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1.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e07622020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155525

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the performance of Bayesian vector autoregressive (BVAR) and Holt's models to forecast the weekly COVID-19 reported cases in six units of a large hospital. METHODS: Cases reported from epidemiologic weeks (EW) 12-37 were selected as the training period, and from EW 38-41 as the test period. RESULTS: The models performed well in forecasting cases within one or two weeks following the end of the time-series, but forecasts for a more distant period were inaccurate. CONCLUSIONS: Both models offered reasonable performance in very short-term forecasts for confirmed cases of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Coronavirus Infections , Feasibility Studies , Bayes Theorem , Forecasting , Betacoronavirus , Hospitals , Models, Theoretical
2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200619, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136905

ABSTRACT

Abstract With the large number of individuals infected and recovered from Covid-19, there is intense discussion about the quality and duration of the immunity elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection, including the possibility of disease recurrence. Here we report a case with strong clinical, epidemiological and laboratorial evidence of, not only reinfection by SARS-CoV-2, but also clinical recurrence of Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Recurrence , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Brazil , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Antibodies, Viral/blood
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(6): 781-787, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-977106

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection varies markedly among different populations, especially depending on factors related to socioeconomic development and eating habits. Cássia dos Coqueiros is a small city in Brazil with rural characteristics and increased risk factors traditionally associated with T. gondii infection. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study involving 970 inhabitants aged 18 years or more, selected from patients of the local health unit and home visits in urban and rural areas. Each participant completed a survey with questions regarding demographic, socioeconomic, and risk factors for toxoplasmosis. Blood samples from participants were tested for presence of IgG and IgM antibodies against T. gondii using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. RESULTS: The prevalence of IgG and IgM antibodies was 62.3% and 2.5%, respectively. Variables that proved to be independent predictors of infection were age, low levels of education, and previous diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of toxoplasmosis serological markers in this adult population highlights the need to promote preventive practices, especially those directed toward women of childbearing age, in this part of Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Toxoplasma/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Toxoplasmosis/epidemiology , Rural Population , Brazil/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Toxoplasmosis/diagnosis , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Risk Factors , Luminescent Measurements , Middle Aged
4.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 21(61): 349-361, abr.-jun. 2017. ilus, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-954278

ABSTRACT

A consolidação da Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) requer políticas públicas embasadas por evidências científicas. Este artigo apresenta o estudo ELECT, cujo objetivo foi identificar temas prioritários de pesquisa para a fortalecimento da APS no estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Com a participação de especialistas e de um grupo focal com usuários, foi obtida uma lista com os vinte principais obstáculos, bem como dez temas de pesquisa prioritários, na APS. Os resultados apontam para problemas e temas de pesquisas relacionados à: organização da gestão, capacitação de profissionais e gestores, valorização profissional, criação de mecanismos de colaboração entre equipes de saúde e informatização dos recursos. Espera-se, assim, estimular o debate no contexto da APS sobre o papel da priorização de pesquisas, seus obstáculos e proposições de pesquisa. Almeja-se, também, estimular a adoção de modelos mais participativos de seleção de temas de pesquisa.(AU)


The consolidation of Primary Health Care (PHC) requires public policies based on scientific evidence. This paper presents the ELECT study, aimed to identify priority research themes for strengthening PHC in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. A list of the twenty main obstacles and ten priority research themes in PHC were obtained with participation of specialists and a focus group with users. The results point to problems and research issues related to organizational management, training of professionals and managers, professional development, creation of cooperation mechanisms between health teams and computerization of resources. It is expected to stimulate debate in the context of the PHC on the role of research prioritization, its obstacles and research propositions. It also aims to encourage the adoption of more participatory models of selection of research topics.(AU)


La solidificación de la Atención Primaria de Salud (APS) requiere políticas públicas con base en evidencias científicas. Este artículo presenta el estudio ELECT, cuyo objetivo fue identificar temas prioritarios de investigación para el fortalecimiento de la APS en el estado de São Paulo. Con la participación de especialistas y de un grupo de opinión formado por usuarios, se obtuvo una lista con los veinte principales obstáculos, así como diez temas de investigación prioritarios en la APS. Los resultados señalan problemas y temas de investigación relacionados a la organización de la gestión, la capacitación de profesionales y gestores, la valorización profesional, la creación de mecanismos de colaboración entre equipos de salud e informatización de los recursos. Se espera por lo tanto incentivar el debate en el contexto de la APS sobre el papel de la priorización de investigaciones, sus obstáculos y propuestas de investigación. Se anhela también incentivar la adopción de modelos más participativos de selección de temas de investigación.(AU)


