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1.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 96-101, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933764

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the correlation between middle cerebral artery (MCA) pulsatility index (PI) and total magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) burden in elderly patients with cerebral small vessel diseases (CSVD).Methods:A total of 203 CSVD inpatients aged 60 years and above who were hospitalized in the Department of Neurology of Hebei General Hospital from March 2017 to December 2020 were enrolled. The clinical data, transcranial Doppler ultrasound parameters and brain MRI data were collected. According to the total burden score, the patients were divided into low burden group (0-1 point) and high burden group (2-4 points). Univariate and multivariate Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between MCA PI and total MRI burden in the elderly patients with CSVD. Subsequently, the receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the value of MCA PI for predicting the high MRI burden of CSVD in the elderly.Results:Hypertension ( OR=2.569, 95% CI 1.068-6.182, P=0.035), systolic blood pressure ( OR=1.033, 95% CI 1.006-1.061, P=0.016), creatinine ( OR=1.044, 95% CI 1.009-1.079, P=0.013) and MCA PI ( OR=1.125, 95% CI 1.087-1.166, P<0.001) were independently correlated with the increasing total MRI burden in the elderly patients with CSVD. Spearman rank correlation analysis revealed that there was strong and positive correlation between MCA PI and high MRI burden in the elderly patients with CSVD ( r=0.65, P<0.001). The analysis showed that when the cut-off for MCA PI was 1.11, it could identify high MRI burden of CSVD in the elderly. The area under the curve was 0.908 (95% CI 0.864-0.953, P<0.001). The sensitivity and specificity were 0.852 and 0.880, respectively. The positive predictive value was 92.38%, and the negative predictive value was 77.70%. Conclusion:The MCA PI is positively correlated with total MRI burden in the elderly patients with CSVD, and has a higher value in predicting the total MRI burden in the elderly CSVD patients, which probably bring brighter prospects for its clinical application.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-931942

ABSTRACT

White matter lesions (WMLs) are the extensive damage of periventricular and subcortical white matter caused by different etiology.Previous studies have shown that WMLs is associated with cognitive function, motor function, mood and urination function.Parkinson disease (PD) is a common chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system.Recently, evidences showed that PD patients have a high susceptibility to WMLs which participates in the progression of motor and cognitive impairment.PD patients have higher risk of WMLs because of cardiovascular autonomic nerve dysfunction, long-term dopamine (DA) treatment and β-amyloid peptides (Aβ) deposition along vessels.Furthermore, recently, more and more evidences showed that WMLs could impact on the motor and cognitive symptoms of PD.WMLs had a significant influence on axial motor symptoms, and was related to executive function, attention, memory, visual-spatial ability and other cognitive impairment.Moreover, the severity of WMLs affects drug and surgical efficacy of patients with PD.Taking active measures to slacken the WMLs progression of PD will contribute to improve symptoms and curative effect.This article summarized the roles of WMLs in the occurrence and development of PD, in order to provide theoretical basis for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of PD.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929908

ABSTRACT

Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is the second most common type of dementia after Alzheimer's disease. As the pathway between the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract, brain-gut axis has become one of the research hotspots in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Intestinal flora imbalance may mediate or affect vascular risk factors such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, metabolic diseases, and ischemic stroke, and finally accelerate the occurrence and development of VCI. This article reviews the literature on intestinal flora and VCI as well as its main risk factors, in order to provide new ideas for the prevention and treatment of VCI.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929895

ABSTRACT

Post-stroke anxiety is one of the most common and important complications in patients with stroke, which can seriously affect the rehabilitation, daily life and work of patients with stroke. This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, risk factors and predictors, pathophysiological mechanism, prevention and treatment of post-stroke anxiety.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929882

ABSTRACT

Carotid atherosclerosis (CAS) is closely associated with the decline of cognitive function in the elderly, which can lead to persistent or progressive cognitive function and neurological dysfunction. Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is considered to be an intervenable disease. Studies have shown that CAS is one of the main causes of VCI. Further study on the relationship between CAS and VCI will help to better prevention and treatment of VCI.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-883920

