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Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 36: e028, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1360242


Abstract: In this study, we evaluated the knowledge, attitudes, and psychosocial impacts among Brazilian pediatric dentists during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional study with primary data collection was carried out using an online structured questionnaire. Data were submitted to descriptive analysis by using absolute and relative frequencies. A chi-square test was used for association analysis and log-linear regression models to estimate the prevalence ratio (5%). The population comprised mostly women and knowledge regarding COVID-19 was satisfactory (above 80% in most items). N95 masks and faceshields were used, albeit 64.22% reported difficulty in providing dental care to children due to the need for extra Personal Protective Equipment. Thirty eight percent provided urgency/emergency dental care, 59.78% performed invasive procedures, 59.56% used high speed handpieces, 8.44% started using cariostatics, and 6.22% introduced the use of chemomechanical caries removal agents. Fear for the future (PR = 1.21) and use of medications (for anxiety, depression, or insomnia) increased (PR = 1.16) among the ones who had wage losses. Brazilian pediatric dentists have knowledge about COVID-19, and attitudes in their clinical routines changed due the pandemic. Financial life was harmed and a negative impact of the pandemic in psychosocial aspects of workers was found.

Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210106, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365239


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the physical conditions and presence of residues of toothbrushes used by mothers and their babies and mothers' knowledge about toothbrush care. Material and Methods This was a cross-sectional study comprising a convenience sample represented by 60 mother-baby pairs. The mothers answered a questionnaire to evaluate their knowledge of toothbrush care. A calibrated dentist performed a visual inspection of the toothbrushes. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, with a significance level of 5%. Results It was found that 82% of the mothers had never received instructions regarding the care of toothbrushes after use (p=0.024). Most of them believed that their toothbrushes (70%) and their children's toothbrushes (88%) were in good condition to use (p=0.043). However, most mother's toothbrushes presented an unacceptable deformity of the bristles (65%) and the presence of residues (60%). In addition, babies' toothbrushes also presented unacceptable deformities of the bristles (52%) and residues (55%). There was an association between the lack of instructions received by the mother and the presence of deformity and residues on the mother's toothbrush bristles (p=0.037 and p=0.003, respectively). Conclusion Most mothers had never received instructions regarding toothbrush care, which is reflected in the condition of their and their baby's toothbrushes, which presented unacceptable physical conditions concerning deformation and presence of residues.

Humans , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Adult , Oral Hygiene , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Dental Devices, Home Care , Toothbrushing , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Observational Study
Braz. dent. j ; 32(6): 66-73, Nov.-Dec. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1355834


Abstract The aim of the present in vivo study was to evaluate the bacterial contamination of sports mouthguards, surface roughness, and the efficacy of chlorhexidine gluconate spray in the disinfection of these devices. A randomized, blinded cross-over clinical trial was performed with twenty 9 to 13 years old children who practiced martial arts and participated in all phases of the study. They were instructed to wear mouthguards 3 alternated days a week for 1 hour and, after use, to spray sterile tap water or chlorhexidine 0.12%. The mouthguards were analyzed by MTT assay, Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization, and confocal laser microscopy prior and after use for 2 weeks. Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon and t-Student, and Pearson correlation tests, with 5% significance level. Were observed that mouthguards of the control group were more contaminated with cariogenic microorganisms than those of the chlorhexidine group (p<0.05). The mouthguards use of spray of chlorhexidine reduced significantly the bacteria contamination compared with control group (p = 0.007). The surface roughness of the mouthguards increased significantly after use, irrespective of application of chlorhexidine spray. A moderate correlation (r=0.59) was observed between surface roughness and the cariogenic microorganism's contamination only for control group. Sports mouthguards had intense microbial contamination and increased surface roughness after its use. The use of chlorhexidine spray was effective for reducing the mouthguards contamination used by children.

Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo in vivo foi avaliar a contaminação bacteriana de protetores bucais esportivos, a rugosidade da superfície e a eficácia do spray de gluconato de clorexidina na desinfecção desses dispositivos. Um ensaio clínico randomizado, cego, cruzado foi realizado com vinte crianças de 9 a 13 anos, que praticavam artes marciais, participaram de todas as fases do estudo. As crianças foram orientadas a usar o protetor bucal por 3 dias alternados durante 1 hora e, após o uso, borrifar água de torneira estéril ou clorexidina 0,12%. Os protetores foram analisados por ensaio MTT, Hibridização DNA-DNA e microscopia confocal a laser antes e após o uso por 2 semanas. Os dados foram analisados pelos teste de Wilcoxon, teste t de Student, e correlação de Pearson, com nível de significância de 5%. Observou-se que os protetores bucais do grupo controle estavam mais contaminados com microrganismos cariogênicos do que os do grupo experimental (clorexidina) (p <0,05). O uso de protetores bucais com spray de clorexidina reduziu significativamente a contaminação bacteriana em relação ao grupo controle (p = 0,007). A rugosidade da superfície dos protetores bucais aumentou significativamente após o uso, independentemente da aplicação de spray de clorexidina. Uma correlação moderada (r = 0,59) foi observada entre a rugosidade da superfície e a contaminação do micro-organismo apenas para o grupo controle. Os protetores bucais esportivos apresentam intensa contaminação microbiana e aumento da rugosidade superficial após o uso. O uso de spray de clorexidina foi eficaz para reduzir a contaminação dos protetores bucais usados por crianças.

Dent. press endod ; 11(1): 29-34, Jan-Apr2021. Tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348159


Introdução: O derivado da matriz do esmalte (Emdogain®) é um extrato de proteína usado para cicatrização periodontal. Objetivo: O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar radiograficamente a resposta pulpar e periapical de dentes de cães após pulpotomia e uso do gel derivado da matriz do esmalte (Emdogain®). Métodos: A pulpotomia foi realizada em 30 dentes (60 raízes) de 3 cães, e o tecido pulpar remanescente foi recoberto com os seguintes materiais: Grupos 1 e 4: gel derivado da matriz do esmalte (Emdogain®); Grupos 2 e 5: hidróxido de cálcio; Grupos 3 e 6: óxido de zinco e cimento de eugenol. Após 10 dias (Grupos 1-3) e 75 dias (Grupos 4-6) foram obtidas radiografias periapicais e a avaliação radiográfica foi realizada considerando-se: a integridade da lâmina dura, presença de áreas de rarefação óssea periapical, reabsorção radicular (interna e externa) e formação de ponte de dentina. Resultados: No período de 10 dias, todos os espécimes dos Grupos 1-3 apresentaram ausência de rarefação óssea periapical, reabsorção radicular (interna e externa) e formação de ponte dentinária. No período de 75 dias, os Grupos 4-6 não apresentaram formação de ponte dentinária em nenhum espécime. Áreas de rarefação óssea periapical foram observadas em 100% das raízes no Grupo 4, 62,5% das raízes no Grupo 6 e em 25% das raízes nos Grupos 5. Conclusão: O uso do gel derivado da matriz do esmalte (Emdogain®) como material para capeamento após a pulpotomia levou à formação de lesões periapicais e não induziu a deposição de tecido mineralizado (AU).

Introduction: The enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain®) is a protein extract used for periodontal healing. The objective of this study was to evaluate radiographically the pulpal and periapical response of dogs teeth after pulpotomy and use of enamel matrix derivative gel (Emdogain®). Methods: Pulpotomy was performed in 30 teeth (60 roots) from 3 dogs and the remaining pulp tissue was capped with the following materials: Groups 1 and 4: enamel matrix derivative gel (Emdogain®); Groups 2 and 5: calcium hydroxide; Groups 3 and 6: zinc oxide and eugenol cement. After 10 days (Groups 1-3) and 75 days (Groups 4-6) periapical radiographs were obtained and the radiographic evaluation was performed considering the integrity of the lamina dura, presence of areas of periapical bone rarefaction, root resorption (internal and external) and dentin bridge formation. Results: In the 10- day period, all specimens in Groups 1-3 presented absence of periapical bone rarefaction, absence of root resorption (internal and external) and absence of dentin bridge formation. In the 75-day period, Groups 4-6 did not present dentin bridge formation in any specimen. Periapical bone rarefaction areas were observed in 100% of the roots in Group 4, 62,5% of the roots in Group 6 and in 25% of the roots in Groups 5. Conclusion: The use of enamel matrix derivative gel (Emdogain®) as a capping material after pulpotomy lead to formation of periapical lesions and did not induce deposition of mineralized tissue(AU).

