 minutos, durante nove semanas. As avaliações foram realizadas antes, imediatamente depois e quatro horas após o exercício em todas as sessões para as variáveis de FC, FR e TR e nos dias um, sete, 28 e 60 para CK e LDH. Não houve diferença (P>0,05) quando comparados os valores médios dos parâmetros fisiológicos de frequência cardíaca e respiratória e de temperatura retal. Os níveis de CK e LDH não se elevaram após a hidroterapia nos diferentes tempos e dias avaliados. Dessa forma, foi possível concluir que as sessões de natação e de caminhada em esteira aquática não causaram alterações nos parâmetros fisiológicos de frequência cardíaca e respiratória, temperatura retal e nos níveis sanguíneos de creatina quinase (CK) e lactato desidrogenase (LDH) no protocolo proposto.(AU)


The physiological parameters of heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature (TR), and serum activity of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes were determined in healthy dogs, male and female, under two hydrotherapy modalities. Ten dogs were distributed in two groups of five animals, named Group I (underwater treadmill walk) and Group II (swimming), submitted to two sessions per week with initial duration of 10 minutes, plus 5 minutes per session up to 30 minutes, during 9 weeks. The evaluations were performed before, immediately after and 4 hours after exercise in all sessions for the HR, RR and TR variables and on days one, seven, 28 and 60 for CK and LDH. There was no difference (P> 0.05) when comparing the mean values of physiological parameters of heart and respiratory rate and rectal temperature. CK and LDH levels did not rise after hydrotherapy at different times and days evaluated. So, it was possible to conclude that swimming sessions and underwater treadmill walking did not cause alterations in the physiological parameters of heart and respiratory rate, rectal temperature, and the blood levels of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the proposed protocol.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Biochemistry , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/veterinary , Dogs , Hydrotherapy/methods
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(4): 851-859, jul.-ago. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-876608

ABSTRACT

A acropostite-fimose é um processo inflamatório da extremidade do prepúcio, diagnosticada com frequência em touros. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o exame ultrassonográfico na definição da viabilidade do folheto prepucial interno (FPI) e na evolução clínica do pós-operatório, após o emprego de fios de categute ou poliglactina na hemostasia e de algodão ou poliglactina na confecção de sutura padrão Donatti empregada para fixar o FPI à pele prepucial no transoperatório da acropostite-fimose em touros. A sutura utilizada foi captonada ou não captonada, e os animais submetidos ao procedimento cirúrgico apresentavam no mínimo dois terços do FPI viável. Os touros foram alocados, aleatoriamente, em quatro grupos contendo nove animais cada, de acordo com o fio empregado na hemostasia e na confecção da sutura padrão Donatti. O exame ultrassonográfico mostrou-se importante na indicação ou não do tratamento cirúrgico da acropostite-fimose e possibilitou localizar lesões, mensurar a área de reação tecidual e identificar lesões profundas e pontos de estreitamento do FPI. Os animais de GII apresentaram edema mais discreto, observando-se diferença significativa (P<0,05) entre GII e os grupos GI, GIII e GIV. A ocorrência de hiperemia no sétimo dia de pós-operatório também foi menor nos touros do grupo GII, ocorrendo diferença significativa (P<0,05) entre GII e os grupos GI e GIII. A sutura empregando o dispositivo de látex (cápton) e o emprego do fio de poliglactina apresentaram-se como medidas benéficas, resultando em menor número de complicações pós-operatórias.(AU)


