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1.
ARS med. (Santiago, En línea) ; 46(2): 60-66, jun. 10,2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1353348

ABSTRACT

A pesar de que son muchos los suplementos deportivos que se etiquetan como ergogénicos, pocos son los que realmente demuestran su efectividad. Si bien estos suplementos están destinados principalmente para deportistas de élite, su uso se ha masificado en la po-blación general, esto debido a la falta de regulación en uso y venta, así como por los potenciales beneficios que podrían otorgar. Frente a estas limitantes ¿cuál es la efectividad de estos productos más allá de la moda? En esta comunicación breve se revisa la evidencia respecto al efecto y la efectividad de 11 suplementos y plantas utilizados como ayuda ergogénica. A pesar de los múltiples beneficios en los suplementos ergogénicos identificados, es necesario tener precaución al momento de generalizar los resultados obtenidos por algunos ergogénicos, ya que su efecto podría ser secundario y/o estar condicionado por otros factores. Es necesario mayores estudios clínicos que permitan asociar una relación causa-efecto en el rendimiento deportivo y la población general.


Although many sports supplements have been identified as ergogenic, few have demonstrated their effectiveness. They were originally created for high-performance athletes, but their consumption has incremented in the general population. Lack of regulation to sell and use these products is one of the main problems in our society. In this context, what is the effectiveness of ergogenic supplements beyond the trends? In this short communication, 11 ergogenic supplements and plants will be discussed regarding their effect and efficacy. However, considering that their effect could be a side effect of other factors, findings should be analyzed with caution. Further clinical trials are needed to estimate the causal effect in sports performance and the general population.

2.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(3): 305-314, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285150

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To study the association of SLC16A11 gene variants with obesity and metabolic markers in nondiabetic Chilean adults. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study included 263 non-diabetic adults. The genotype of the rs75493593 polymorphism of SLC16A11 gene was performed by real-time PCR. It's association with adiposity markers (body weight, BMI, waist circumference and fat mass percentage), metabolic markers (glucose, insulin, HOMAIR, leptin, total cholesterol, LDLc, HDLc, triglycerides, ALT, GGT and hsCRP) and blood pressure was analyzed by linear regression. Results: The minor allele (T) of the SLC16A11 gene (rs75493593) has a frequency of 29.7% among Chileans. Risk genotypes (GT and TT) were associated with a significant 1.49 mU/l increase in plasmatic insulin for each copy of the minor allele (95% CI: 0.12, 2.87, p < 0.05). This association remained significant after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, physical activity and smoking (1.36 mU/l, 95% CI: 0.16, 2.58 p < 0.05), but was lost when BMI was included as a confounding factor. Higher BMI was also significantly associated with polymorphic genotypes in SLC16A11, independent of socio-demographic variables. Conclusion: The minor allele of the SLC16A11 gene (T) is highly prevalent among Chileans and is associated with increased insulin and BMI in nondiabetic individuals. These findings suggest that the genetic variant in SLC16A11 is not only associated with type 2 diabetes as previously shown in Mexicans, but is also related to early metabolic alterations in healthy subjects that may lead to type 2 diabetes.

3.
ARS med. (Santiago, En línea) ; 45(4): 48-60, nov. 11, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1255443

ABSTRACT

El sistema inmune juega un rol fundamental en el mantenimiento de nuestra salud. Sin embargo, hay aspectos esenciales de nuestros estilos de vida que podrían ayudar a fortalecer la respuesta inmune frente a infecciones, tales como una buena alimentación y la práctica regular de actividad física. Mantener nuestro sistema inmune en un estado óptimo podría ser vital en situaciones de riesgo, como lo es la actual pandemia de COVID-19 que se desencadena a nivel mundial. Por ende, el objetivo de esta revisión narrativa de la literatura fue describir los beneficios inmunológicos asociados a la alimentación y actividad física con un enfoque especial al actual desafío sanitario del COVID-19. Particularmente, se ha abordado el efecto de la malnutrición por déficit y exceso, el rol de los macro y micronutrientes, la suplementación de micronutrientes, probióticos y patrones alimentarios sobre la funcionalidad del sistema inmune. En cuanto a la modulación inmunológica por la actividad física, hemos revisado la literatura científica con relación al efecto de la actividad física aeróbica y de los ejercicios de resistencia muscular sobre la respuesta inmunológica; la relación entre la actividad física, función pulmonar e infección por COVID-19, la interacción de la vacunación con actividad física y el riesgo de infección asociado a realizar actividad física en espacios cerrados.


