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1.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2012 Jan; 50(1): 61-64
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-145224

ABSTRACT

The wood of the plant Sesbania sesban, is reported to have antinociceptive activity. To validate its folk use in the treatment of pain, wood was extracted successively with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water to produce respective extracts. The extracts (50 and 100 mg/kg, ip) were screened for antinociceptive activity using hot plate test and acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice. Petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant and dose-dependent activity in both the tests. In order to find out the involvement of opioid receptors, effect of naloxone (1 mg/kg, sc) on the action of extracts was checked in hot plate test. Petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant and dose dependant antinociceptive activity. The antinociceptive action of the extracts was blocked by naloxone, suggesting involvement of opioid receptors in the action.

2.
Indian J Med Sci ; 2002 Jun; 56(6): 276-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-67850

ABSTRACT

The effect against bacteria of petroleum ether (60-80 degrees C), chloroform and methanolic extract of dried root of Terminalia catappa Linn. (combrataceae) was employed by cup plate agar diffusion method. The chloroform extract showed prominent antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and E. coli as compared to other tested microorganisms, while petroleum ether extract was devoid of antimicrobial activity. The methanolic: extract exhibited MIC of 0.065 mg/ml against E. coli. and chloroform extract exhibited MIC of 0.4 mg/ml against S. aureus The chloroform has well as methanolic extracts showed good antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Alkanes/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Chloroform/pharmacology , Methanol/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Roots , Terminalia
4.
Hindustan Antibiot Bull ; 1995 Feb-Nov; 37(1-4): 37-43
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-2266

ABSTRACT

A streptomycete strain D1.5 capable of producing broad spectrum antiobiotic was isolated from soil. The morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characters were studied, compared to known species and identified as Streptmoyces hygroscopicus. Antibiotic activity of the strain was tested against both Gram positive and negative bacteria as well as fungi. It exhibited complete resistance to beta-lactum antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/biosynthesis , Culture Media , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Lactams , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Soil Microbiology , Spores/ultrastructure , Streptomyces/growth & development
5.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-24843

ABSTRACT

Results of a single Widal test in patients with bacteriologically confirmed typhoid fever (116), clinically suggestive but culture negative fever (170) and non-typhoidal febrile illness (98) and in normal control children (54) were analysed. Positive Widal test (antibody titre against S. typhi O antigen of 1:160) was recorded in 61.2 per cent of patients with bacteriologically confirmed typhoid fever and in 58.8 per cent with culture negative but clinically suggestive typhoid fever. In contrast, the same titre was observed in 10.2 per cent patients with other febrile illnesses of known etiology and in 1.8 per cent of normal children. Differences in the positivity of Widal test in patients with bacteriologically confirmed typhoid fever and clinically suggestive but culture negative fever were highly significant (P < 0.000001) when compared to that of patients with non-typhoidal febrile illnesses and normal controls. High specificity and positive predictive value in 1:160 dilution makes the Widal test acceptable as a diagnostic tool.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bacterial/isolation & purification , Bacteriological Techniques , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Salmonella typhi/immunology , Typhoid Fever/diagnosis
6.
J Indian Med Assoc ; 1992 Dec; 90(12): 308-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-105170

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted on 785 neonates aged up to 28 days to evaluate the influence of admission weight on mortality. It was observed that there were 200 (25.5%) cases of septicaemia, 134(17.1%) of diarrhoea, 120(15.3%) each of prematurity related conditions and neonatal jaundice, 117(14.9%) of respiratory diseases and 94 (11.9%) cases of convulsion. There were total 182(23.18%) deaths comprising 70(38.5%) from prematurity related conditions, 40(22%) from diarrhoea, 35(19.2%) from respiratory diseases, 26(14.3%) from septicaemia, 8(4.4%) from neonatal jaundice and 3(1.6%) deaths from convulsion. The incidence of deaths among neonates weighing less than 2500 g on admission was 59.2% in diarrhoeal diseases, 53.4% in respiratory diseases and 44.6% in other conditions compared to those of 10%, 8.2% and 7.1% respectively in neonates having admission weight more than 2500 g. The findings are statistically significant. The results of the study indicate that low admission weight should be considered as a predictor of mortality among neonates.