Acropostitis-Phimosis is an inflammatory process of the extremity of the prepuce, frequently diagnosed in bulls. The present study aimed to evaluate ultrassound exams in the definition of viability of the internal layer of prepuce and the postoperative clinical evolution. This evaluation is after the employment of catgut or poliglactin threads in homeostasis, and cloth or polyglactin threads in confection of the standard suture, Donatti, used to fix the internal layer of prepuce to the preputial in the postoperative of acropostitis-phimosis in bulls. The suture was captonated and non-captonated and the animals conducted to the surgical procedure showed at least 2/3 of viability of the internal layer of prepuce. The bulls were randomly allocated in four groups, each one containing nine animals, according to the thread used in homeostasis and confection of the Donatti standard suture. Ultrassound was shown to be important in the indication or not of the surgical treatment of acropostitis-phimosis and allowed the identification of lesions, measurement of areas of tissue reaction and locate deep lesions and narrowing points of internal layer of prepuce. The employment of latex device (capton) in suture and the employment of polyglactin thread 910 were shown as beneficial measures, resulting in a lower number of postoperative complications.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Cattle , Foreskin/diagnostic imaging , Foreskin/pathology , Phimosis/diagnostic imaging , Phimosis/veterinary , Polyglactin 910 , Sutures
7.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 68(4): 953-957, jul.-ago. 2016. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-792472

ABSTRACT

O Amblyomma geayi é um carrapato da família Ixodidae, encontrado principalmente em mamíferos e aves silvestres de regiões tropicais da América do Sul. Descreve-se a ocorrência de um carrapato ixodídeo da espécie A. geayi, encontrado em uma preguiça (Bradypus variegatus) proveniente do Parque Zoobotânico da Universidade Federal do Acre, Rio Branco, Acre, Amazônia Ocidental.(AU)


Amblyomma geayi is a tick of the Ixodidae family found primarily in mammals and wild birds from tropical regions in South America. This case report the occurrence of an ixodid tick species A. geayi found in a brown-throated sloth (Bradypus variegatus) from the botanical zoo Park of the Federal University of Acre, Rio Branco, Acre, Western Amazon.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Sloths/parasitology , Ticks , Amazonian Ecosystem
8.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(3): 261-266, 03/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741260

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between the anaerobic components of the maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) and of the 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (30-WAnT). Nine male physical education students performed: a) a maximal incremental exercise test; b) a supramaximal constant workload test to determine the anaerobic components of the MAOD; and c) a 30-WAnT to measure the peak power (PP) and mean power (MP). The fast component of the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and blood lactate accumulation were measured after the supramaximal constant workload test in order to determine the contributions made by alactic (ALMET) and lactic (LAMET) metabolism. Significant correlations were found between PP and ALMET (r=0.71; P=0.033) and between MP and LAMET (r=0.72; P=0.030). The study results suggested that the anaerobic components of the MAOD and of the 30-WAnT are similarly applicable in the assessment of ALMET and LAMET during high-intensity exercise.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Environmental Pollutants/adverse effects , Nitrates/urine , Perchlorates/urine , Thiocyanates/urine , Thyroid Diseases/blood , Thyroid Hormones
9.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 65(3): 742-748, June 2013. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-679108

ABSTRACT

Avaliaram-se a incidência de endometrite citológica dos 29 aos 90 dias pós-parto e seus efeitos sobre o desempenho reprodutivo de vacas de corte Nelore submetidas a uma estação de monta (EM) de 90 dias. Foram utilizadas 49 matrizes Nelores, sem histórico de retenção de placenta, sem a presença de uma infecção uterina clínica, e com escore de condição corporal acima de 2,5. Realizou-se exame ultrassonográfico para avaliar a parede uterina e a atividade ovariana. O diagnóstico de endometrite citológica foi feito pela técnica de lavagem uterina, considerando-se caso de endometrite ≥5% de neutrófilos em cada lâmina. A incidência de endometrite citológica do rebanho foi de 22%, não diferindo entre as categorias analisadas (primíparas versus multíparas) (P>0,05), a taxa de concepção à primeira inseminação também foi semelhante entre primíparas versus multíparas (P>0,05), porém a taxa de gestação ao final da EM foi maior nas vacas multíparas (83,8%) quando comparadas às primíparas (50,0%) (P<0,05). A presença ou ausência da endometrite citológica não influenciou a taxa de concepção (P>0,05), tampouco a taxa de gestação ao final da EM (P>0,05). Conclui-se que o uso da citologia endometrial não se justifica como ferramenta de diagnóstico em vacas de corte Nelore.