The immune system plays an essential role in maintaining our health. However, there are essential aspects of our lifestyles that could help strengthen the immune response to infections, such as a good diet and regular physical activity. Keeping our immune system in an optimal state could be vital in risky situations, such as the current COVID-19 pandemic that is unleashed worldwide. Therefore, the objective of this narrative review of the literature was to describe the immunological benefits associated with diet and physical activity with a special focus on the current health challenge of COVID-19. In particular, the effect of excess and deficit malnutrition, the macro and micronutrients role, the supplementation of micronutrients, probiotics, and dietary patterns on the functionality of the immune system has been addressed. Regarding the immunological modulation by physical activity, we have reviewed the effect of aerobic physical activity and muscular resistance exercises on the immune response; the relationship between physical activity, lung function, and COVID-19 infection; the interaction of vaccination with physical activity, and the risk of infection associated with exercising indoors.

4.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(4): 620-629, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138597

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La determinación del nivel de actividad física (AF) puede realizarse a través de acelerómetro o mediante cuestionario de auto-reporte. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar los niveles de AF entre un cuestionario de auto-reporte y la medición con acelerómetro de movimiento según factores sociodemográficos en la población chilena. Métodos: Estudio de corte transversal que incluyó a 230 adultos chilenos participantes del proyecto Genes, Ambiente, Diabetes y Obesidad (GENADIO). Niveles de AF fueron medidos mediante el cuestionario Internacional Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) y acelerómetro de movimiento (ActiGraph). Resultados: IPAQ subestimó los niveles de AF total en comparación a la medición con acelerómetro (delta [IPAQ-Acel.]= −55,7 min/día). Según nivel educacional, se evidenció que el cuestionario IPAQ sobreestimó los niveles de AF total en personas con bajo nivel educacional (delta [IPAQ-Acel.]= 70,4 min/día), pero subestimó la AF total en personas con enseñanza media o técnico universitaria (delta [IPAQ-Acel.]= −67,9 y −135,6 min/día, respectivamente). Resultados similares fueron observados para los distintos niveles de ingreso socioeconómico (NSE). Conclusión: El cuestionario de auto-reporte IPAQ subestimó los niveles de AF total en comparación a la medición por acelerómetro; sin embargo, estas diferencias variaron según factores sociodemográficos.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Determining level of physical activitY (PA) can be done with objective measurement, through accelerometer, or by subjective measurement through self-report questionnaire. The aim of this study was to compare PA measurements derived from a self-reported questionnaire and accelerometer according to sociodemographic factors in the Chilean population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which included 230 Chilean adults participating in the GENADIO study (Genes, Environment, Diabetes and Obesity). PA levels were measured through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and GT1M accelerometer (ActiTrainer, ActiGraph). Results: IPAQ questionnaire underestimated the total PA levels compared to the accelerometer measurement (delta[IPAQ-Acel.]= −55.7 min/day). According to educational level, IPAQ questionnaire overestimated PA level in people with low educational level (delta[IPAQ-Accel.]= 70.4 min/day), but underestimated total PA in people with secondary education or university technician (delta[IPAQ-Accel.]=-67.9 and-135.6 min/day, respectively). Similar results were observed for the different levels of socioeconomic income. Conclusion: The IPAQ questionnaire underestimated total PA levels compared to accelerometer; however, these differences varied according to sociodemographic factors.


Subject(s)
Adult , Measurements, Methods and Theories , Exercise , Obesity , Population , Chronic Disease , Education, Primary and Secondary , Environment , Genes
6.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(4): 669-676, ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138602