Subject(s)
Body Weight , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infant Mortality , Infant, Newborn , Male
7.
Indian J Public Health ; 1992 Oct-Dec; 36(4): 133-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-109815

ABSTRACT

In a cross sectional study of total 14514 tribal Nicobarese people of Car Nicobar Island, an union territory of India, situated in Bay of Bengal, morbidity, mortality and treatment practices of diarrhoeal diseases of under-five children were surveyed. The incidence of diarrhoea (0.2 episode/ch.year), Crude death rate (3.6/1000) and IMR (31/1000 live births) were exceedingly low as compared to SouthEast Asian Countries including mainland of India. ORS utilisation rate was high (41%) as compared to the National figure (12.0%). This is the first study of it's kind carried out in this island and amongst the Nicobarese tribe in India. A preliminary study carried out among the mothers of the hospitalised children indicated that protective behaviours like breast feeding, hand washing, use of chlorinated water and proper disposal of stool were regularly being practiced by the community traditionally. An in-depth study on risk factors of diarrhoea in this island can yield useful clue for describing the same.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Infant , Infant, Newborn
8.
Indian Pediatr ; 1992 Sep; 29(9): 1125-30
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-11097

ABSTRACT

From 1985 to 1988, fecal samples of 950 hospitalized children suffering from diarrhea or dysentery were screened for Shigella species using standard methods. Shigella species were isolated as sole pathogen from 192 (20.2%) cases and S. flexneri type 2 was the predominant serotype. Shigella infection was prevalent throughout the year with high isolation rate during the summer and early monsoon months. Shigella strains isolated during the period were resistant to most of the commonly used drugs for the treatment of shigellosis. Nearly 16% of the Shigella strains were also resistant to nalidixic acid. Presence of blood and mucus in stools (dysentery) was the common clinical presentation of shigellosis cases. Malnutrition was associated with longer duration of illness. High cases fatality rate (16.7%) was observed among hospitalized children infected with Shigella.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Dysentery, Bacillary/epidemiology , Feces/microbiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infant , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prospective Studies , Shigella boydii/isolation & purification , Shigella dysenteriae/isolation & purification , Shigella flexneri/isolation & purification
9.
Hindustan Antibiot Bull ; 1992 Aug-Nov; 34(3-4): 76-84
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-2387

ABSTRACT

About 450 actinomycetes were isolated from nearly 100 soil samples collected from different parts of West Bengal. The isolates were screened on the basis of their inhibitory effect against test organisms. Finally two potent antibiotic producers were chosen having maximum inhibitory effect on both gram positive and gram negative test bacteria. On the basis of morphological, structural, physiological and biochemical characters, the two potent antibiotic producers were identified as Streptomyces violaceus-niger and S. antibioticus.


Subject(s)
Actinomyces/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Cells, Cultured , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Soil Microbiology , Streptomyces/chemistry
10.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-22738

ABSTRACT

Five selective media were compared for their efficacy in the recovery of C. difficile from stool specimens. Of 341 diarrhoeic stool samples, 38 (11%) yielded C. difficile. Eighty per cent of the isolates were detected on modified taurocholate cycloserine cefoxitin fructose agar (MTCCFA) and 73 per cent were detected on taurocholate cycloserine cefoxitin fructose agar (TCCFA). MTCCFA was also found superior to the other four media as it supported better growth of C. difficile colonies, by effectively suppressing the competing microflora. These results suggest that the recovery rate of C. difficile could be enhanced when routine media, incorporated with taurocholate and lower concentration of cycloserine and cefoxitin, is used for the isolation of C. difficile from diarrhoeic stool.


Subject(s)
Clostridioides difficile/isolation & purification , Culture Media , Diarrhea/microbiology , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/microbiology , Feces/microbiology , Humans
11.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-21357

ABSTRACT

Blood and faecal samples were collected from 122 hospitalised patients of Calcútta clinically suspected to have enteric fever, for isolation of S. typhi. It was isolated from 34.4, 4.9 and 4.1 per cent patients by blood culture, stool culture and by both respectively. The in vitro drug susceptibility testing showed that all the isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, but were uniformly susceptible to ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and furazolidone. In view of the appearance of multi-drug resistant S. typhi in Calcutta, great care should be exercised in the use of newer quinolone derivatives.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Outbreaks , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infant , Salmonella typhi/drug effects , Typhoid Fever/epidemiology
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-22995