Were evaluated the incidence of cytological endometritis from 29 to 90 days postpartum and its effect on the reproductive performance of Nelore beef cows submitted to a breeding season (BS) for 90 days. A total of 49 cows, with no history of retained placenta, without the presence of a clinic uterine infection, and with a body condition score above 2.5 were used. Ultrasound examination was performed to evaluate the uterine wall and ovarian activity. The cytological diagnosis of endometritis was done by uterine lavage, and endometritis was considering cases of ≥5% neutrophils in each blade. The incidence of cytological endometritis in the herd was 22%, and did not differ between the categories analyzed (primiparous versus multiparous) (P>0.05), and the conception rate for first insemination was also similar between primiparous versus multiparous (P>0.05). However, the pregnancy rate at the end of BS was higher in multiparous cows (83.8%) when compared to primiparous (50.0%) cows (P<0.05). The presence or absence of cytological endometritis did not influence the conception rate (P>0.05) nor pregnancy rate at the end of the BS (P>0.05). Therefore, it can be concluded that the use of endometrial cytological cannot be justified as a diagnostic tool in Nelore beef cows.


Subject(s)
Animals , Endometritis/pathology , Neutrophils/cytology , Reproduction/genetics , Uterus/anatomy & histology , Cattle/classification
10.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(2): 164-170, 01/fev. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-668777

ABSTRACT

Myosin Va functions as a processive, actin-based motor molecule highly enriched in the nervous system, which transports and/or tethers organelles, vesicles, and mRNA and protein translation machinery. Mutation of myosin Va leads to Griscelli disease that is associated with severe neurological deficits and a short life span. Despite playing a critical role in development, the expression of myosin Va in the central nervous system throughout the human life span has not been reported. To address this issue, the cerebellar expression of myosin Va from newborns to elderly humans was studied by immunohistochemistry using an affinity-purified anti-myosin Va antibody. Myosin Va was expressed at all ages from the 10th postnatal day to the 98th year of life, in molecular, Purkinje and granular cerebellar layers. Cerebellar myosin Va expression did not differ essentially in localization or intensity from childhood to old age, except during the postnatal developmental period. Structures resembling granules and climbing fibers in Purkinje cells were deeply stained. In dentate neurons, long processes were deeply stained by anti-myosin Va, as were punctate nuclear structures. During the first postnatal year, myosin Va was differentially expressed in the external granular layer (EGL). In the EGL, proliferating prospective granule cells were not stained by anti-myosin Va antibody. In contrast, premigratory granule cells in the EGL stained moderately. Granule cells exhibiting a migratory profile in the molecular layer were also moderately stained. In conclusion, neuronal myosin Va is developmentally regulated, and appears to be required for cerebellar function from early postnatal life to senescence.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Young Adult , Cerebellum/metabolism , Myosin Type V/metabolism , Age Factors , Cadaver , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel , Immunoblotting , Immunohistochemistry
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(12): 1194-1201, Dec. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-606537

ABSTRACT

Recent biotechnological advances have permitted the manipulation of genetic sequences to treat several diseases in a process called gene therapy. However, the advance of gene therapy has opened the door to the possibility of using genetic manipulation (GM) to enhance athletic performance. In such ‘gene doping’, exogenous genetic sequences are inserted into a specific tissue, altering cellular gene activity or leading to the expression of a protein product. The exogenous genes most likely to be utilized for gene doping include erythropoietin (EPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF-1), myostatin antagonists, and endorphin. However, many other genes could also be used, such as those involved in glucose metabolic pathways. Because gene doping would be very difficult to detect, it is inherently very attractive for those involved in sports who are prepared to cheat. Moreover, the field of gene therapy is constantly and rapidly progressing, and this is likely to generate many new possibilities for gene doping. Thus, as part of the general fight against all forms of doping, it will be necessary to develop and continually improve means of detecting exogenous gene sequences (or their products) in athletes. Nevertheless, some bioethicists have argued for a liberal approach to gene doping.