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effect of iron overload on the cognitive function of rats and its possible internal mechanism.Methods:Thirty 8-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats of SPF degree were randomly divided into 2 groups, iron overload group(IO group) and control group(Sham group), with 15 in each group.The rats in IO group were injected intraperitoneally iron dextran(100 mg/(kg·d)) for 28 days.The cognitive function of rats was detected by Morris water maze method. Western blot method was used to detect the expression of TfR1 and autophagy-related protein p-AMPK, LC3 and Beclin1 in the hippocampus of rats. Immunofluorescence was used to observe the expression of LC3 and Beclin1 in the hippocampus of rats. HE staining was used to observe the morphological changes of neurons in the hippocampus. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe the number of autophagosomes and the morphology of endoplasmic reticulum in hippocampus.The software of SPSS 20.0 was used for repeated measurement ANOVA and t-test. Results:Morris water maze test showed that there were significant interaction between the group factor and training time factor of escape latency( F=3.55, P<0.01). And the simple effect analysis showed that compared with the Sham group((28.09±18.41)s, (21.42±15.53)s, (16.96±8.35)s, (10.24±3.75)s), the average escape latency of rats(2nd-5th day) in IO group((56.68±30.65)s, (58.21±36.09)s, (36.58±13.54)s, (27.29±14.30)s )were significantly longer ( t=8.57, 6.81, 9.51, 7.12, P<0.01). The platform was removed on 6th day of the space exploration experiment, compared with the Sham group ((41.89±3.89)%), the percentage of time spent in the target quadrant of IO group ((25.46±3.56)%) was significantly decreased( t=24.06, P<0.01). Western blot showed that the relative expression levels of (TfR1 (2.10±0.48), p-AMPK (0.74±0.10), LC3 (1.11±0.40), Beclin1 (1.05±0.20)) in IO group in the hippocampus of the rats were significantly higher than those of the Sham group(TfR1(0.11±0.18), p-AMPK(0.19±0.02), LC3(0.22±0.11), Beclin1(0.17±0.02))( t=1.58, 14.58, 10.06, 20.65, P<0.01)). HE staining showed that compared with the Sham group, the neuron in the hippocampus of the IO group were sparsely arranged, morphologically irregular, and the number of the neurons was significantly reduced. Transmission electron microscopy showed that compared with the Sham group, the number of autophagosomes in the hippocampus of IO group was increased. Conclusion:Iron overload may exert its neurotoxic effect by increasing the level of autophagy in the hippocampus, causing cognitive dysfunction.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909524

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the correlation between total MRI burden and serum uric acid level in patients with cerebral small vessel disease(CSVD) and its gender differences.Methods:A total of 217 patients with CSVD were retrospectively included as the research objects, and the clinical data such as serum uric acid value were collected.The imaging findings of patients with CSVD were evaluated by MRI, and the total MRI burden score of CSVD was calculated.According to the total MRI burden score of CSVD, patients with CSVD were divided into mild-to-moderate burden group ( n=133) and severe burden group ( n=84). SPSS 20.0 software was used for data analysis and processing.Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between uric acid and the total MRI burden score of CSVD. Results:The serum uric acid of severe burden group was higher than that of mild-to-moderate burden group((326.94±70.95)μmol/L, (293.42±80.52)μmol/L, P=0.002). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the elevated level of serum uric acid was an independent risk factors for total MRI burden of CSVD ( β=0.005, OR=1.005, 95% CI=1.001-1.009, P=0.019). The patients with CSVD were equally divided into four group based on the serum uric acid concentration.After controlling the confounding factors, with the increase of uric acid level, the risk of aggravating total MRI burden score of CSVD increased, and the difference was statistically significant( P=0.001). Serum uric acid(for each quartile increase)was an independent risk factor for total MRI burden in male patients with CSVD( β=0.482, OR=1.619, 95% CI=1.125-2.330, P=0.010), while there was no significant difference in female patients( P=0.070). Conclusion:Serum uric acid level is a risk factor for increasing the total MRI burden in male patients with CSVD, but this effect is not found in female patients with CSVD.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909508