Animals , Dogs , Pulpotomy , Wound Healing , Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement , Dental Enamel Proteins , Dental Enamel , Dentin , Materials
Braz. dent. j ; 32(1): 48-52, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1180718


Abstract This study evaluated the cytotoxicity of Sealapex Xpress and Real Seal XT and their effect on macrophage activation. J774.1 macrophages were incubated with Sealapex Xpress and Seal Real XT (0.1, 1.0, and 10 mg/mL) for 24 and 48 h. Cell viability was assessed by the MTT assay and macrophage activation was measured by pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production using ELISA. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-test (a=0.05). Cell viability was not affected with 0.1 or 1.0 mg/mL of extracts of Sealapex Xpress and Real Seal XT at 24 and 48 h (p>0.05), but was significantly lower when cells were exposed to 10 mg/mL of both sealers (p<0.05). Sealapex Xpress inhibited the production of TNF-a, whereas Real Seal XT induced TNF-a secretion at 24 h (p<0.05). IL-6 production was induced by Real Seal XT, but not by Sealapex Xpress (p<0.05). Real Seal XT and Sealapex Xpress induced the secretion of anti-inflammatory IL-10. IL-4 was not detected in any group. In conclusion, both sealers had low toxicity but differentially activated macrophages. Macrophage activation by Sealapex Xpress was characterized by inhibition of TNF-a and induction of IL-10, whereas Real Seal XT induced IL-6 solely.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar in vitro a citotoxicidade dos cimentos endodônticos Sealapex Xpress e Real Seal XT pelo ensaio de MTT e a ativação de macrófagos J774.1. Os cimentos endodônticos Sealapex Xpress e Real Seal XT foram pesados e os extratos foram obtidos a partir da diluição em meio de cultura DMEM por 48 horas (10mg/mL, 1mg/m, e 0,1 mg/mL). A viabilidade celular foi avaliada pelo ensaio MTT e a produção de citocinas (TNF-a, IL-6 e IL-10) foi investigada pelo ensaio imunoenzimático (ELISA) em células de linhagem (macrofagos J774.1). Os dados obtidos foram analisados utilizando-se análise de variância de uma via e pós-teste de Tukey (a=0,05). A viabilidade celular após 24 ou 48 horas não foi afetada nas concentrações de 0,1 ou 1 mg/mL dos dois cimentos estudados (p>0,05). Por outro lado, na concentração 10 mg/mL, a viabilidade celular foi significativamente mais baixa (p <0,05). Observou-se que o Sealapex Xpress inibiu a produção de TNF-a, enquanto o Real Seal XT induziu a secreção de TNF-a às 24 h (p<0,05). A produção de IL-6 foi induzida pelo Real Seal XT, mas não pelo Sealapex Xpress (p<0,05). A secreção da citocina anti-inflamatória IL-10 foi induzida tanto pelo Real Seal XT quanto pelo Sealapex Xpress. IL-4 não foi detectada em nenhum grupo. Em conclusão, os dois cimentos obturadores apresentaram baixa toxicidade, mas ativaram os macrófagos de modo distinto. A ativação pelo Sealapex Xpress foi caracterizada pela inibição do TNF-a e indução da IL-10, enquanto o Real Seal XT induziu somente IL-6.

Root Canal Filling Materials , Materials Testing , Calcium Hydroxide , Salicylates , Inflammation Mediators , Macrophages
J. appl. oral sci ; 28: e20190699, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1134770


Abstract Purpose To evaluate the kinetics of apical periodontitis development in vivo , induced either by contamination of the root canals by microorganisms from the oral cavity or by inoculation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the regulation of major enzymes and receptors involved in the arachidonic acid metabolism. Methodology Apical periodontitis was induced in C57BL6 mice (n=96), by root canal exposure to oral cavity (n=48 teeth) or inoculation of LPS (10 µL of a suspension of 0.1 µg/µL) from E. coli into the root canals (n= 48 teeth). Healthy teeth were used as control (n=48 teeth). After 7, 14, 21 and 28 days the animals were euthanized and tissues removed for histopathological and qRT-PCR analyses. Histological analysis data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Sidak's test, and qRT-PCR data using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (α=0.05). Results Contamination by microorganisms led to the development of apical periodontitis, characterized by the recruitment of inflammatory cells and bone tissue resorption, whereas inoculation of LPS induced inflammatory cells recruitment without bone resorption. Both stimuli induced mRNA expression for cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase enzymes. Expression of prostaglandin E 2 and leukotriene B 4 cell surface receptors were more stimulated by LPS. Regarding nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), oral contamination induced the synthesis of mRNA for PPARδ, differently from inoculation of LPS, that induced PPARα and PPARγ expression. Conclusions Contamination of the root canals by microorganisms from oral cavity induced the development of apical periodontitis differently than by inoculation with LPS, characterized by less bone loss than the first model. Regardless of the model used, it was found a local increase in the synthesis of mRNA for the enzymes 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 of the arachidonic acid metabolism, as well as in the surface and nuclear receptors for the lipid mediators prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene B4.

