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1.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 25(1): 87-104, ene.-jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364259

ABSTRACT

Resumen Aunque el consumo de marihuana es altamente prevalente entre universitarios de Argentina, poco se sabe respecto a los factores que permiten distinguir a los consumidores frecuentes de marihuana de quienes consumen esporádicamente. Por esta razón, en el presente trabajo se indagó sobre las posibles variaciones en los contextos de consumo, motivos de consumo, normas percibidas y estrategias conductuales de protección entre universitarios con consumo frecuente o esporádico de marihuana, y se analizó la utilidad de este conjunto de variables para distinguir entre estos los tipos de consumidores mencionados. Para ello, se contó con una muestra de 1083 estudiantes universitarios argentinos que completó una encuesta en línea sobre el consumo de sustancias. En particular, este trabajo se realizó con la submuestra que reportó consumir marihuana en los últimos 30 días (n = 158; 51.3 % mujeres). Dicha encuesta interrogaba sobre el consumo de marihuana y las consecuencias negativas asociadas, así como por motivos de consumo, normas sociales percibidas y estrategias conductuales de protección. Como resultado, los consumidores frecuentes presentaron mayor cantidad de consecuencias negativas (M = 4.92) que los consumidores esporádicos (M = 1.82; p < .05), y se halló un perfil distintivo en un conjunto de variables. A nivel multivariado, los motivos de animación (OR = 1.230; p < .05), las estrategias conductuales de protección (OR = .941; p < .05), el consumo en solitario (OR = 2.024; p < .05) y el consumo en fiestas universitarias (OR = 2.669; p < .05) discriminaron significativamente entre ambas clases de consumidores. En general, los hallazgos revelaron subpoblaciones heterogéneas de consumidores de marihuana que difieren no solo en el consumo y sus consecuencias, sino también en los contextos de consumo y en un conjunto de variables relevantes. Estas subpoblaciones distintivas requieren de intervenciones diferentes y específicas.


Abstract Although marijuana use is highly prevalent among university students in Argentina, little is known about the factors that distinguish frequent marijuana users from sporadic users. For this reason, the present study investigated the possible variations in the contexts of consumption, motives for consumption, perceived norms, and protective behavioral strategies among university students with frequent or sporadic marijuana use, and analyzed the usefulness of this set of variables to distinguish between these two types of users. For this purpose, a sample of 1083 Argentine university students completed an online survey on substance use. In particular, this work was conducted with the subsample that reported using marijuana in the last 30 days (n = 158; 51.3 % female). The survey asked about marijuana use and associated negative consequences, as well as motives for use, perceived social norms, and protective behavioral strategies. As a result, frequent users had a higher number of negative consequences (M = 4.92) than sporadic users (M = 1.82; p < .05), and a distinctive profile was found on a set of variables. At the multivariate level, cheerleading motives (OR = 1.230; p < .05), protective behavioral strategies (OR = .941; p < .05), solo use (OR = 2.024; p < .05), and college party use (OR = 2.669; p < .05) discriminated significantly between the two classes of users. Overall, the findings revealed heterogeneous subpopulations of marijuana users that differ not only in use and its consequences, but also in contexts of use and in a set of relevant variables. These distinct subpopulations require different and specific interventions.

2.
Av. psicol. latinoam ; 39(2): 1-19, may.-ago. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1367012

ABSTRACT

El consumo de sustancias es altamente prevalente en estudiantes universitarios de Argentina y el mundo. Diferenciar consumidores con diversos patrones de consumo de sustancias es importante para identificar aquellos más vulnerables a avanzar hacia un consumo patológico. Por ello, el objetivo fue identificar, mediante Análisis de Clases Latentes (ACL) aplicado a diferentes indicadores de consumo de alcohol, tabaco y marihuana, las clases de consumidores y observar si dichas clases diferían en la densidad de familiares con abuso de alcohol y otros indicadores de consumo. El análisis se realizó en un total de 4.497 estudiantes de primer año que completaron instrumentos para medir: 1-consumo de alcohol, 2-consecuencias negativas del consumo de alcohol y 3-historia familiar de abuso de alcohol. Así se identificaron cuatro clases de consumidores: 1-catm: Consumo Elevado de Alcohol, Consumo de Tabaco y Marihuana; 2-cmea: Consumo Moderado/Elevado de Alcohol, Sin Consumo de Otras Sustancias; 3-cmba: Consumo Moderado/Bajo de Alcohol, Sin Consumo de Otras Sustancias; y 4-sc: Sin Consumo de Sustancias. Los miembros de las clases catm y cmea reportaron niveles de consumo de alcohol significativamente más elevados que el resto de las clases. Los integrantes de catm presentaron consumo extremo de alcohol. Las clases sc y catm exhibieron mayor densidad de familiares con abuso de alcohol que las otras clases. La mayor parte de los encuestados fueron clasificados en categorías de consumo de alto riesgo, caracterizadas por co-uso de sustancias o por consumo elevado de alcohol. Estos patrones de consumo se han asociado a numerosas consecuencias negativas