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: si bien la conducta alimentaria depende de múltiples factores, existe acuerdo en la importancia de aspectos socio-ambientales en los que la familia tiene un rol central, especialmente en edades tempranas. Objetivo: sistematizar evidencia científica actualizada sobre la asociación entre actitudes y prácticas de alimentación infantil, conducta alimentaria y estado nutricional del niño. Método: revisión narrativa de 40 artículos empíricos publicados entre los años 2011 y 2019. Resultados: se identificó tendencia en los padres a subestimar el peso corporal en niños con sobrepeso, y asociación entre preocupación por el peso, presión para comer y estado nutricional del niño. La alimentación restrictiva y el uso de la alimentación para fines instrumentales y controlar emociones, no serían prácticas efectivas, posiblemente porque interfieren en la capacidad de autorregulación del niño. Prácticas positivas incluyeron monitoreo, modelado de patrones alimentarios saludables y creación de ambientes no obesogénicos. Conclusión: existen hallazgos consistentes respecto a que prácticas coercitivas pueden ejercer efectos negativos en la conducta alimentaria infantil y prácticas que promueven la estructuración en la alimentación y un entorno positivo, serían más funcionales. La evidencia internacional es consistente en la relevancia de padres y cuidadores en la promoción de una conducta alimentaria saludable y la condición nutricional de niños.


ABSTRACT Introduction: In the last years, there has been an exponential increase in childhood obesity rates worldwide. Although eating behavior depends on multiple factors, there is agreement on the impact of socio-environmental aspects in which the family has a central role. Identifying the influence of parents and caregivers on child eating behavior can help to generate effective strategies for controlling obesity, especially at early stages. Aim: To review recent scientific evidence on the association between parental feeding attitudes and practices, eating behavior and nutritional status of the child. Method: Narrative review of 40 empirical articles published between 2011 and 2019. Results: Parents tend to underestimate body weight in overweight children. Weight concern and pressure to eat are associated with the nutritional status of the child. Restrictive feeding and the use of food for instrumental purposes and as a mean of controlling emotions, would not be effective practices, possibly because they interfere with the child's ability to self-regulate intake. Positive practices included monitoring, modelling healthy eating patterns and creating non-obese environments. Conclusion: Consistent findings support the notion that coercive practices could have negative effects on child eating behavior. Moreover, practices that promote structured and a positive environment could be more functional. However, international evidence is consistent in the relevance of parents and caregivers in promoting healthy eating behavior and the nutritional status of children.


Subject(s)
Child , Adolescent , Emotions , Feeding Behavior , Diet, Healthy , Family , Overweight , Food
7.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(4): 650-657, ago. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138600

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Cumplir las recomendaciones incluidas en las Guías Alimentarias permite un acercamiento hacia un estilo de vida saludable. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar los estilos de vida de la población chilena y su asociación al cumplimiento de 5 recomendaciones de las Guías Alimentarias Basadas en Alimentos (GABA) chilenas. Se utilizaron datos de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2016-2017. Los participantes fueron divididos en 4 grupos: aquellos que no cumplieron con ninguna recomendación, los que cumplían una, los que cumplían con 2 y los que cumplían con 3 o más recomendaciones saludables, estableciendo a este último como grupo de referencia. El 43,3% de la muestra no cumplió ninguna de las recomendaciones incorporados en esta investigación. De los que cumplían a lo menos 3, el 35,9% presentó un estado nutricional normal, el 38,9% reportó nunca haber fumado y el 82% se auto percibía como saludable. Además, los que cumplían las recomendaciones, presentaron niveles más altos de actividad física. Personas que incorporan y aplican las recomendaciones de las GABA, tienden a presentar conductas de vida más saludable. Estrategias comunicacionales efectivas y formativas en educación alimentaria sobre estas recomendaciones son claves para prevenir el acelerado y temprano crecimiento de las patologías crónicas.


ABSTRACT Compliance with dietary guidelines is essential for adoopting a healthy lifestyle. This study aimed to characterise the lifestyles of the Chilean population according to the fulfilment of 5 recommendations of the Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (GABA in Spanish) established in Chile according to WHO definition. Data from the 2016-2017 National Health Survey were used. Participants were divided into four groups: those who did not meet any recommendations, those who met one, those who met two and those who met three or more (reference group) GABA health recommendations. 43.3% of the sample did not meet any of the recommendations incorporated into this study. Of those who fulfilled at least three recommendations, 35.9% had a normal nutritional status, 38.9% reported never having smoked, and 82% perceived themselves as healthy. In addition, those who fulfilled the recommendations presented higher levels of physical activity (1343.5 MET/min/day [95% CI: 1049.9 - 1637.2]). From the results, it is inferred that people who incorporate and apply GABA recommendations tend to present healthier life behaviours. Consequently, effective and formative communication strategies in food education on these recommendations are crucial to preventing a fast and early growth of chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Nutritional Status , Food , Life Style , Exercise , Health , Chronic Disease
9.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(7): 906-914, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139391

