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Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135710


Background & objectives: DPE-28, a substituted diphenyl ether (2,6-ditertiarybutyl phenyl-2’,4’-dinitro phenyl ether) was reported to exhibit promising insect growth regulating activity against Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of lymphatic filariasis. A controlled release formulation (CRF) of DPE-28 has been developed to control Cx. quinquefasciatus in its breeding habitats. Toxicity of DPE-28, safety to non-target mosquito predators and the release profile of the CRF of DPE-28 are studied and discussed. Methods: The acute oral and dermal toxicity was tested in male and female Wistar rats as per the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines 425 and 402 respectively. The toxicity of DPE-28 to non-target predators was tested as per the reported procedure from this laboratory. The CRF of DPE-28 was prepared by following the reported procedure developed at this laboratory earlier. The concentration of DPE-28 released from the CRF was monitored by HPLC by constructing a calibration graph by plotting the peak area in the Y-axis and the concentration of DPE-28 in the X-axis. Results: DPE-28 has been tested for acute oral toxicity and found to be moderately toxic with LD50 value of 1098 mg/kg body weight (b.w). The results of the acute dermal toxicity and skin irritation studies reveal that DPE-28 is safe and non-irritant. DPE-28 when tested at 0.4 mg/litre against non-target mosquito predators did not produce any mortality. The release profile of the active ingredient DPE-28 from the CRF by HPLC technique showed that the average daily release (ADR) of DPE-28 ranged from 0.07 to 5.0 mg/litre during first four weeks. Thereafter the matrix started eroding and the ADR ranged from 5 to 11 mg/litre during the remaining 5 wk. The cumulative release of active ingredient showed that > 90 per cent of the active ingredient was released from the matrix. Interpretation & conclusions: The controlled release matrix of DPE-28 was thus found to inhibit the adult emergence (>80%) of Cx. quinquefasciatus for a period of nine weeks. The CRF of DPE-28 may play a useful role in field and may be recommended for mosquito control programme after evaluating the same under field conditions.

Animals , Breeding , Culex/drug effects , Culex/physiology , Delayed-Action Preparations/chemistry , Delayed-Action Preparations/toxicity , Female , Humans , Insect Vectors , Insecticides/administration & dosage , Insecticides/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Insecticides/toxicity , Juvenile Hormones/administration & dosage , Juvenile Hormones/chemistry , Juvenile Hormones/pharmacology , Juvenile Hormones/toxicity , Larva/drug effects , Lethal Dose 50 , Male , Mosquito Control/methods , Phenyl Ethers/administration & dosage , Phenyl Ethers/chemistry , Phenyl Ethers/pharmacology , Phenyl Ethers/toxicity , Rabbits , Rats , Rats, Wistar
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-17593


BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Biological control through the use of parasitoids and pathogens is one of the alternatives to the use of chemical pesticides for control of insects of public health importance. At the Vector Control Research Centre, a liquid formulation developed using the metabolite of a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain was found to be lethal to larvae as well as pupae of vector mosquitoes. The lethal fraction of the metabolite is a protein with a molecular mass of 44 kDa and toxicity studies showed that it is safe to mammals. In the present study, this formulation was evaluated against immatures of the common house fly, Musca domestica, to find out whether it could be developed into a potential biocontrol tool. METHODS: Early second instar larvae of house fly were introduced into rearing medium incorporated with the formulation at concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 per cent, which were equivalent to respectively 1.13, 5.63, 11.25, 16.88, 22.50 and 28.13 microg of the toxic protein/ g of rearing medium. Mortality was monitored until the emergence of adult house fly. Net mortality of larvae and pupae were calculated and the LC50 and LC90 values were determined through probit regression analysis. RESULTS: Larval mortality was obtained from day 3 to 6 post-treatment. Net mortality of larvae was higher at the concentration of 20 than at 25 per cent. However, it was higher at 25 per cent on day 5 and continued to day 6 when there was no larval mortality at other concentrations. The net mortality of pupae was higher than that of larvae at all the concentrations except at 20 per cent. The LC50 and LC90 values calculated from the net mortality of larvae and pupae together, from day 1 to 12 post-treatment, were respectively, 8.25 and 51.79 microg protein/g of the fly rearing medium. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: The formulation prepared from the exotoxin of P. fluorescens was toxic to the house fly. Pupae were more susceptible than larvae and the activity of the toxin might have been through cuticular absorption. The results are indicative of the possibility of development of the mosquitocidal metabolite for house fly control through appropriate field evaluations.

Animals , Culicidae/microbiology , Culture Media , Diptera/growth & development , Larva/microbiology , Pseudomonas fluorescens/pathogenicity
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2001 Jan; 39(1): 82-4
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-59661


Alginate encapsulated B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (B. t. i.) self floating type formulations were prepared. Its spore release rate, floating efficacy and larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasiatus were tested in the laboratory. The larval mortality of 91-100% was induced by the floating formulation with a mean spore release of 3.04 x 10(4)/ml/day from 6th day to 27th day. From day 28 to 33 the mean number of spores released were 1.16 x 10(4)/ml/day which caused 72.2-88.2% mortality. From 34th day to 40th day the mean number of spores released were 4.97 x 10(3)/ml/day which caused 42.2-67.2% mortality. However, the self floating alginate encapsulated beads were intact and found to float upto 40 days.

Animals , Bacillus thuringiensis/physiology , Culex/drug effects , Larva , Pest Control, Biological
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-118475


BACKGROUND: Neuropsychological impairment is a common problem in epilepsy which interferes with the quality of life of patients. Similarly, thyroid hormone levels have been observed to be abnormal in patients with epilepsy on various treatments. This study aimed to ascertain any possible correlation between neuropsychological performance and thyroid hormone levels among epilepsy patients. METHODS: Thyroid hormone levels, indices of neuropsychological performance and social adaptation of 43 epilepsy patients were compared with those of age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. RESULTS: Epilepsy patients exhibited significantly (p < 0.001) lower scores on attention, memory, constructional praxis, finger tapping time, and verbal intelligence quotient (i.q.) when compared with controls. Their T3, T4 and Free T3 levels were significantly lower; and TSH and Free T4 levels were significantly higher than that of controls. There was no statistically significant correlation between the indices of neuropsychological performance and thyroid hormone levels. CONCLUSION: We did not observe any correlation between neuropsychological impairment and thyroid hormone levels among patients with epilepsy.

Adult , Epilepsy/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Social Adjustment , Thyroid Hormones/blood
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 1996 Jan; 39(1): 13-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-74771


The blast cell populations of 25 patients of chronic myeloid leukemia in blast crisis (CML-BC) were studied for morphological, cytochemical and immunophenotypic features. The patients were divided into 6 broad groups based upon the pattern of surface marker positivity-myeloblastic, mixed myeloblastic, megakaryoblastic, mixed lineage, lymphoid and undifferentiated blast crisis. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), Sudan Black B (SBB) and Chloroacetate esterase (CAE) stains showed 100% specificity for the myelomonocytic lineage but the sensitivity was low. Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) stain was neither specific nor sensitive for the lymphoid lineage. Immunophenotyping as compared to morphologic and cytochemical assessment, was seen to be most useful for assigning a lineage to leukemic cells in CML-BC.

Adult , Blast Crisis/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/classification