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Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(10): e6147, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888934


Chemotherapy response rates in patients with cholangiocarcinoma remain low, primarily due to the development of drug resistance. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells is widely accepted to be important for metastasis and progression, but it has also been linked to the development of chemoresistance. Salinomycin (an antibiotic) has shown some potential as a chemotherapeutic agent as it selectively kills cancer stem cells, and has been hypothesized to block the EMT process. In this study, we investigated whether salinomycin could reverse the chemoresistance of cholangiocarcinoma cells to the chemotherapy drug doxorubicin. We found that combined salinomycin with doxorubicin treatment resulted in a significant decrease in cell viability compared with doxorubicin or salinomycin treatment alone in two cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (RBE and Huh-28). The dosages of both drugs that were required to produce a cytotoxic effect decreased, indicating that these two drugs have a synergistic effect. In terms of mechanism, salinomycin reversed doxorubicin-induced EMT of cholangiocarcinoma cells, as shown morphologically and through the detection of EMT markers. Moreover, we showed that salinomycin treatment downregulated the AMP-activated protein kinase family member 5 (ARK5) expression, which regulates the EMT process of cholangiocarcinoma. Our results indicated that salinomycin reversed the EMT process in cholangiocarcinoma cells by inhibiting ARK5 expression and enhanced the chemosensitivity of cholangiocarcinoma cells to doxorubicin. Therefore, a combined treatment of salinomycin with doxorubicin could be used to enhance doxorubicin sensitivity in patients with cholangiocarcinoma.

Humans , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/drug effects , Antibiotics, Antineoplastic/pharmacology , Doxorubicin/pharmacology , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition/drug effects , Pyrans/pharmacology , AMP-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cholangiocarcinoma/metabolism , Cholangiocarcinoma/pathology , Drug Synergism , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(7): 616-621, 07/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-751339


As an essential trace element, copper can be toxic in mammalian cells when present in excess. Metallothioneins (MTs) are small, cysteine-rich proteins that avidly bind copper and thus play an important role in detoxification. Yeast CUP1 is a member of the MT gene family. The aim of this study was to determine whether yeast CUP1 could bind copper effectively and protect cells against copper stress. In this study, CUP1 expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR, and copper content was detected by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated using the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. Cellular viability was detected using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and the cell cycle distribution of CUP1 was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The data indicated that overexpression of yeast CUP1 in HeLa cells played a protective role against copper-induced stress, leading to increased cellular viability (P<0.05) and decreased ROS production (P<0.05). It was also observed that overexpression of yeast CUP1 reduced the percentage of G1 cells and increased the percentage of S cells, which suggested that it contributed to cell viability. We found that overexpression of yeast CUP1 protected HeLa cells against copper stress. These results offer useful data to elucidate the mechanism of the MT gene on copper metabolism in mammalian cells.

Animals , Humans , Mammals/physiology , Pheromones/physiology , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Behavior/physiology , Odorants , Olfactory Bulb/physiology , Olfactory Mucosa/physiology , Olfactory Pathways/anatomy & histology , Olfactory Pathways/physiology , Olfactory Receptor Neurons/physiology , Pheromones, Human/physiology , Smell/physiology
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-40288


A subject inflicted with glioblastoma multiforme who received partial tumor resection and radiotherapy was recruited for an ex vivo gene therapy protocol using irradiated autologous tumor cells that had been engineered to suppress the expression of insulin-like growth factor I as the tumor vaccine. After subcutaneous injection for 8 weeks, the subject developed peri-tumor necrosis with mass effect. The authors wondered whether this event could have resulted from the tumor vaccine. The tissue section bordering the necrotic tumor tissue to the viable normal tissue was examined for nature of any infiltrated cells and their activities. Lymphocytes, macrophages, and a small number of neutrophils diffused into the necrotic tumor tissue were found. The infiltrated lymphocytes consisted of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The functional activity of these lymphocytes was demonstrated by the active production of interferon y and tumor necrosis factor alpha based on the respective immunofluorescent staining localized to these cells. This finding is compatible with the proposed mechanism underlying the tumor vaccination. However, the contribution of radiation treatment to this event cannot be clearly ruled out.

Brain Neoplasms/metabolism , Genetic Therapy , Glioblastoma/metabolism , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Necrosis , Transfection , Tumor Cells, Cultured
J Environ Biol ; 2001 Jul; 22(3): 163-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-113745


The blood levels of organochlorine pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents were measured in 200 and 114 chemically sensitive patients respectively, and compared with blood concentrations of standard medication (non- chlorinated substances. Clonidine, Haloperidol) of comparable toxicity after therapeutically effective dosage, and with reference levels of highly potent chemicals in the blood such as hormones. It was shown that the average blood levels of the most toxic environmental pollutants are comparable with the therapeutic steady state average blood levels of medications which have similar toxicities in the animal model. In addition the toxicity levels of xenoestrogens are at least an order of magnitude higher than normal plasma estrogen or progesterone levels. These findings suggest the possibility of additive or synergistic effects of these chlorinated compounds and the aforementioned medications. Also, these findings suggest the possibility of hormone deregulation from exposure to the aforementioned toxic chlorinated compounds.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Drug Interactions , Estrogens/blood , Female , Humans , Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated/adverse effects , Infant , Insecticides/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Chemical Sensitivity/etiology , Progesterone/blood , Solvents/adverse effects , Xenobiotics/adverse effects