ABSTRACT

Background: Sugar intake is a risk factor for the development of obesity. Aim: To investigate the association between total sugar intake and obesity markers in Chilean adults. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 396 participants of the GENADIO study. Anthropometric measurements (body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), waist-to-hip ratio, and % body fat) were measured through standardized protocols. Total sugar intake was determined from a 7-days weighted food daily. Sugar intake expressed in g/day was categorized into quartiles. Results: Higher sugar intake was associated with a higher BMI, WC and HC but not with body fat %. One quartile increment in sugar intake was associated with 1.50 kg [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49; 2.50] higher body weight, 0.34 kg/m2 [95% CI: 0.01; 0.69] higher BMI, 1.23 cm [95% CI: 0.11; 2.34] higher WC, 1.39 cm [95% CI: 0.28; 2.50] higher HC and 0.02 the waist-to-hip ratio [95% C: 0.01; 0.02]. Conclusions: Total sugar intake was associated with higher adiposity levels in these Chilean adults.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Dietary Sugars/adverse effects , Obesity/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
10.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(7): 947-955, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139396

ABSTRACT

Background: Depression has been previously associated with cognitive impairment in high income country populations. However, its association in the Chilean population has not been investigated. Aim: To investigate the association between depression and cognitive impairment. Material and Methods: Data from 1384 Chilean adults aged > 60 years, participating in the National Health Survey 2009-2010 was analyzed. Cognitive impairment was assessed using the Mini Mental Examination score. The medical diagnosis of depression was self-reported. The association between depression and cognitive impairment was assessed using a logistic regression. Results: Depression was positively associated with cognitive impairment. However, the magnitude of the association was higher in men (Odds ratio (OR) = 4.02 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.44; 6.61], p < 0.01]) than in women (OR = 2.23 [95%CI: 1.03; 3.43], p = 0.04). Older adults who were diagnosed for the first time with depression after 65 years of age, showed a stronger association with cognitive impairment (OR = 6.65 [95% CI: 2.39; 10.9], p < 0.01) than those diagnosed before 55 years. Conclusions: Our study confirms the association between depression and cognitive impairment. Further research is needed to elucidate the nature and potential mechanisms that link depression with cognitive impairment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Depression/epidemiology , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Health Surveys
12.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(3): 371-378, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126174

ABSTRACT

Resumen: Introducción: La obesidad es una enfermedad inflamatoria donde la genética determina cierto nivel de riesgo. Aun cuando existen estudios que reportan asociación entre polimorfismos de FTO (fat-mass associated gene) y adiposidad, existe limitada evidencia en población infantil chilena. Objetivo: determinar la asociación entre el polimorfismo rs9939609 del FTO y marcadores de adiposidad en población in fantil chilena. Pacientes y Método: Estudio de corte transversal incluyó 361 participantes (de 6 a 11 años; 50% niñas). Los datos clínicos y la recolección de muestras de sangre se realizaron entre marzo y junio de 2008. El polimorfismo SNP (rs9939609), del gen FTO, se determinó utilizando ADN genómico extraído de leucocitos, utilizando el Mini Kit QIAamp DNA Blood (Qiagen GmbH, Hilden, Alemania). Los marcadores de adiposidad estudiados fueron, índice de masa corporal (IMC), masa grasa, perímetro de cintura (PC) y razón cintura/talla, y se compararon ajustados por sexo, edad y estadio de Tanner. La asociación entre el polimorfismo estudiado y los marcadores de obesidad se realizó mediante análisis de regresión lineal. Resultados: Al ajustar los marcadores por sexo, edad y estadío de Tanner se observó una asociación significativa entre el polimorfismo e indicadores de adi posidad. Por cada copia extra del alelo de riesgo se encontró un aumento de 2,47 kg de peso corporal, (IC 95%: 1,39-3,55); 1,06 kg/m2 de IMC, (IC 95%: 0,56-1,54); 2,55 cm de PC, (IC 95%: 1,26-3,85) y 1,98% de masa grasa, (IC 95%: 0,78-3,19). Al convertir los marcadores de adiposidad a z-score, la razón perímetro de cintura/talla arrojó la mayor asociación con el alelo de riesgo de FTO. Conclu sión: Este estudio indica asociación entre el polimorfismo rs9939609 del gen FTO con marcadores de adiposidad general y central en población infantil en Chile.