Substance use is highly prevalent among college students in Argentina and the world. Differentiating users with different patterns of substance use is important to iden-tify those at a higher vulnerability to progress towards pathological use.The aims were to identify, by means of Latent Class Analysis applied to different alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use indicators, the classes of substance use and analyze whether these classes exhibit differences in the density of relatives with a history of alcohol abuse and other alcohol use indicators. A total of 4.497 freshmen completed instruments to measure: 1- alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use, 2- alcohol related negative consequences, and 3- family history of alcohol abuse. Four classes of substance users were identified: 1- hatm: heavy alcohol use, with tobacco and marijuana use, 2- mha: moderate/high alcohol use, without other substances, 3- mla: moderate/low alcohol use, without other substances, and 4- ns: no substance use. The mem-bers of the hatm and mha classes reported significantly hi-gher levels of alcohol use than the rest of the classes. hatmmembers presented extreme binge drinking. The ns and hatm classes exhibited a higher density of relatives with a history of alcohol abuse than the other classes. Most students were classified into high-risk consumption classes, characterized by co-use of substances or by heavy alcohol use. These patterns of substance use have been associated with a variety of negative consequences


O consumo de substâncias é altamente prevalente em estudantes universitários na Argentina e no mundo. Di-ferenciar usuários com diferentes padrões de consumo de substâncias é importante para identificar aqueles mais vulneráveis à transição para um consumo pato-lógico. Para isso, o objetivo foi identificar, por meio da Análise de Classe Latente aplicada a diferentes indicadores de consumo de álcool, tabaco e maconha, as classes de consumidores, e observar se essas clas-ses diferiam na densidade de parentes com consumo abusivo de álcool e outros indicadores de consumo. A análise foi realizada comalunos do primeiro ano (n = 4.497) que completaram os instrumentos para medir: 1-consumo de álcool, 2-consequências negativas do consumo de álcool e 3-histórico familiar de abuso de álcool. Foram identificadas quatro classes de usuários: 1-catm: alto consumo de álcool, consumo de tabaco e maconha; 2-cmea: consumo moderado / alto de álcool, sem consumo de outras substâncias; 3-cmba: consumo moderado / baixo de álcool, sem consumo de outras substâncias; e 4-sc: nenhum uso de substância. Os membros das classes catm e cmea relataram níveis significativamente mais elevados de consumo de ál-cool do que o resto das classes. Os membros do catmapresentaram consumo extremo de álcool. As classes sc e catm apresentaram maior densidade de familia-res com abuso de álcool do que as demais classes. A maioria dos entrevistados foi classificada em catego-rias de consumo de alto risco, caracterizadas pelo uso concomitante de substâncias ou pelo alto consumo de álcool. Esses padrões de consumo têm sido associados a inúmeras consequências negativas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alcohol Drinking , Argentina , Students , Cannabis , Impacts of Polution on Health , Tobacco Use , Latent Class Analysis
3.
Interdisciplinaria ; 38(1): 23-40, ene. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149378

ABSTRACT

Resumen La previa (i.e., el consumo de alcohol antes de asistir al evento de la salida en el que puede, o no, consumirse más alcohol) incrementa marcadamente el riesgo de experimentar consecuencias negativas asociadas al consumo de alcohol. Aunque el consumo de alcohol es muy prevalente entre los adolescentes argentinos, son escasos los trabajos centrados en la previa. Este trabajo describe el consumo de alcohol y la conducta de previa en adolescentes argentinos (13 a 18 años), identifica el efecto de las normas descriptivas y los motivos de previa sobre la frecuencia de previa y la cantidad de alcohol consumido durante esta práctica, y examina variaciones en el consumo general de alcohol y en la cantidad de consecuencias negativas derivadas, en función de realizar, o no, la previa. Participaron 402 adolescentes (52.7 % mujeres) que completaron una encuesta sobre consumo de alcohol, consecuencias negativas asociadas, conducta y motivos de previa, y normas descriptivas sobre estos encuentros. El 60 % de los adolescentes reportó conducta de previa en el último año en la que consumieron, en promedio, 70 gramos de alcohol. El 85 % continuó tomando alcohol después de la previa. Quienes exhiben conducta de previa, comparados con quienes beben pero no hacen previa, consumen significativamente más alcohol y experimentan más consecuencias negativas derivadas de este consumo. A nivel multivariado, las normas descriptivas fueron el mejor predictor de los indicadores de previa. Los hallazgos sugieren que la previa sería un factor de riesgo para tener trayectorias de consumo problemático y sería beneficioso prevenir este tipo de prácticas.