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Health Priority Agenda , Health Research Agenda
5.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 25(4): 799-806, out.-dez. 2016. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-828771

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: descrever os casos de violência contra crianças notificados no município de Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brasil. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo com dados do Sistema de Vigilância de Violências e Acidentes (VIVA) da Secretaria Municipal de Saúde de Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brasil, no período de 2006 a 2008. RESULTADOS: foram registrados 498 casos de violência contra crianças (0-9 anos) no período, com elevação no número de notificações, de 112 em 2006 a 197 em 2008, 79,3% das notificações foram provenientes da área da Saúde, a maioria das crianças era do sexo feminino (56,4%) e apresentava idade entre dois e cinco anos (mais de 60%); prevaleceram agressores do sexo masculino (53,6%), com destaque para a figura paterna (22,7%); agressões físicas foram as mais frequentes (59,2%) e o local de maior ocorrência foi a casa da família (75,5%). CONCLUSÃO: predominaram vítimas do sexo feminino, agredidas por homens, predominantemente pais e outros familiares, na casa da família.


OBJECTIVE: to describe the cases of violence against children reported in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil. METHODS: this was a descriptive study using data provided by the Violence and Accidents Surveillance System (VIVA), of the Municipal Health Department of Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil, from 2006 to 2008. RESULTS: a total of 498 cases of violence against children (0-9 years old) were reported in the period, with an increase in the number of notifications, from 112 in 2006 to 197 in 2008; 79.3% of the notifications came from the Health area; and most children were female (56.4%), aged between two and five years old (over 60%); most aggressors were male (53.6%) and the father figure stood out (22.7%); physical aggressions were the most frequent (59.2%) and the most frequent place of the occurrence was the family household (75.5%). CONCLUSION: most victims were female, abused by men, mostly fathers and other family members, at the family household.


OBJETIVO: describir los casos de violencia contra niños notificados en el municipio de Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brasil. MÉTODOS: estudio descriptivo con datos del Sistema de Vigilancia de Violencias y Accidentes (VIVA) de la Secretaria Municipal de Salud de Ribeirão Preto-SP, de 2006 a 2008. RESULTADOS: se registraron 498 casos de violencia infantil (de 0 a 9 años) en dicho periodo, aumentando las notificaciones de 112 en 2006 y 197 en 2008, siendo el 79,3% provenientes del área de salud; la mayoría de los niños era de sexo femenino (56,4%) de edad entre dos y cinco años (más de 60%); prevalecieron agresores de sexo masculino (53,6%), destacándose la figura paterna (22,7%); las agresiones físicas fueran las más practicadas (59,2%) y el lugar de mayor ocurrencia fue la casa de la familia (75,5%). CONCLUSIÓN: predominaron víctimas de sexo femenino agredidas por hombres, en gran parte padres y otros familiares en casa de la familia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Brazil , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Domestic Violence , Mandatory Reporting
6.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 19(2): 317-325, Apr.-Jun. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-789562

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Objective: It was to identify trends of traumatic and non-traumatic causes of lower limb amputations, as well as the role played by population aging, traffic violence increase, public health policy of diabetes control program and drivers anti-alcohol laws on these amputations. Method: Hospitalization data recorded in the discharge forms of 32 hospitals located in the region of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, from 1985 to 2008 were analyzed. Result: A total of 3,274 lower-limb amputations were analyzed, of which 95.2% were related to non-traumatic causes, mainly infectious and ischemic complications of diabetes mellitus. Cancer (2.8%) and congenital (1.3%) causes were included in this group. Only 4.8% were related to traumatic causes. Traumatic amputation average rate was 1.5 amputations in 100,000 habitants with a slight tendency of increase in the last 5 years. Non-traumatic causes showed an average rate of 30.0 amputations for 100,000 habitants and remained relatively constant during the whole period. Non-traumatic were much more predominant in patients older than 60 years and traumatic amputations occurred more frequently in patients younger than 39 years. Conclusion: The overall rates of amputation and the rates of traumatic and non-traumatic amputations remained nearly constant during the study period. The impact of diabetes control policies and the introduction of traffic safety laws could not be identified on the amputation rates.