Abstract: Introduction: Obesity is considered a chronic inflammatory disease with an important genetic component. Although several studies have reported an association between the FTO (fat-mass associated gene) and adiposity in children, there is limited evidence in the Chilean population. Objective: To deter mine the association between the polymorphism rs9939609 of the FTO gene and markers of adipo sity in Chilean children. Patients and Method: Cross-sectional study which included 361 children aged between 6 and 11 years (50% were girls). Between March and June 2008, clinical data and blood sample collection was carried out. The rs9939609 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the FTO gene, was determined using the genomic DNA extracted from leukocytes, using the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit (Qiagen GmbH, Hilden, Germany).The adiposity markers included were body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), body fat, and WC/H index; which were later compared adjusted by sex, age, and Tanner stage. Linear regression analyses were conducted to detect the association between the polymorphism and obesity markers. Results: After adjusting the models by age, sex, and Tanner stage, we found a significant association between the polymorphism and markers of adiposity. For each extra copy of the risk allele, we found an increase of 2.47 kg body weight (95% CI: 1.39-3.55); 1.06 kg/m2 BMI (95% CI: 0.56-1.54); 2.55 cm WC, (95% CI: 1.26-3.85); and 1.98% body fat (95% CI: 0.78-3.19). When converting adiposity markers to z-score, we found that WC/height index shows the strongest association with the risk allele FTO. Conclusion: This study supports the association between the rs9939609 SNP of the FTO gene and overall and central adiposity markers in Chilean children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Adiposity/genetics , Pediatric Obesity/genetics , Alpha-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase FTO/genetics , Genetic Markers , Linear Models , Chile , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pediatric Obesity/diagnosis , Pediatric Obesity/pathology
13.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(3): 478-483, jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126147

ABSTRACT

El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar el posible efecto protector de la lactancia materna respecto a la obesidad infantil versus fórmulas lácteas. Se consultaron las bases de datos PubMed, Web of Science y Scielo, considerándose los artículos más actualizados sobre el tema. La evidencia analizada señala que los menores alimentados con lactancia materna exclusiva reportan bajos niveles de sobrepeso y obesidad, a diferencia de los alimentados con fórmulas lácteas infantiles. Se concluye que la lactancia materna exclusiva, hasta el sexto mes de vida del lactante, y complementada con alimentación solida (no láctea) hasta los dos o más años, es recomendada y podría proteger contra la obesidad infantil y sus comorbilidades asociadas en la vida adulta.


The aim was to review the evidence supporting the possible health benefits for obesity of breastfeeding versus formula feeding in infants. The search for studies addressing this topic was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science and Scielo databases. "Breastfeeding", "formula feeding" and "obesity" were the keywords used in the search. Only studies with a full version of the manuscript were included. The evidence analyzed indicated that children fed exclusively through breastfeeding reported low levels of overweight and obesity in comparison to those fed by infant milk formulas. To conclude, exclusive breastfeeding until the sixth month of life, and supplementation with solid (non-dairy) food until two years and more, is the gold standard and could protect against childhood obesity and its associated comorbidities in adult life.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Breast Feeding , Dairy Products , Infant Formula , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control
14.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(6): 799-809, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139374

ABSTRACT

Ageing will be one of the most significant social transformations of the 21st century worldwide. In the last 40 years, Chile has tripled its older adult population. As a result, by 2050 the country will have the highest proportion of older adults in Latin America. This remarkable growth reinforces the need to identify their current situation and to revise what is the society doing to maintain older people as active members. In this context, this narrative revision aimed to describe the sociodemographic, epidemiologic and sociocultural profile of the older Chilean adults. Besides, programs and public policies focused on the improvement of their quality of life were identified.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Quality of Life , Public Policy , Aging , Chile/epidemiology , Economics, Medical , Health Services , Latin America
15.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(4): 459-468, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127086