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the correlation between enlarged perivascular spaces and other imaging markers of cerebrovascular disease in patients with ischemic stroke.Methods:Totally 287 patients with ischemic stroke hospitalized in neurology department from January 2018 to January 2019 were selected. According to the severity of EPVS in different parts of the brain, the correlations between the severity of EPVS in different parts of the brain and cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), white matter hyperintensity (WMH), lacunar infarcts (LIs) were analyzed. SPSS 22.0 software was used for analysis. Chi-square test, independent sample t-test, rank-sum test and non parametric Mann-Whitney U test were used for group comparison, and Logistic regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis. Results:EPVS was common and severe in patients with ischemic stroke. Periventricular white matter hyperintensity(PWMH)( β=1.604, P<0.001, OR=4.971, 95% CI=2.015-12.263), CMBs ( β=1.224, P=0.018, OR=3.339, 95% CI=1.232-9.383) and LIs ( β=0.626, P=0.047, OR=1.871, 95% CI=1.009-3.470) were independent risk factors for BG-EPVS. PWMH ( r=0.614), DWMH ( r=0.622), LIs ( r=0.532) were positively correlated with the severity of BG-EPVS (all P<0.01). Conclusion:The imaging makers of CSVD are related to BG-EPVS, which can affect the severity of brain BG-EPVS in patients with ischemic stroke.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907370

ABSTRACT

Endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) has become an effective treatment for acute large vessel occlusive ischemic stroke. Because there are many common etiologies and pathogenesis between cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and large vessel disease, patients with large vessel occlusive ischemic stroke are often accompanied by imaging manifestations of CSVD. In recent years, with the wide application of EVT in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke, more and more studies have investigated the relationship between CSVD and the outcome of patients treated with EVT. This article reviews the relationship between various imaging phenotypes of CSVD and the outcome of acute ischemic stroke patients treated with EVT and its possible mechanism.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907360

ABSTRACT

Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) can provide information of local or systemic inflammation and immune status. With the increasing attention to the role of inflammatory and immune factors in vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), it is very important to find new serum inflammatory markers for early identification and intervention of VCI. This article reviews the related research on NLR, VCI and their risk factors, expounds the role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of VCI, and provides help for the diagnosis and prevention of VCI.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929872

ABSTRACT

Estrogen is an important hormone secreted by the female reproductive system. Its main function is associated with reproduction, growth and development. Studies have shown that estrogen has biological functions such as regulating vasoconstriction, antioxidant stress, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotection, and also affects brain structure and network. Studies have shown that estrogen is closely associated with the occurrence and development of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs). This article reviews the relationship between estrogen and menopausal hormone replacement therapy and WMHs, and their possible pathophysiological mechanisms.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882361

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the risk factors for anterior circulation and posterior circulation symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (sICAS).Methods:The clinical data of patients admitted to Hebei General Hospital for ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and diagnosed with sICAS by digital subtraction angiography from May 2019 to May 2020 were retrospectively included. The patients were divided into anterior circulation group and posterior circulation group according to the stenosis sites, and the distribution of sICAS and its risk factors were analyzed.Results:A total of 134 patients with sICAS were enrolled, including 82 males (61.2%) and 52 females (38.8%). Their age was 60.28±11.46 years; 115 (85.8%) had ischemic stroke and 19 (14.2%) had TIA. There were 92 patients (68.7%) in the anterior circulation group and 42 (31.3%) in the posterior circulation group. Body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels, as well as the proportion of patients with hypertension, diabetes, smoking and drinking in the posterior circulation group were significantly higher than those in the anterior circulation group (all P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that higher BMI (odds ratio [ OR] 1.191, 95% confidence interval [ CI] 1.029-1.379; P=0.019), hypertension ( OR 4.073, 95% CI 1.135-14.616; P=0.031) and diabetes ( OR 2.783, 95% CI 1.149-6.738; P=0.023) were independently correlated with the posterior circulation sICAS. Conclusions:Compared with anterior circulation, high BMI, hypertension and diabetes are the independent risk factors for posterior circulation sICAS.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-867140