RESUMO: Objetivo: Identificar as tendências temporais de causas traumáticas e não traumáticas de amputações de membros inferiores, e os efeitos do envelhecimento da população, do aumento de violência no trânsito, da política de saúde pública do programa de controle de diabetes e das leis de controle do uso de álcool em motoristas sobre as taxas de amputações. Método: Foram analisados os dados das folhas de alta de pacientes submetidos a amputações de todos os 32 hospitais localizados na região de Ribeirão Preto, Brasil, de 1985 a 2008. Resultado: De 3.274 amputações de membros inferiores, 95,2% estavam relacionadas a causas não traumáticas, principalmente complicações do diabetes mellitus. Câncer (2,8%) e causas congênitas (1,3%) foram incluídos neste grupo. Apenas 4,8% estavam relacionados às causas traumáticas. A taxa média de amputação traumática foi de 1,5 amputações por 100.000 habitantes, com uma ligeira tendência de aumento nos últimos 5 anos. As causas não traumáticas mostraram uma taxa média de 30 amputações por 100.000 habitantes e mantiveram-se relativamente constantes durante todo o período. As causas não traumáticas foram predominantes em pacientes com mais de 60 anos, e as amputações traumáticas ocorreram mais frequentemente em pacientes com menos de 39 anos. Conclusão: A taxa total de amputações e as taxas de amputações traumáticas e não traumáticas permaneceram praticamente constantes durante o período de estudo. O impacto das políticas de controle do diabetes e da introdução de leis de repressão do uso de álcool no trânsito não pode ser identificado nas taxas de amputação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Amputation/statistics & numerical data , Leg/surgery , Brazil , Diabetes Complications/surgery , Leg Injuries/surgery , Medical Records , Time Factors , Urban Health
7.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 48(6): 674-681, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767824

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B and C viral infections remain an important cause of global morbidity and mortality. Studies have been conducted in population groups of large cities, leaving gaps in the knowledge regarding the situation in small municipalities. We aimed to measure the prevalence of hepatitis B and C markers and presence of infection-associated factors. METHODS: All inhabitants of Cássia dos Coqueiros aged ≥18 years who agreed to participate in the research were included. We collected blood as well as information via a questionnaire between March 2011 and December 2013. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Among the 1,001 participants, 41 (4.1%) participants had a serological profile of hepatitis B viral exposure, and only one (0.1%) participant was considered a virus carrier. The frequency of isolated antibody to hepatitis B virus surface antigen (anti-HBs) markers was 17.8% for the overall population. In the multivariate analysis, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was associated with age, birth outside the State of São Paulo, history of hepatitis, ≥2 sexual partners in the last 6 months, and tattoos. Four (0.4%) participants had a serological profile of hepatitis C viral exposure. However, after confirmation using viral ribonucleic acid (RNA) evaluation, only one (0.1%) individual remained positive. CONCLUSIONS: The positivity rates for hepatitis B and C were low, despite greater sexual freedom and the recent emergence of illicit drugs, as observed by the health personnel working in Cássia dos Coqueiros.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Epidemiologic Methods , Hepatitis B Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Rural Population , Socioeconomic Factors , Urban Population
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 45(4): 468-470, July-Aug. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-646913

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In recent years, hantavirus infections producing severe diseases have obtained an increased attention from public health authorities from the countries of Eurasia to the Americas. Brazil has reported 1,300 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) from 1993 to 2010, with about 80 of them occurring in the northeast of the State of São Paulo, with 48% fatality rate. Araraquara virus was the causative agent of HCPS in the region. Considering that hantaviruses causing human disease in the Americas were unknown until 1993, we have looked for hantavirus infections in the population of Cássia dos Coqueiros county, northeast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, before this time. This county has about 2,800 inhabitants and an economy based on agriculture, including cultivation of Brachiaria decumbens grass. The grass seeds are an important rodent attraction, facilitating transmission of hantavirus to man. Four HCPS cases were reported so far in the county. METHODS: In this study, 1,876 sera collected from 1987 to 1990 were tested for IgG to hantavirus by IgG-ELISA, using the N recombinant protein of Araraquara virus as antigen. RESULTS: Positive results were observed in 89 (4.7%) samples, which were all collected in 1987. The positivity among urban inhabitants was 5.3%, compared with 4.3% among those living in rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that hantavirus infections occurred in Cássia dos Coqueiros, completely unrecognized, even before hantaviruses were described in the Americas.