Animals , Male , Periapical Periodontitis/microbiology , Dinoprostone/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism , Leukotriene B4/metabolism , Dental Pulp Cavity/microbiology , Periapical Periodontitis/metabolism , Periapical Periodontitis/pathology , Time Factors , Bone Resorption/metabolism , Bone Resorption/microbiology , Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/analysis , Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/analysis , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Dinoprostone/analysis , Random Allocation , Gene Expression , Leukotriene B4/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Dental Pulp Cavity/metabolism , Dental Pulp Cavity/pathology , Cyclooxygenase 2/analysis , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL
Braz. dent. j ; 30(5): 484-490, Sept.-Oct. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039137


Abstract Papain-based gel is used for chemical-mechanical caries removal and present antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. However, its effects on dental pulp cells and on macrophages remains largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the papain-based gel Papacárie Duo® acts as an immunomodulator in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages and its effects on dental pulp cells . J774.1 macrophage and OD-21 dental pulp cells were stimulated with 0.5% and 5% of Papacárie Duo®, following pre-treatment or not with LPS. After 24 h, a lactate dehydrogenase assay was used to measure cytotoxicity, a tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (MTT) was used to measure cell viability, and qRT-PCR was used to analyze relative gene expression of Ptgs2, Il10, Tnf, Mmp9, Runx2, Ibsp and Spp1. Papacárie Duo® was cytotoxic and reduced cell viability at 5% but not at 0.5% in both cultures. In macrophages, Papacárie Duo® increased the expression Il10 and LPS-induced Ptgs2, but it did not affect Tnf or Mmp9. In OD-21 cells, Papacárie Duo® inhibited Runx2 and Ibsp expression, but stimulated Spp1 expression. Papain-based gel presented a concentration dependent cytotoxicity, without affecting cell viability, for dental pulp cells and macrophages. Interestingly, the gel presented an inhibitory effect on pulp cell differentiation but modulated the activation of macrophages stimulated with LPS. We speculate that in dental pulp tissue, Papacárie Duo® would impair reparative dentinogenesis but could activate macrophages to perform their role in defense and inflammation.

Resumo O gel à base de papaína é utilizando para remoção químico-mecânica do tecido cariado e apresenta propriedades antimicrobianas e anti-inflamatórias Entretanto, seu efeito sobre as células da polpa dentárias e macrófagos é desconhecido. Portanto, o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito de um gel de papaína (Papacárie Duo®) em células indiferenciadas da polpa dentária e a capacidade de induzir a ativação e síntese de mediadores inflamatórios por macrófagos estimulados com lipopolissacarídeo bacteriano (LPS). O gel de papaína foi diluído nas concentrações de 0,5 e 5%. Células indiferenciadas da polpa dentária OD-21 e macrófagos J774.1 foram mantidos em cultura com os diferentes estímulos por um período de estimulação de 24 h para realização do teste de citotoxicidade (Ensaio LDH) e para avaliação da viabilidade celular (Ensaio Colorimétrico MTT). A seguir foi realizada avaliação da expressão gênica relativa dos genes Ibsp, Runx2 e Spp1 em células OD-21; e dos genes Il10, Mmp9, Ptgs2 e Tnf em células J774.1, pelo método de transcrição reversa e reação em cadeia de polimerase em tempo real (qRT-PCR), após estimulação pelo período de 24 h. O extrato do gel diluído a 5% foi citotóxico às células da polpa dental, reduziu a viabilidade celular, inibiu a expressão de Runx2 e Ibsp e estimulou a expressão de Spp1. Em macrófagos, o extrato do gel foi citotóxico e reduziu a viabilidade celular na concentração de 5%. O LPS inibiu a viabilidade celular na presença ou não do extrato do gel, sem apresentar citotoxicidade. O extrato do gel induziu a expressão de Ptgs2 e Il10, sem alterar Tnf e Mmp9. O extrato do gel de papaína foi citotóxico, dependente da concentração, tanto em células da polpa dentária como em macrófagos, sem alterar a viabilidade celular. Interessantemente, apresentou efeito inibitório na diferenciação de células da polpa dentária e modulou a ativação de macrófagos estimulados com LPS. No tecido pulpar, o Papacárie Duo® poderia impedir a dentinogênese de reparação, porém ativar macrófagos para desempenhar seu papel na inflamação e defesa.