ABSTRACT

Characteristics of V. cholerae isolated from patients of acute secretory diarrhoea admitted to the Infectious Diseases Hospital, Calcutta during two consecutive cholera seasons (1989 and 1990), with special emphasis on biotyping and toxigenicity, were investigated. The isolation rates of V. cholerae during 1989 and 1990 were 78 and 85.1 per cent respectively, with Inaba serotype dominating in 1989 and Ogawa in 1990. All the V. cholerae 01 strains isolated in this study belonged to biotype Eltor with phage type 4 dominating (48.8%). Most of the strains of V. cholerae were resistant to 10 and 150 micrograms/ml of 0/129 vibriostatic agent. Similarly, majority of the V. cholerae strains were resistant to furazolidone (95.7%), cotrimoxazole (83%) and tetracycline (63.1%) and several resistance patterns were encountered. All the V. cholerae 01 strains examined produced cholera toxin (CT) in amounts ranging between greater than 70 pg/ml and greater than 2.5 ng/ml. In contrast, all but one of the non-01 strains isolated in this study did not produce CT. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of non-01 V. cholerae mediated diarrhoea.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Typing Techniques , Cholera/microbiology , Cholera Toxin/analysis , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Humans , India , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pteridines/pharmacology , Vibrio cholerae/classification
14.
Indian Pediatr ; 1992 Mar; 29(3): 307-11
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-13106

ABSTRACT

Salmonella typhimurium was isolated from 55 (15.9%) of the 347 hospitalized diarrheal children and 14 (11.1%) of the 126 non-diarrheal controls. All the 98 asymptomatic children attending hospital outpatients were negative. Six (3.7%) of the 162 samples of different categories examined from the hospital were positive for S. typhimurium. Finger washing of one female food handler, feces of two cats of the wards, surface of wash basin, lavatory seat and shelf yielded positive isolations. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity testing showed majority of the strains were resistant against commonly used antimicrobial agents while they were uniformly sensitive to norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. The present study points to cross-infection by multi-resistant S. typhimurium strains in the hospital wards.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Child, Preschool , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infant , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Salmonella Infections/epidemiology , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-24112

ABSTRACT

An operational study of a 3-tier strategy for implementation of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) was conducted in a block of West Bengal with 216,825 population through the existing health services facilities. All the grassroot level, health workers including their supervisors at various levels were trained regarding the management of patients of diarrhoea with mild to moderate degree of dehydration, by ORT. Another block in the same district with similar demographic features where this intervention was not provided served as control. After 22 months of observation, it was evident that despite adequate training, the performance of Community Health Guides (CHGs) and Anganwadi Workers (AWWs) was not encouraging because of the low utilization of both home available fluids (32.0%) and oral rehydration solution (18.0%) in the study area. Similarly, diarrhoea associated mortality could not be reduced significantly. Lack of motivation and failure to maintain sustained level of skill by the CHGs and AWWs constitute the major bottlenecks for the successful implementation of the programme at the community level.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Community Health Workers/education , Diarrhea/therapy , Diarrhea, Infantile/therapy , Fluid Therapy , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , India , Infant , Mothers , Rural Population
17.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-87615

ABSTRACT

233 cases with acute diarrhoea investigated, Clostridium difficile was isolated as a sole pathogen from 17 (7.3%) cases. The Major clinical features of these cases were watery diarrhoea (82.4%), bloody stool (17.6%), vomiting (64.8%), fever (17.6%) and abdominal pain (2.5%). Fourteen (82.4%) of 17 C difficile isolates were found to produce cytotoxin as detected by Verocell assay.


Subject(s)
Child , Clostridioides difficile/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/microbiology , Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous/diagnosis , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-89069

ABSTRACT

A study on the distribution of ABO blood groups was carried out on 85 patients with clinically and bacteriologically proven shigellosis. A significant association (P less than 0.01) of blood group B was observed with shigellosis cases in comparison to controls from whom no Shigella species or other enteropathogen could be isolated. Patients with isoagglutinin B or those who possess blood group B antigen may be at a relatively increased risk of shigellosis.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Dysentery, Bacillary/blood , Humans
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-23669

ABSTRACT

A simplified medium was developed for the detection of DNase produced by enteric campylobacters. Sensitivity and reproducibility of the test were similar to that of the improved toluidine blue DNA agar method. Logistically, the simplified DNA hydrolysis test was cheaper (5.5 times) than the earlier medium. Based on this study we recommend the routine use of the simplified medium to perform the DNase test for biotyping enteric campylobacters.


Subject(s)
Campylobacter/classification , Culture Media , DNA/metabolism , Deoxyribonucleases/metabolism , Humans , Hydrolysis
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