INTRODUÇÃO: Infecções graves por hantavírus têm obtido crescente atenção das autoridades da saúde pública da Eurásia e Américas. De 1993 a 2010, o Brasil reportou 1.300 casos de síndrome pulmonar cardiovascular por hantavírus (SPCVH) com, aproximadamente, 80 deles no nordeste do Estado de São Paulo com taxa de fatalidade de 48%. O vírus Araraquara é o agente etiológico da SPCVH nessa região. Considerando que nas Américas as doenças em humanos causadas por hantavírus eram desconhecidas até 1993, procuramos infecções por hantavírus nas populações do município de Cássia dos Coqueiros, nordeste de São Paulo, Brasil, antes dessa data. Esse município tem 2.800 habitantes e economia baseada na agricultura, com intenso cultivo da gramínea Brachiaria decumbens. Sementes de gramíneas têm um papel importante em atrair roedores, facilitando a transmissão de hantavírus para humanos. Nesse município, até o momento 4 casos haviam sido reportados. MÉTODOS:Neste estudo, coletou-se 1.876 soros entre 1987 a 1990 e testamos para pesquisa de IgG contra hantavirus utilizando um ELISA que tem como antígeno a proteína N recombinante do vírus Araraquara. RESULTADOS: Dentre os soros analisados, 89 (4,7%) foram positivos, mostrando que esta infecção já ocorria previamente à descrição dos hantavirus americanos e deve estar ocorrendo há anos nesta região. A positividade entre os habitantes urbanos foi de 5,3% se comparado com 4,3% entre aqueles que viviam em áreas rurais. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos resultados mostraram que as infecções ocorridas por hantavirus foram completamente despercebidas em Cássia dos Coqueiros antes da descrição do hantavirus americano.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Hantavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hantavirus/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Population Surveillance , Brazil/epidemiology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hantavirus Infections/diagnosis , Hantavirus Infections/virology , Retrospective Studies , Rural Population , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Urban Population
10.
Rev. bras. hematol. hemoter ; 34(6): 411-415, 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-662715

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the frequency of positive results for hepatitis B and C, HIV and syphilis in blood donations at the Centro Regional de Hemoterapia de Ribeirão Preto, to describe donors with positive results according to some demographic and socioeconomic variables, to identify risk factors associated to these donors and the reasons that they were not detected during clinical screening. METHODS: A descriptive study was performed between July 1st 2005 and July 31st 2006 by interviewing 106 donors after medical consultations where they were informed of positive results for hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV or syphilis. RESULTS: There was a predominance of first-time donors, males, under 50-year olds, married individuals, from Ribeirão Preto, with elementary education, low economic status and of people who donated at the request of friends or relatives. Hepatitis C was the most frequently detected infection (56.6%), followed by hepatitis B (20.7%), HIV (12.3%) and syphilis(10.4%). About 40% of donors had omitted risk factors for different reasons: because they trusted the results of serological tests, did not feel comfortable about talking of risk factors or did not consider them relevant. Other justifications were the duration of the interview, the interviewer was unskilled, embarrassment and doubts about confidentiality. CONCLUSION: The results indicate the need for changes in the approach to clinical screening and a review of methods to attract and guide potential donors.


Subject(s)
Humans , AIDS Serodiagnosis , Blood Banks , Blood Safety , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis C , Syphilis Serodiagnosis
11.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 15(2): 109-115, Mar.-Apr. 2011. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-582411

ABSTRACT

Surgical-site infection (SSI) is the most prevalent type of hospital infection in surgical patients and is associated with an increase in hospital stay, costs and morbidity/lethality. The knowledge of the main risk factors for this type of infection is important for the establishment of prevention measures regarding modifiable risks factors. The objective of the preset study was to assess the occurrence of SSI and study the risk factors in oncologic surgeries of the digestive system at Hospital de Câncer in Barretos, São Paulo, Brazil. Individuals undergoing oncologic surgeries of the digestive system in the period of 08/01/2007 to 08/10/2008 were prospectively followed for 30 days after surgery. Possible risk factors related to the patient and to the surgical procedure were also studied. A total of 210 surgeries were analyzed, with a global SSI incidence of 23.8 percent. The following variables were independently associated with SSI: time and type of surgery, radiotherapy before surgery and surgeon's years of experience. The risk factors found in this study have been described by other authors and are not amenable to intervention for SSI prevention. Further studies are recommended with the objective of investigating interventions that could reduce the risk for SSI in this type of surgery.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Digestive System Neoplasms/surgery , Digestive System Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Brazil , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control
13.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(supl.2): 47-50, 2011. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-586800