Humans , Papain , Dental Caries , Dental Cavity Preparation , Dental Pulp , Macrophages
Braz. dent. j ; 30(2): 123-132, Mar.-Apr. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001434


Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiographic periapical repair and the synthesis of inflammatory mediators after endodontic treatment in a single session, using different irrigation protocols, in teeth with apical periodontitis. Experimental apical periodontitis were induced in dog's teeth randomly assigned into 4 groups: G1 - Irrigation by Negative Apical Pressure (n= 20); G2 - Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation (n= 20), G3 - Positive Pressure Irrigation (n= 20); G4 - apical periodontitis without treatment (n= 20). After 180 days, the animals were euthanized, the tissues removed and submitted to histotechnical processing for immunohistochemical analysis of osteopontin (OPN), tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) and interleukin 1-a (IL-1a). Radiographic analysis was performed using the Periapical Index (PAI), obtained prior to and 180 days following endodontic treatment. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Fisher's Exact test or Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn's post-test (a = 5%). Radiographically, after endodontic treatment, apical periodontitis persisted in 35% of G1 specimens, 40% of G2 and 40% of G3 (p>0.05), although a PAI reduction was observed (p<0.05). By immunohistochemical evaluation, endodontic treatment resulted in lower synthesis of TNF-a and OPN in periapical region, compared to apical periodontitis without treatment (p<0.05). Production of IL-1 was not modulated by endodontic treatment (p>0.05). Periapical healing was observed in approximately 60% of the cases after endodontic treatment performed in a single session with lower synthesis of TNF-a and OPN in the periapical region, regardless of the irrigation protocol used.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o reparo periapical e a síntese de mediadores inflamatórios após tratamento endodôntico em dentes de cães com lesão periapical, em sessão única, utilizando diferentes protocolos de irrigação. Lesões periapicais foram induzidas experimentalmente em dentes de cães e aleatoriamente divididas em 4 grupos: G1 - Irrigação por Pressão Apical Negativa (n = 20); G2 - Irrigação Ultrassônica Passiva (n = 20), G3 - Irrigação por Pressão Positiva (n = 20); G4 - Lesão periapical sem tratamento (n = 20). Após 180 dias, os animais foram eutanasiados, as peças removidas e submetidas ao processamento histotécnico para análise imunohistoquímica para osteopontina (OPN), fator de necrose tumoral-a (TNF-a) e interleucina 1-a (IL-1a). A análise radiográfica do reparo das lesões periapicais foi realizada por meio do Índice Periapical, obtido antes e 180 dias após o tratamento endodôntico. Os resultados obtidos foram submetidos à análise estatística por meio dos testes de sinais de Wilcoxon, Exato de Fisher ou Kruskal-Wallis seguido pelo pós-teste de Dunn (a = 5%). O exame radiográfico após o tratamento endodôntico, mostrou a persistência de áreas radiolúcidas periapicais e descontinuidade da lâmina dura em 35% dos espécimes do G1, 40% do G2 e 40% do G3, embora uma redução no PAI tenha sido observada (p<0,05). Pela análise imuno-histoquímica, o tratamento endodôntico resultou na menor síntese de TNF-a e de OPN na região periapical, comparativamente à lesão periapical sem tratamento (p<0,05). A produção de IL-1a não foi modulada pelo tratamento endodôntico (p>0,05). Reparo da lesão periapical foi observado em cerca de 60% dos casos após tratamento endodôntico realizado em sessão única e menor síntese de TNF-a e de OPN na região periapical, independente do protocolo de irrigação utilizado.

Animals , Dogs , Periapical Periodontitis , Photochemotherapy , Tooth , Root Canal Therapy , Dental Pulp Cavity
Braz. dent. j ; 29(1): 43-47, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888722


Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of MMP2 and MMP9 during apical periodontitis (AP) progression in TLR2 (TLR2 KO) and in MyD88 (MyD88 KO) knockout mice compared to wild type (WT) mice. AP was induced in mandibular first molars of TLR2 KO (n= 18), MyD88 KO (n= 18), and WT mice (n= 18). After 7, 21, and 42 days, the animals were euthanized and the jaws were dissected and subjected to histotechnical processing. Subsequent sections were stained by immunohistochemistry and evaluated for detection of MMP2 and MMP9. Statistical analysis of the semi-quantitative analysis of immunohistochemistry was performed using chi-square test (α = 0.05). In the initial periods of AP progression, an increased expression of MMP9 in the TLR2 KO and MyD88 KO mice was observed. In the final periods of AP progression, a reduction of MMP2 expression and an increase of MMP9 expression in the TLR2 KO mice were observed. MMP2 and MMP9 production was modulated for TLR2 and MyD88 during apical periodontitis progression.