ABSTRACT

Background Walking speed is a strong predictor of non-communicable diseases and mortality. Aim To investigate the association of self-reported walking pace with adiposity, metabolic and cardiovascular markers in the Chilean population. Material and Methods Analysis of data from 5,077 participants of the 2009-2010 National Health Survey (ENS 2009-2010). Walking speed was self-reported as average or slow pace. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and lipid profile were the outcome. Results In Chile, 11% (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 10.0; 12.7) of the population reported a slow walking pace. Compared with average walking people, those reporting a slow pace had a higher body weight (difference (∆) 5.65 kg [95% CI: 3.22; 8.09], p < 0.01), BMI (D 2.48 kg/m 2 [95% CI: 1.53; 3.44], p < 0.01), WC (D 6.23 cm [95% CI: 4.12; 8.34], p < 0.01), serum triglycerides (D 30,9 mg/dl [95% CI: 5,31; 57,5], p = 0.018), and lower HDL cholesterol (D -2.32 mg/dl [95% CI: -4,24; -0,34], p = 0.022). Those reporting a slow pace had also a higher odd of being obese (odds ratio (OR): 2.46 [95% CI: 1.82; 3.33], p < 0.01), being diabetic (OR: 1.54 [95% CI: 1.02; 2.40], p = 0.018) and having metabolic syndrome (OR: 2.03 [95% CI: 1.30; 3.18], p = 0.002). Conclusions In Chilean adults, slow walking pace is associated with and unfavorable adiposity and lipid profile, including a higher probability of being obese, diabetic and having metabolic syndrome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases , Walking Speed , Chile , Risk Factors , Walking , Adiposity , Self Report
16.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(2): 307-316, abr. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115502

ABSTRACT

Chile tiene una de las tasas de obesidad más altas del mundo. Se estima que para el año 2030 las muertes atribuidas a esta enfermedad alcanzarían a 204 mil personas, incrementándose además los costos económicos asociados a esta patología. Las causas y los factores de riesgo asociados al desarrollo de obesidad son diversos. Sin embargo, existe consenso que una de las maneras más eficaces de prevenir y/o disminuir su prevalencia es abordando los factores de riesgo modificables, a través del fomento de hábitos de vida saludable con un enfoque integral, centrados en la alimentación saludable, práctica de actividad física, prevención del tabaquismo y consumo de alcohol, como también en el cuidado de la salud mental del individuo. No obstante, el desafío es cómo hacer realidad estos buenos propósitos. En este contexto, el objetivo de esta revisión, parte 2, fue investigar los principales factores modificables, con énfasis en los factores individuales, que han repercutido en el desarrollo de obesidad: desde una mirada global hasta el caso particular de Chile.


Chile has one of the highest rates of obesity worldwide. Deaths attributed to obesity are likely to increase to 204,000 by 2030. There will be also a higher economic burden associated with this disease. There are many factors associated with obesity; however, it is known that one of the most effective strategies to decrease its prevalence is reducing modifiable risk factors, such as improving dietary patterns, performing physical activity, avoiding smoking and drinking alcohol as well as improving mental health. Nevertheless, how to make realize these changes is one of the biggest challenges. In this context, the aim of this literature review, chapter 2, was to investigate the main modifiable risk factors, with emphasis on individual factors, associated with the development of obesity in Chile: from a global view to the Chilean context.


Subject(s)
Humans , Obesity/prevention & control , Obesity/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological , Tobacco Use Disorder , Alcohol Drinking , Exercise , Chile/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Sleep Hygiene , Diet, Healthy
17.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(3): 295-303, mar. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115792

ABSTRACT

Background: A higher educational level is associated with healthier lifestyles. Aim: To assess the association between the level of compliance with physical activity recommendations and years of formal education in Chilean adults. Material and Methods: Analysis include 6,174 participants from the National Health Survey 2016-2017. Physical activity levels were assessed through the Global Physical Questionnaire (GPAQ v2). Physical inactivity was defined as < 600 MET/minute/week. Results: Among subjects without education, 44% and 27% of women and men respectively, were physically inactive. Among women and men with the highest number of years of education (> 16) the figures for physical inactivity were 27% and 15% respectively. The odds for not meeting the physical activity recommendations was 2.3 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.57; 3.38] and 3.9 [95% CI: 2.27; 6.95] in women and men without any formal education respectively, as compared with those who reported 12 years of education. Women and men who reported a high level of education ≥ (16 years) did not show significant differences compared to the reference group. Conclusions: People with low levels of education are were likely to be physically inactive.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Sedentary Behavior , Socioeconomic Factors , Exercise , Chile , Health Education , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies
18.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(2): 168-177, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115773