ABSTRACT

Aqui se busca correlacionar os resultados dos grandes inquéritos nacionais realizados no final da década de 1970 e início da década de 1980 (entomológico, sorológico e eletrocardiográfico) que serviram de base para orientar as ações de controle da doença de Chagas no país. Verificou-se uma maior proporção de infectados nas áreas correspondentes àquela de distribuição de Triatoma infestans, a espécie reconhecidamente com maior capacidade vetorial entre as cinco identificadas como as mais importantes no Brasil à época. Achado similar foi observado para a área de dispersão de Triatoma sordida, pela coincidência existente com grande parte daquela de distribuição de T. infestans, especialmente na região central do país de onde é nativa, e não pela sua relevância na transmissão. No semiárido do nordeste do país, centro de endemismo de Triatoma brasiliensis e de Triatoma pseudomaculata, as taxas de soro-prevalência de infecção humana foram bastante menores, ainda que se possa atribuir a ambos vetores importância na manutenção da endemia chagásica na região. Para Panstrongylus megistus ocorreram variações de acordo com as suas características de maior ou menor domiciliação. Sempre que domiciliado pode-se comprovar ter papel relevante na transmissão domiciliar de Trypanosoma cruzi, como no litoral úmido do nordeste, onde em alguns casos era vetor exclusivo, como no Recôncavo Baiano. A partir dos dados do inquérito de soroprevalência foi realizado estudo eletrocardiográfico em onze estados, o qual mostrou variações regionais evidentes nas manifestações clínicas observadas.


This article aims to correlate the main results of three large national surveys on Chagas disease (entomologic, seroprevalence and electrocardiographic) carried out in Brazil from late 1970's to early 1980's, which served as baseline for definition of the control measures adopted in the country. The proportion of infected people was much higher in areas where Triatoma infestans, the most efficient vector of Chagas disease among the five principal species involved in transmission at that time, was predominant. Similar result was observed in places where Triatoma sordida was dispersed, mainly in the country's central region, which corresponds to its native area. This finding is due to the coincidence observed in the geographic distribution of both vectors, since T. sordida is not considered to play an important role in transmission. In the Northeastern semi-arid, endemic area for Triatoma brasiliensis and Triatoma pseudomaculata, rates of human infection were much lower, although both vectors may have some relevance in the maintenance of the disease. As for areas with Panstrongylus megistus, human infection varied according to the levels of domiciliation. Whenever domiciled, like in the humid northeastern coastal area, its involvement in transmission can be clearly demonstrated. In some parts of Bahia State it represented the exclusive vector of the disease. Based upon the results of the seroprevalence survey an electrocardiographic study was carried out in 11 Brazilian states, which showed marked differences in the presence of cardiac alterations when comparing different areas of the country.


Subject(s)
Animals , History, 20th Century , Humans , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Health Surveys/history , Insect Vectors/classification , Trypanosoma cruzi , Triatominae/classification , Brazil/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/history , Chagas Disease/transmission , Health Surveys/methods , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Triatominae/parasitology
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 44(supl.2): 108-121, 2011. mapas, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-586807

ABSTRACT

Um inquérito de soroprevalência de doença de Chagas foi realizado em amostra representativa da população com idade até cinco anos de toda a área rural brasileira, exceto o Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram estudadas 104.954 crianças, que tiveram amostras de sangue coletadas em papel de filtro e submetidas a testes de screening pelas técnicas de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI) e ELISA em um único laboratório. Todas as amostras com resultados positivos ou indeterminados, juntamente com 10 por cento daquelas com resultados negativos, foram enviadas para um laboratório de referência e aí submetidas a novos testes por IFI e ELISA, além de western blot TESA (Trypomastigote Excreted Secreted Antigen). Para as crianças com resultado final positivo foi agendada uma re-visita para coleta de sangue venoso do próprio participante e das suas mães e familiares. Da avaliação do conjunto de testes resultaram 104 (0,1 por cento) resultados positivos, dos quais apenas 32 (0,03 por cento) foram confirmadas como infectadas. Destas, 20 (0,02 por cento) com positividade materna concomitante (sugerindo transmissão congênita), 11 (0,01 por cento) com positividade apenas na criança (indicativo de provável transmissão vetorial), e uma criança positiva cuja mãe havia falecido. Em 41 situações ocorreu confirmação apenas nas mães, sugerindo transferência passiva de anticorpos maternos; em 18 a positividade não se confirmou nem nas crianças nem nas suas mães; e em 13 não foi possível a localização de ambas. As 11 crianças que adquiriram a infecção por provável via vetorial distribuíram-se predominantemente na região nordeste (Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba e Alagoas), acrescidas de um caso no Amazonas e um no Paraná. Dos 20 casos com provável transmissão congênita sobressaiu-se o Rio Grande do Sul, com 60 por cento deles, representando este o primeiro relato de diferenças regionais na transmissão congênita da doença de Chagas no Brasil, possivelmente relacionada à existência de Trypanosoma cruzi grupo IId e IIe, atualmente classificados como TcV e TcVI. Os resultados deste inquérito apontam para a virtual inexistência de transmissão de doença de Chagas por via vetorial no Brasil em anos recentes, resultante da combinação dos programas regulares e sistemáticos de combate á moléstia e de mudanças de natureza socioeconômica observadas no país ao longo das últimas décadas. Por outro lado, reforçam a necessidade de manutenção de um programa de controle que garanta a consolidação deste grande avanço.