Resumo O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a expressão de MMP2 e MMP9 durante a progressão da periodontite apical (AP) em camundongos knockout para TLR2 (TLR2 KO) e MyD88 (MyD88 KO) comparados aos camundongos wild type (WT). A AP foi induzida nos primeiros molares inferiores dos camundongos TLR2 KO (n = 18), MyD88 KO (n = 18) e WT (n = 18). Após 7, 21 e 42 dias, os animais foram eutanaziados e as mandíbulas foram dissecadas e submetidas a processamento histotécnico. As lâminas foram coradas por imuno-histoquímica e analisadas para a detecção de MMP2 e MMP9. A análise estatística semi-quantitativa da imuno-histoquímica foi realizada pelo teste qui-quadrado (α = 0,05). Nos períodos iniciais de progressão AP, foi observada uma expressão aumentada de MMP9 nos camundongos TLR2 KO e MyD88 KO. Nos períodos finais de progressão AP, observou-se uma redução da expressão de MMP2 e um aumento da expressão de MMP9 nos camundongos TLR2 KO. A produção de MMP2 e MMP9 foi modulada por TLR2 e MyD88 durante a progressão da periodontite apical.

Animals , Mice , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/metabolism , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/physiology , Periapical Periodontitis/enzymology , Toll-Like Receptor 2/physiology , Disease Progression , Immunohistochemistry , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/genetics , Periapical Periodontitis/metabolism , Periapical Periodontitis/pathology
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170512, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-954511


Abstract Objective To evaluate and correlate, in the same research, the mRNA expression and the staining of RANK, RANKL, OPG, TLR2 and MyD88 by immunohistochemistry in the apical periodontitis (AP) progression in mice. Material and Methods AP was induced in the lower first molars of thirty-five C57BL/6 mice. They were assigned to four groups according to their euthanasia periods (G0, G7, G21 and G42). The jaws were removed and subjected to histotechnical processing, immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Data were analyzed with parametric and nonparametric tests (α=0.05). Results An increase of positive immunoreactivity for RANK, RANKL, OPG, TLR2 and MyD88 was observed over time (p<0.05). The RANKL expression was different between the groups G0 and G42, G21 and G42 (p=0.006), with G42 presenting the higher expression in both comparations. The OPG expression was statistically different between the groups G0 and G7, G7 and G21 and G7 and G42 (p<0.001), with G7 presenting higher expression in all the time points. The TLR2 expression was different between the groups G0 and G42 (p=0.03), with G42 showing the higher expression. The MyD88 expression presented a statistical significant difference between groups G7, G21 and G42 compared with G0 (p=0.01), with G0 presenting the smallest expression in all the comparisons. The Tnfrsf11/Tnfrsf11b (RANKL/OPG) ratio increased with the AP progression (p=0.002). A moderate positive correlation between MyD88 and RANKL (r=0.42; p=0.03) and between MyD88 and TLR2 (r=0.48; p<0.0001) was observed. Conclusion The expression of the RANK, RANKL, OPG, MyD88 and TLR2 proteins as well as the ratio Tnfrsf11/Tnfrsf11b (RANKL/OPG) increased with AP progression. There was also a moderate positive correlation between the expression Myd88-Tnfrsf11 and Tlr2-Myd88, suggesting the relevance of Tlr2-Myd88 in bone loss due to bacterial infection.

Animals , Male , Periapical Periodontitis/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/analysis , RANK Ligand/analysis , Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88/analysis , Osteoprotegerin/analysis , Periapical Periodontitis/pathology , Reference Values , Immunohistochemistry , Gene Expression , Disease Progression , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Toll-Like Receptor 2/analysis , Mice, Inbred C57BL
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(4): 338-343, July-Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-792602


ABSTRACT The successful use of composite resins in Dentistry depends on physicochemical properties, but also on the biological compatibility of resins, because of the close association between pulp and dentin. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity and cytokine production induced by light-cured or non-light-cured methacrylate-based and silorane composite resins in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Material and Methods Cells were stimulated with the extracts from light-cured or non-light-cured composite resins. After incubation for 24 h, cytotoxicity was assessed with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assays, and total protein was quantified using the Lowry method. TNF-α detection was examined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) conducted with cell supernatants after cell stimulation for 6, 12, and 24 h. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post hoc test (α=0.05). Results KaloreTM and FiltekTM Silorane were cytotoxic with or without light curing (p<0.05) after 24 h of incubation. KaloreTM stimulated the early production of TNF-α in comparison with control (p<0.05), whereas FiltekTM Silorane did not affect TNF-α levels after 6 and 12 h (p>0.05). However, after 24 h FiltekTM Silorane inhibited the production of TNF-α (p<0.05). Conclusions KaloreTM and FiltekTM Silorane were cytotoxic regardless of light curing. The extract obtained from KaloreTM after 15 days of incubation stimulated the production of TNF-α, unlike that obtained from FiltekTM Silorane.