Subject(s)
Humans , Athletic Performance , Doping in Sports/methods , Gene Transfer Techniques , Genetic Enhancement/methods , Bioethical Issues , Doping in Sports , Endorphins/genetics , Endorphins/pharmacology , Erythropoietin/genetics , Erythropoietin/pharmacology , Genetic Enhancement , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/pharmacology , Myostatin/genetics , Myostatin/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/pharmacology
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 39(12): 1643-1649, Dec. 2006. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-439689

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of acute short-term exposure to air pollution on the cardiorespiratory performance of military fireman living and working in the city of Guarujá, São Paulo, Brazil. Twenty-five healthy non-smoking firemen aged 24 to 45 years had about 1 h of exposure to low and high levels of air pollution. The tests consisted of two phases: phase A, in Bertioga, a town with low levels of air pollution, and phase B, in Cubatão, a polluted town, with a 7-day interval between phases. The volunteers remained in the cities (Bertioga/Cubatão) only for the time required to perform the tests. Cumulative load 10 ± 2 min-long exertion tests were performed on a treadmill, consisting of a 2-min stage at a load of 7 km/h, followed by increasing exertion of 1 km h-1 min-1 until the maximum individual limit. There were statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) in anaerobic threshold (AT) between Cubatão (35.04 ± 4.91 mL kg-1 min-1) and Bertioga (36.98 ± 5.62 mL kg-1 min-1; P = 0.01), in the heart rate at AT (AT HR; Cubatão 152.08 ± 14.86 bpm, Bertioga 157.44 ± 13.64 bpm; P = 0.001), and in percent maximal oxygen consumption at AT (AT percentVO2max; Cubatão 64.56 ± 6.55 percent, Bertioga 67.40 ± 5.35 percent; P = 0.03). However, there were no differences in VO2max, maximal heart rate or velocity at AT (ATvel) observed in firemen between towns. The acute exposure to pollutants in Cubatão, SP, caused a significant reduction in the performance at submaximal levels of physical exertion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Physical Exertion , Brazil , Exercise Test , Heart Rate/drug effects , Military Personnel , Maximal Voluntary Ventilation/drug effects , Oxygen Consumption/drug effects , Respiratory Function Tests/statistics & numerical data
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 37(7): 1015-1021, July 2004. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-360940

ABSTRACT

In order to develop a new experimental animal model of infection with Mycobacterium chelonae in keratomileusis, we conducted a double-blind prospective study on 24 adult male New Zealand rabbits. One eye of each rabbit was submitted to automatic lamellar keratotomy with the automatic corneal shaper under general anesthesia. Eyes were immunosuppressed by a single local injection of methyl prednisolone. Twelve animals were inoculated into the keratomileusis interface with 1 æl of 10(6) heat-inactivated bacteria (heat-inactivated inoculum controls) and 12 with 1 æl of 10(6) live bacteria. Trimethoprim drops (0.1 percent, w/v) were used as prophylaxis for the surgical procedure every 4 h (50 æl, qid). Animals were examined by 2 observers under a slit lamp on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 11th, 16th, and 23rd postoperative days. Slit lamp photographs were taken to document clinical signs. Animals were sacrificed when corneal disease was detected and corneal samples were taken for microbiological analysis. Eleven of 12 experimental rabbits developed corneal disease, and M. chelonae could be isolated from nine rabbits. Eleven of the 12 controls receiving a heat-inactivated inoculum did not develop corneal disease. M. chelonae was not isolated from any of the control rabbits receiving a heat-inactivated inoculum, or from the healthy cornea of control rabbits. Corneal infection by M. chelonae was successfully induced in rabbits submitted to keratomileusis. To our knowledge, this is the first animal model of M. chelonae infection following corneal flaps for refractive surgery to be described in the literature and can be used for the analysis of therapeutic responses.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Keratitis , Keratomileusis, Laser In Situ , Mycobacterium chelonae , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous , Surgical Flaps , Disease Models, Animal , Double-Blind Method , Prospective Studies
14.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 14(supl): 51-53, 2004. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-570870