ABSTRACT

Background: One of the side effects of cancer treatment is a low level of physical activity (PA) due to fatigue and pain. Aim: To quantify PA levels in Chilean people with cancer. Material and Methods: Analysis of the National Health Survey 2016-2017 including 6,233 participants, comparing those with and without a self-report of cancer was conducted. Levels of PA and sitting time were assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results: 3% of participants [confidence intervals (CI): 2.6; 3.9] reported having cancer and 34% [95% CI: 22.7; 46.7] of these reported being physically inactive, compared to 25% [95% CI: 22.5; 27,3] of those without cancer. Participants with cancer performed 56 and 77 minutes/day lower vigorous and total PA than participants without cancer. No differences between groups were observed for commuting PA, moderate PA and sedentary time. Lower level of PA was independent of the years elapsed since the diagnosis of cancer. Conclusions: People with cancer are less physically active than their counterparts without the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sedentary Behavior , Neoplasms , Exercise , Chile , Surveys and Questionnaires , Health Surveys
19.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 148(2): 178-186, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115774

ABSTRACT

Background: Menopause exposes women to an increased cardiovascular risk. Aim: To determine the association between menopause and cardiovascular risk factors in Chilean adult women using data from the National Health Survey (NHS) 2016-2017. Material and Methods: Data from 2,139 women over 40 years of age participating in the NHS 2016-2017, with information about menopause and cardiovascular risk factors was used. Expansion factors were applied to this sample, obtaining an expanded sample of 3,733,191 participants. Laboratory values (blood glucose, triglycerides, HDL and total cholesterol) and anthropometric measurements (body weight, height and waist circumference) were analyzed. The presence of hypertension, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were also recorded. Results: Sixty seven percent of surveyed women were menopausal and had higher systolic blood pressure than non-menopausal participants. Menopause was significantly associated with hypertension (Odds ratio (OR): 2.43 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.71; 3.45], p < 0.01) and diabetes (OR: 2.05 [95% CI: 1.32; 3.19], p < 0.01). However, no association was observed with obesity, abdominal obesity or MetS. Conclusions: In these women, a positive association was identified between menopause and hypertension as well as diabetes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Cardiovascular Diseases , Metabolic Syndrome , Blood Pressure , Menopause , Body Mass Index , Chile , Risk Factors , Health Surveys
20.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 47(1): 125-134, feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092752

ABSTRACT

Actualmente los edulcorantes no nutritivos (ENN) son ampliamente usados para endulzar los alimentos en reemplazo de los azúcares simples, con la ventaja de no aportar energía. A pesar de que en general no presentan efectos tóxicos, los estudios epidemiológicos no han podido evidenciar que su uso contribuya a mejorar la pérdida de peso, sino por el contrario, han revelado que los ENN pueden inducir alteraciones metabólicas como intolerancia a la glucosa. Estudios in vivo e in vitro han mostrado que muchos ENN activan a receptores del sabor dulce no sólo en los botones gustativos, sino que también en los receptores presentes en tejidos como el adiposo y pancreático, interfiriendo con su función normal. Además, el consumo ENN se ha asociado a alteraciones de la composición de la microbiota intestinal que conducen a una respuesta inflamatoria de bajo grado. La nueva evidencia disponible sobre los ENN hace necesario evaluar el uso cada vez más intenso de los ENN en Chile. Debido a que el gusto exacerbado por el sabor dulce que cultivamos desde la infancia es un potente catalizador del uso de ENN, proponemos que una oportuna educación del sentido del gusto puede contribuir a mejorar las elecciones alimentarias.


Currently, non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) are widely used to sweeten foods instead of simple sugars, as they possess the advantage of not contributing to energy intake. Although they do not present toxic effects in general, epidemiological studies have not been able to show benefits when they are used in weight loss programs. However, they could induce metabolic alterations such as glucose intolerance. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that many NNSs activate sweet taste receptors not only in the taste buds, but also in receptors present in adipose and pancreatic tissues, interfering with their normal function. In addition, NNS consumption has been associated with an alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota that leads to a low-grade inflammatory response. Due to the wide use of NNS in Chile, it is necessary to evaluate the potential health effects of using NNS in the Chilean population. We propose that a timely education of the sense of taste can contribute to moderating the preference for higher levels of sweet taste that humans develop in childhood, which could help to improve food choices.


Subject(s)
Humans , Glucose Intolerance/chemically induced , Non-Nutritive Sweeteners/adverse effects , Chile , Global Health , Diabetes Mellitus/chemically induced , Obesity
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