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the relationship between the enlarged of peripheral vascular space and cognitive function in patients with acute ischemic stroke.Methods:Totally 223 patients with first-episode acute cerebral infarction were selected from the department of neurology in Hebei general hospital from September 2016 to December 2018, who completed the test of cognitive function. All patients were divided into cognitive impairment group( n=67)and normal cognitive group( n=156)according to the score of MoCA.The risk factors of cognitive function and the relationship between the enlargement of perivascular space and cognitive function were analyzed by SPSS 21.0. Results:Age, history of coronary heart disease, Hcy, Fib, BG-EPVS and CSO-EPVS were statistically significant different in cognitive impairment group and normal cognitive group(all P<0.05). Age ( B=0.067, OR=1.070, 95% CI=1.035-1.106, P<0.05), Hcy( B=0.032, OR=1.033, 95% CI=1.007-1.060, P=0.013), and BG-EPVS( B=0.720, OR=2.055, 95% CI=1.041-4.055, P=0.038)were independent risk factors for cognitive impairment.The degree of BG-EPVS in the cognitive impairment group was negatively correlated with the total MoCA score( r=-0.332, P<0.05), visual space and execution( r=-0.256, P<0.01), attention( r=-0.256, P<0.01), language( r=-0.182, P<0.05)and orientation( r=-0.370, P<0.05). Conclusion:EPVS, especially BG-EPVS, can be used as an indicator to evaluate the early cognitive function of AIS patients.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-867049

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the relationship between total MRI burden and serum homocysteine (Hcy) in patients with cerebral small vessel disease(CSVD), and to provide clues for disease prevention and treatment.Methods:A total of 370 inpatients with CSVD from the neurology department of hospital were consecutively enrolled from September 2016 to December 2018.The clinical data, including serum homocysteine(Hcy) levels were collected.Brain MRI data were collected, including the severity of white matter hyperintensities(WMH), lacune infarcts(LI), cerebral microbleeds(CMBs), and enlarged perivascular spaces(ePVS) to evaluate the total load of CSVD.SPSS21.0 was applied to analyze the association between total CSVD burden and Hcy.Results:(1)Compared with the patients with lower Hcy levels, the higher Hcy group had heavier total burdens of CSVD( P<0.01). (2)According to the total MRI burden scores of CSVD, all patients were further divided into low burden group(106 cases) and moderate-high burden group(264 cases). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that Hcy( OR=1.026, 95% CI: 1.003-1.049, P=0.026) was risk factor for increasing CSVD burden and hyperhomocysteinemia was a stronger predictor for total MRI burdens of CSVD( OR=3.202, 95% CI: 1.947-5.268, P<0.001). Conclusion:Serum Hcy can be an independent risk factor for the total MRI burdens of CSVD.This finding provides a promising clue for the prediction and clinical management of CSVD.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-863144

ABSTRACT

Mechanical thrombectomy is an effective treatment for acute ischemic stroke. Direct aspiration thrombectomy is one of the operating methods of mechanical thrombectomy. Compared with stent thrombectomy, it has the characteristics of simple operation and quick opening of the occluded blood vessels. This article reviews the related research of direct aspiration thrombectomy for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-863084

ABSTRACT

Homocysteine participates in the methionine cycle in the body and is excreted by the kidneys. Its abnormal elevation increases the risk of cerebrovascular disease. Studies in recent years have shown that hyperhomocysteinemia is closely related to cerebral small vessel diseases and is an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke and cognitive impairment. Because hyperhomocysteinemia is largely reversible, the significance of drug intervention in the prevention and treatment of cerebrovascular disease has gradually been confirmed. This article reviews the relationship between homocysteine and cerebral small vessel diseases in order to provide a reference for the prevention of stroke and dementia.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-751580

ABSTRACT

Lacunar stroke is a common ischemic cerebral small vessel disease. It can cause vascular cognitive impairment. Many studies have shown that the number, location, and course of lacunar stroke are closely associated with vascular cognitive impairment. This article reviews the related studies of lacunar stroke and vascular cognitive impairment.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-751568

ABSTRACT

A number of studies have shown that the enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) are associated with various diseases such as cerebral small vessel disease,Alzheimer's disease,post-stroke depression,and post-stroke cognitive impairment.This article reviews the imaging features,pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical significance of EPVS.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-797207

ABSTRACT

More and more studies have found that diabetes is closely related to white matter hyperintensities. This article reviews the relationship between diabetes and white matter hyperintensities, the effect of white matter hyperintensities on cognitive impairment in patients with diabetes, and the relationship between the two and stroke.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742979

ABSTRACT

Perivascular spaces (PVS) are an important part of the glymphatic system of the brain.Enlarged PVS (EPVS) may be an early manifestation of brain microvascular diseases and brain clearance mechanism disorders.There is growing evidence that EPVS plays an important role in the development and progression of cognitive impairment and may be its early warning sign.This article reviews the relationship between EPVS and cognitive impairment.

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