Animals , Mice , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Composite Resins/toxicity , Silorane Resins/toxicity , Methacrylates/toxicity , Reference Values , Time Factors , Materials Testing , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cell Survival/radiation effects , Cells, Cultured , Reproducibility of Results , Composite Resins/radiation effects , Curing Lights, Dental , Silorane Resins/radiation effects , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Methacrylates/radiation effects
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 30(1): e115, 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951950


Abstract This study aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorhexidine varnish on the reduction of caries incidence during fixed orthodontic treatment. The literature searches involved The Cochrane Library, Medline, Scopus, OpenSigle databases and manual searches. The search on OpenSigle did not produce any additional articles. Clinical studies conducted in patients with orthodontic fixed appliances that used professional application of chlorhexidine varnish were included. The effect-size was calculated and a meta-analysis was performed. From 182 abstracts, a total of six articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. After reading the full articles, one was excluded because of lack of a control group. Three articles were used for continuous data analysis, and two articles were used for the dichotomous data analysis. The pooled meta-analysis with continuous data demonstrated chlorhexidine varnish effectiveness on caries reduction (p = 0.003), with a mean difference and confidence interval of −1.49 [−2.47, −0.51]. On the basis of the pooled meta-analysis of continuous data, we were able to conclude that professional application of chlorhexidine varnish is effective in caries incidence reduction during fixed orthodontic treatment.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Orthodontic Appliances/microbiology , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome
Braz. dent. j ; 24(5): 537-541, Sep-Oct/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-697630


Mucocele is a benign lesion occurring in the buccal mucosa as a result of the rupture of a salivary gland duct and consequent outpouring of mucin into soft tissue. It is usually caused by a local trauma, although in many cases the etiology is uncertain. Mucocele is more commonly found in children and young adults, and the most frequent site is the lower inner portion of the lips. Fibroma, on the other hand, is a benign tumor of fibrous connective tissue that can be considered a reactionary connective tissue hyperplasia in response to trauma and irritation. They usually present hard consistency, are nodular and asymptomatic, with a similar color to the mucosa, sessile base, smooth surface, located in the buccal mucosa along the line of occlusion, tongue and lip mucosa. Conventional treatment for both lesions is conservative surgical excision. Recurrence rate is low for fibroma and high for oral mucoceles. This report presents a series of cases of mucocele and fibroma treated by surgical excision or enucleation and the respective follow-up routine in the dental clinic and discusses the features to be considered in order to distinguish these lesions from each other.

Mucocele é uma lesão comum na mucosa bucal, que resulta da ruptura de um ducto de glândula salivar e consequente derramamento de mucina para o interior dos tecidos moles circunjacentes. Frequentemente este derrame resulta de trauma local, embora em muitos casos a etiologia seja indefinida. É uma lesão não infecciosa benigna, que frequentemente afeta a cavidade bucal de crianças e adultos jovens, localizando-se geralmente na porção interna dos lábios inferiores. Por outro lado, o fibroma é um tipo de tumor benigno do tecido conjuntivo fibroso que pode ser considerado uma hiperplasia reacional do tecido conjuntivo em resposta a traumas e irritação. Geralmente são nodulares, com consistência firme, assintomáticos, coloração semelhante à da mucosa, base séssil, superfície lisa, localizados na mucosa jugal ao longo da linha de oclusão, língua e mucosa labial. O tratamento convencional para ambas as lesões é a excisão cirúrgica conservadora, sendo que sua recorrência é rara para fibromas e alta para as mucoceles. Este trabalho relata casos clínicos de mucocele e fibroma, tratados pela técnica de excisão cirúrgica ou enucleação, bem como descreve a proservação no consultório odontológico. As características importantes para o diagnóstico diferencial dessas lesões são discutidas.

Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Fibroma/diagnosis , Fibroma/surgery , Mucocele/diagnosis , Mucocele/surgery , Diagnosis, Differential , Fibroma/pathology , Mucocele/pathology
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BBO | ID: lil-601371


A agenesia dentária consiste em uma anomalia comum de desenvolvimento, que resulta na alteração do número de dentes preentes na cavidade bucal e afeta aproximadamente 20% da população. Sua etiologia está associada a fatores ambientais, como infecções, traumas, quimioterapia, radioterapia e causas genéticas. Atualmente a etiologia mais aceita para explicar a ocorrência das anomalias dentárias é a alteração na expressão de genes específicos. Com base no conhecimento dos genes e fatores de transcrição envolvidos na odontogênese, presume-se que diferentes formas fenotípicas de agenesia dentária são causadas por mutações em diferentes genes. Os genes envolvidos na agenesia dentária em humanos incluem os fatores de transcrição (MSX1 e PAX9) que desempenham um papel crítico durante o desenvolvimento craniofacial e o gene que codifica uma proteína envolvida na via de sinalização canônica Wnt (AXIN2). Dessa maneira, a proposta do presente estudo é discorrer sobre os principais genes que têm sido relatados como reguladores da formação dental e a ocorrência de mutações nestes genes que poderiam resultar em agenesias dentárias

Dental agenesis is a common developmental anomaly which affects approximately 20% of the population and results in a reduction of number of teeth present in the oral cavity. The etiology is associated with environmental factors, such as infections, trauma, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and genetic causes. Currently the widely accepted theory to explain the occurrence of dental agenesis is the change in the expression of specific genes. Different phenotypic patterns of dental agenesis are caused by mutations in genes and transcription factors involved in odontogenesis. In humans those genes include transcription factors (MSX1 and PAX9) that play a critical role during development and the gene coding for a protein involved in the canonical Wnt signaling (AXIN2). Therefore, the purpose of this study is to discuss about dental agenesis and the key genes that have been reported as regulators of dental formation and how the occurrence of mutations in these genes could result in dental agenesis

Wnt Proteins , MSX1 Transcription Factor , PAX9 Transcription Factor , Anodontia , Mutation
RPG rev. pos-grad ; 18(2): 79-82, abr.-jun. 2011. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679844


The goal of this research was to assess whether there was a change in the profile of dental procedures performed in the Pediatric Dental Clinic at the School of Dentistry of Ribeirão Preto at University of São Paulo during the period between the years 1980 to 2004. Using the dental records of 3,484 pediatric patients attended at the Pediatric Dental Clinic, we conducted a survey of clinical procedures performed by undergraduate students in the years 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000 and 2004. The following procedures, performed in deciduous and permanent teeth in children from 1 to 12 years, were: topicalapplications of fluoride, pit and fissure sealant applications, silver amalgam and composite resin fillings, pulpotomy and tooth extraction. The numeric values obtained for each procedure were converted into percentages, and data were analyzed using Fisher Exact or qui-square tests (α = 0.05). The results revealed the occurrence of a significant increase (p < 0.01) in percentage of topical fluoride applications (increase of 18.9%) and sealants applications (increase of 11.2%). On the other hand, the percentage of performance of silver amalgam and composite resin fillings, pulpotomies and tooth extraction showed a significant decline of 16.0, 6.0 and 16.1%, respectively (p < 0.05). It can be concluded that there was a decline of restorative, surgical and conservative endodontic procedures, with a concomitant increase of preventive procedures.

Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Dental Fissures , Dental Restoration, Permanent , Endodontics , Pediatric Dentistry , Pit and Fissure Sealants , Pulpotomy , Sodium Fluoride , Tooth Extraction , Tooth, Deciduous
RPG rev. pos-grad ; 18(1): 8-12, Jan.-Mar. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-679731


The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three spray antimicrobial solutions for the disinfection of childrenÆs toothbrushes. A 4-stage changeover system was used. The solutions studied were: BrushtoxTM (Spray 1), CosmocilTM + basic formula (Spray 2), basic formula (Spray 3), and control û sterile water (Spray 4). Forty children used the solutions in all stages. In each stage, the children received a new toothbrush and performed a single 1-min brushing. Thereafter, the solutions were sprayed six times at different positions on the toothbrush bristles. After four hours, microbiologic culture of the toothbrushes was performed. BrushtoxTM, CosmocilTM + basic formula, and basic formula presented a similar effect on prevention of cariogenic biofilm formation which was better than basic formula alone or sterile water. BrushtoxTM showed the best antimicrobial efficacy.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Biofilms , Dental Devices, Home Care , Disinfection , Oral Sprays , Toothbrushing