A survey for seroprevalence of Chagas disease was held in a representative sample of Brazilian individuals up to 5 years of age in all the rural areas of Brazil, with the single exception of Rio de Janeiro State. Blood on filter paper was collected from 104,954 children and screened in a single laboratory with two serological tests: indirect immunofluorescence and enzyme linked immunoassay. All samples with positive or indetermined results, as well as 10 percent of all the negative samples were submitted to a quality control reference laboratory, which performed both tests a second time, as well as the western blot assay of TESA (Trypomastigote Excreted Secreted Antigen). All children with confirmed final positive result (n = 104, prevalence = 0.1 percent) had a follow-up visit and were submitted to a second blood collection, this time a whole blood sample. In addition, blood samples from the respective mothers and familiar members were collected. The infection was confirmed in only 32 (0.03 percent) of those children. From them, 20 (0.025 percent) had maternal positive results, suggesting congenital transmission; 11 (0.01 percent) had non-infected mothers, indicating a possible vectorial transmission; and in one whose mother had died the transmission mechanism could not be elucidated. In further 41 visited children the infection was confirmed only in their mothers, suggesting passive transference of maternal antibodies; in other 18, both child and mother were negative; and in 13 cases both were not localized. The 11 children that acquired the infection presumably through the vector were distributed mainly in the Northeast region of Brazil (States of Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba and Alagoas), in addition to one case in Amazonas (North region) and another in Parana (South region). Remarkably, 60 percent of the 20 cases of probably congenital transmission were from a single State, Rio Grande do Sul, with the remaining cases distributed in other states. This is the first report demonstrating regional geographical differences in the vertical transmission of Chagas disease in Brazil, which probably reflects the predominant Trypanosoma cruzi group IId and IIe (now TcV and TcVI) found in this state. Overall, these results show that the regular and systematic control programs against the transmission of Chagas disease, together with socioeconomic changes observed in Brazil in the last decades, interrupted the vectorial transmission in Brazil, resumed in the few cases found in this national survey. Furthermore they reinforce the need for maintenance of control programs for the consolidation of this major advance in public health.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Chagas Disease/epidemiology , Insect Vectors/parasitology , Triatominae/parasitology , Brazil/epidemiology , Chagas Disease/diagnosis , Chagas Disease/prevention & control , Chagas Disease/transmission , Health Surveys , Insect Vectors/classification , Population Surveillance , Prevalence , Rural Population , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Triatominae/classification
15.
Barueri, SP; Manole; 2 ed., rev., atual; 2011. xii,424 p. tab, graf.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-605192
16.
Barueri; Manole; 2. ed; 2011. 424 p.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-941491
17.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 14(4): 330-334, July-Aug. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-561202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The durability of the sustained virologic response (SVR) in patients with chronic hepatitis C after treatment and the ideal follow-up time for these patients remains undefined. The objective of the study was to evaluate the durability of the virologic response in patients with chronic hepatitis C followed up for at least 12 months after SVR at HCFMRP-USP. METHODS: The study was conducted on 174 patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with different antiviral regimens who had achieved SVR. Qualitative serum HCV-RNA was determined by the commercial kit (COBAS AMPLICOR HCV, v2.0). RESULTS: There was predominance of male (73 percent) with a mean age of 45.6 ± 10 years. Liver cirrhosis was present in 16.1 percent of the study subjects. Mean follow-up time after SVR was 47 months (12-156 months). Twenty-two patients received monotherapy with interferon; 94 received interferon plus ribavirin, and 58 received pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. A total of 134 patients (77.0 percent) received one treatment course, 29 (16.7 percent) received two courses, and 11 (6.3 percent) received three courses. The distribution of HCV genotypes was: genotype 1 (40.2 percent), genotype 3 (40.8 percent) and genotype 2 (10.3 percent). Genotype was undetermined in 8.7 percent of cases. None of the 174 patients had recurrence of HCV infection. Two cirrhotic patients developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with SVR there was no recurrence of HCV infection or evidence of liver disease progression in any patient followed up for a mean of 47 months after SVR, except for patients with advanced hepatic disease before treatment, who may develop HCC despite SVR. Therefore, one can assume that SVR is associated with long term good prognosis.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Interferons/administration & dosage , Liver Cirrhosis/virology , RNA, Viral/blood , Ribavirin/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Follow-Up Studies , Genotype , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology , Interferons/therapeutic use , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Ribavirin/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
18.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 56(5): 535-540, 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-567948