ABSTRACT

Este trabalho surgiu da observação de que a espécie vendida livremente nas feiras e bancas populares do município do Rio de Janeiro (RJ) difere botanicamente de Maytenus ilicifolia Mart. Ex. Reiss (Celastraceae), comercializada industrialmente (e com uso reconhecido e registrado no Ministério da Saúde) como Espinheira Santa. Por comparação botânica foi constatado que nenhuma das espécies recolhidas correspondia a M. ilicifolia Mart. Ex. Reiss e sim, provavelmente a Sorocea bomplandii Bailon (Moraceae), uma das espécies mais utilizadas na adulteração da Espinheira Santa. Uma vez que não existem estudos suficientes que justifiquem o uso ou comprovem a segurança de S. Bomplandii Bailon, este passa a configurar um problema de saúde pública.


This work started with the notice that the specie freely sold in fairs and popular stores in Rio de Janeiro city botanically differs from Mart. Ex. Reiss (Celastraceae), industrially commercialized (and with its use recognized and registered in the Ministry of Health) as Espinheira Santa. By botanical comparison it was evidenced that none of the collected species corresponded to M. ilicifolia Mart. Ex. Reiss but, probably, to Sorocea bomplandii Bailon (Moraceae), one of the most used species in the adulteration of Espinheira Santa. Once there aren't enough studies that justifies the use or that evidence the safety of S. Bomplandii Bailon, it becomes a public health issue.

15.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 96(6): 809-813, Aug. 2001. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-298602

ABSTRACT

Diagnosis of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by direct PCR of mediastinal lymphnode DNA and microbiological tests were compared in cattle suspicious of bearing tuberculous-like lesions detected during slaughter. The PCR procedure applied on DNA samples (n=54) obtained by adding alpha -casein into the thiocyanate extraction mix was positive in 70 percent of the samples. PCR confirmed the identification of 23 samples (100 percent) that grew in culture, 9 samples (60 percent) that failed to grow in culture, plus 6 (37.5 percent) samples that resulted in growth of bacterial contaminants. Genotyping by IS6110-RFLP and DR-spoligotyping analysis of seven samples revealed the presence of several polimorphisms. Seven of the isolates contained multiple copies of IS6110, thus defining the existence of five singular genotypes


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Lymph Nodes/microbiology , Mycobacterium bovis/genetics , DNA, Bacterial , Genotype , Mycobacterium bovis/isolation & purification , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Genetic , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Tuberculosis, Bovine/pathology
16.
Cir. vasc. angiol ; 11(1): 5-12, mar. 1995. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-165666

ABSTRACT

Com o objetivo de aumentar a irrigaçäo sanguínea cerebral e do membro superior direito, foi rrealizada uma derivaçäo fêmoro-axilar direita em uma paciente portadora de oclusöes e estenoses dos ramos supra-aórticos outras doenças associadas que näo permitiam a toracotomia. Embora os resultados näo tenham sido plenamente satisfatórios, este procedimento mostrou-se hemodinamicamente viável e uma alternativa válida para o tratamento da insuficiência vascular cerebral e de membros superiores, em casos eecíficos.


Subject(s)
Aortic Arch Syndromes , Arterial Occlusive Diseases , Cerebral Revascularization
18.
Rev. bras. cir ; 72(6): 387-8, 1982.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-13534

ABSTRACT

Os autores apresentam um caso de torcao primaria do grande epiploon, cujo quadro clinico sugeriu apendicite aguda. Eles apresentam um breve revisao da literatura de lingua inglesa sobre a patologia


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Male , Omentum , Torsion Abnormality , Diagnosis, Differential
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