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: Estudar o comportamento de estudantes de medicina em relação ao trânsito, comparando os padrões atuais com aqueles observados em estudo realizado anteriormente na mesma instituição. MÉTODOS: Foram aplicados questionários padronizados em uma amostra de estudantes regularmente matriculados no curso médico da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, objetivando coletar informações demográficas, socioeconômicas e referentes ao comportamento no trânsito e envolvimento em acidentes. Esses resultados foram comparados com os obtidos em investigação semelhante, realizada em 1997. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 354 alunos em 2008 e 377 em 1997. Do total, 431 (59 por cento) já haviam dirigido logo após a ingestão de álcool, sendo que, desses, 21,5 por cento em condições de intensa alcoolização. Participação em rachas foi referida por 10,5 por cento dos participantes, com diferença marcante entre os sexos (12,5 por cento entre homens e 3,4 por cento em mulheres). Envolvimento em acidentes com vítimas, fatais ou não, foi referido por 19,2 por cento dos participantes. Esses percentuais atingiram 31,1 por cento entre os que já dirigiram intensamente alcoolizados e 42,9 por cento entre os que participaram de rachas. O estudo de 2008 evidenciou maior uso de capacete e de cinto de segurança em meio urbano e redução de uso de bebidas alcoólicas antes de dirigir. Por outro lado, mostrou redução de respeito contínuo à sinalização de semáforos. CONCLUSÃO: Comportamentos de risco no trânsito fazem-se presentes com elevada frequência entre os participantes, estando diretamente relacionados com o envolvimento em acidentes que provocam vítimas. Visto ser essa uma parcela populacional diferenciada, com conhecimento e contato direto com as consequências desses acidentes, esperar-se-ia uma menor presença de comportamentos de elevado risco. As informações oriundas desse trabalho devem conduzir a uma reflexão por parte da comunidade acadêmica com vistas à introdução de programas educativos capazes de produzir mudança efetiva de atitude dos estudantes.


OBJECTIVES: To study the traffic behavior of medical students comparing current patterns with those observed in a study previously carried out in the same institution. METHODS: Standard questionnaires were completed by a sample of regularly registered medical students of the " Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo", Brazil, to collect data regarding demographic and economic information and also traffic behavior and accident involvement. Results were compared to those obtained in a similar investigation done in 1997. RESULTS: In 2008, 354 students were interviewed and 377 in 1997. Of all, 431 (59 percent) had driven right after alcohol ingestion and 21.5 percent of them had driven under severe influence of alcohol. while 10.5 percent referred to participation in "street races", with a large difference between genders (12.5 percent of men and 3.4 percent of women). Involvement in accidents with victims, fatal or not, was reported by 19.2 percent of participants. This percentage reached 31.1 percent among those who had driven under severe influence of alcohol and 42.9 percent among those who participated in "street races". The 2008 study showed increased use of helmets and seat belts in urban areas, as well as reduction of alcohol consumption before driving. On the other hand, it disclosed less continuous compliance with traffic lights. CONCLUSION: Risky traffic behavior was found to be very frequent among these participants directly involved in accidents with victims. Since this is a distinctive segment of the population, that is aware and has direct contact with the consequences of traffic accidents, we would hope to find a lower incidence of such high risk behavior. Information provided by this investigation should lead to a reflection from the academic community intending to introduce educational programs to effectively change student behavior.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Accidents, Traffic , Alcohol Drinking , Automobile Driving/psychology , Students, Medical/psychology , Age Distribution , Automobile Driving/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Chi-Square Distribution , Risk-Taking , Sex Distribution , Seat Belts/statistics & numerical data , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/mortality
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 42(4): 369-372, July-Aug. 2009. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-527174

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has quite high prevalence in the prison system, reaching rates of up to 40 percent. This survey aimed to estimate the prevalence of HCV infection and evaluate risk factors for this exposure among male inmates at the Ribeirão Preto Prison, State of São Paulo, Brazil, between May and August 2003. A total of 333 participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire and underwent immunoenzymatic assaying to investigate anti-HCV. The prevalence of HCV infection among the inmates was 8.7 percent (95 percent CI: 5.7-11.7). The participants'mean age was 30.1 years, and the prevalence was predominantly among individuals over 30 years of age. Multivariate analysis showed that the variables that were independently associated with HCV infection were age > 30 years, tattooing, history of previous hepatitis, previous injection drug use and previous needle-sharing.


Infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C no sistema prisional apresenta elevada prevalência, chegando a atingir cifras superiores a 40 por cento. Esta pesquisa objetivou estimar a prevalência do HCV e avaliar fatores de risco para esta exposição na população masculina carcerária da Penitenciária de Ribeirão Preto - SP, no período de maio a agosto de 2003. Um total de 333 participantes foi submetido à aplicação de um questionário padronizado e a ensaio imunoenzimático para pesquisa de anti-HCV. A prevalência encontrada de infecção pelo HCV nos presidiários foi de 8,7 por cento (IC 95 por cento: 5,7-11,7). A média de idade dos participantes foi de 30,1 anos, com a prevalência predominando nos indivíduos acima de 30 anos. Na análise multivariada, as variáveis que se mostraram associadas de forma independente à infecção pelo HCV foram idade > 30 anos, tatuagem, história prévia de hepatite, passado de uso de droga injetável e passado de compartilhamento de agulhas.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepatitis C Antibodies/blood , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Young Adult
20.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 12(2): 124-131, jun. 2009. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-518028

ABSTRACT

Esta pesquisa objetivou estimar a prevalência do marcador do HBV e seus fatores de risco na população masculina carcerária da Penitenciária de Ribeirão Preto - SP, Brasil. De 1.030 presidiários, foram sorteados 333 participantes, os quais foram submetidos à aplicação de um questionário e à coleta de sangue, no período de maio a agosto de 2003. Para diagnóstico de exposição ao HBV foi utilizado o ensaio imunoabsorvente de ligação de enzimas (ELISA) para detecção dos marcadores HBsAg, anti-HBsAg e anti-HBc total. A prevalência total de infecção pelo HBV nos presidiários foi de 19,5 por cento (IC95 por cento: 15,2 - 23,8). A média de idade dos participantes foi de 30,1 anos. Na análise univariada, a infecção pelo HBV esteve associada à idade acima de 30 anos (p<0,001), uso prévio de drogas injetáveis (p<0,001) e compartilhamento de agulhas prévio (p<0,001). Em um modelo multivariado, de regressão logística, a infecção pelo HBV foi associada à idade acima de 30 anos (OR = 3,3: IC95 por cento: 1,8 - 6.1) e uso prévio de droga injetável (OR = 2,7; IC95 por cento: 1.9 - 6.4). Infecção pelo HBV nas prisões representa grave problema de saúde pública, principalmente relacionado à idade acima de 30 anos e uso prévio de drogas injetáveis.


This survey aimed to estimate the prevalence of HBV serological markers and risk factors for this infection in male inmates at the Penitentiary of Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Out of 1030 inmates, a simple random sample of 333 participants answered a questionnaire and had blood samples collected, from May to August 2003. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to diagnose HBV infection (HBsAg, anti-HBsAg, and total anti-HBc). The overall prevalence for HBV markers in inmates was 19.5 percent (CI95 percent: 15.2 - 23.8). The participants' mean age was 30.1 years. In univariate analysis, HBV infection was associated with age > 30 years (p<0.001), previous injecting drug use (p<0.001) and previous sharing of needles (p<0.001). In a logistic regression multivariate model, HBV infection was associated with age > 30 years (OR = 3.3; CI95 percent: 1.8 - 6.1) and previous injecting drug use (OR = 2.7; CI95 percent: 1.9 - 6.4). HBV infection on prisons represents a major health problem, mainly associated with age over 30 years and previous injecting drug use.

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