Abstract In Argentina, alcohol is the most consumed psychoactive substance among adolescents and, similar to other western countries, rates of alcohol use markedly increase during this developmental stage. Arguably more concerning, heavy episodic drinking (HED, a.k.a. binge drinking) is also highly prevalent. Heavy episodic drinking can be defined as the consumption of a large quantity of alcohol (i.e., ≥ 42/70 g of pure alcohol, depending on sex and age) in one, rather brief, single setting. HED is associated with greater occurrence of a myriad of negative consequences such as alcohol-induced increments in impulsivity and risk-taking behaviors, blackouts, drunk driving, sleep and eating impairments, and the development of tolerance. Prepartying (i.e., the consumption of alcohol before attending a social event where more alcohol might, or might not, be available) is a high-risk drinking practice due to its robust association with alcohol-related negative consequences. Different factors influence alcohol use and preparty behavior. Many adolescents overestimate the drinking behaviors of their peers (descriptive norms) which, in turn, is associated with heavier alcohol use. Additionally, previous work found that one of the main reasons or motives for engaging in preparty behavior is the desire of getting intoxicated. Although alcohol use is highly prevalent among Argentinean adolescents, studies focused on prepartying are very scarce. The present study (i) describes alcohol consumption and prepartying behaviors in Argentinean adolescents (13 to 18 years old), (ii) examines the effect of descriptive norms and prepartying motives on prepartying outcomes (i.e., frequency of prepartying and drinking quantity when prepartying) and (iii) examines variations in alcohol drinking outcomes as a function of prepartying. Participants were 402 adolescents (52.7 % women) that completed a pencil and paper survey that measured alcohol consumption, prepartying outcomes, descriptive norms for prepartying, prepartying motives and alcohol-related negative consequences. Most of the sample (83 %) reported lifetime alcohol use and 64 % reported last-month alcohol use. More than half of the sample (57 %) reported engaging in prepartying behavior within the last year where they consumed an average of 70 grams of alcohol. Most of the adolescents who prepartied (85 %) continued drinking alcohol at the event. Adolescents who engaged in preparty behavior, compared to their drinking peers who did not, consumed significantly more alcohol and experienced more alcohol-related negative consequences. Specifically, 90 % of the adolescents who engaged in preparty behavior reported to engaged in heavy drinking episodes within the previous month while 68 % of drinkers who did not preparty reported to engage in that drinking pattern. At the multivariate level, descriptive norms, but not prepartying motives, were significantly associated with preparty behavior. The present results suggest that prepartying could be a risk factor for the involvement in problematic trajectories of alcohol use and, therefore, it would be beneficial to prevent adolescents from engaging in this type of drinking practice. Additionally, the present findings suggest promising avenues for intervention, such as those aimed at targeting descriptive norms. Adolescents tend to overestimate drinking behaviors among their peers, a bias that is associated with heavier alcohol use. Interventions aimed at correcting these biases have shown promising results at reducing drinking behaviors.

4.
Suma psicol ; 24(2): 115-128, jul.-dic. 2017. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-904067

ABSTRACT

Resumen Este trabajo analizó el efecto del estrés social -inducido experimentalmente- en jóvenes con historia familiar positiva (HFP) o negativa (HFN) de abuso de alcohol. Se midieron los niveles de cortisol en saliva, la percepción subjetiva del estado emocional y el desempeño en pruebas que miden atención hacia estímulos que señalizan al alcohol, impulsividad y conductas de riesgo. Los participantes expuestos al estrés tuvieron niveles más altos de cortisol en saliva y una percepción subjetiva de mayor malestar y de menor bienestar comparados con los controles. Los HFP reportaron un nivel significativamente menor de bienestar y de mayor malestar que sus pares HFN. No se encontraron efectos significativos de tratamiento, ni interacciones significativas entre tratamiento e historia familiar, en las pruebas de medir impulsividad, conductas riesgosas y sesgos atencionales.


Abstract The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of social stress - induced experimentally - in youth people with positive family history (PFH) or negative family history (NFH) of alcohol abuse. The measurements included the level of cortisol in saliva, the subjective perception of emotional state, and performance in tests that measure attention to stimuli that signal to alcohol, impulsivity and risk taking. Participants exposed to stress exhibited higher levels of cortisol in saliva and in the subjective perception of discomfort, and a lower level of well-being than their controls. PFH participants reported a significantly lower level of well-being and more distress than their NFH peers. There were no significant effects of treatment, and no significant interactions between treatment and FH in the scores of impulsivity, risk-taking, and attentional biases.

5.
Suma psicol ; 23(2): 116-124, jul.-dic. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-962711

ABSTRACT

Se analizó, en una muestra de adolescentes argentinos, el modelo de predisposición adquirida. El modelo propone que el rasgo desinhibición influye de manera indirecta, a través de variables cognitivas, sobre el consumo de alcohol. La exposición a modelos de consumo del grupo de pares influye directa e indirectamente (mediante las expectativas hacia el alcohol) sobre el uso de alcohol. Participaron 343 adolescentes asistentes a colegios públicos de educación media de la ciudad de Córdoba (Argentina). Se midió impulsividad, expectativas hacia el alcohol, motivos de consumo de alcohol, normas sociales de consumo y consumo de alcohol de los adolescentes. Para determinar el efecto de las variables señaladas como antecedentes del consumo se aplicó un análisis de senderos. Se propusieron dos modelos teóricos que diferían en la inclusión, o no, de las normas sociales del consumo de alcohol. Los resultados apoyan el modelo de predisposición adquirida e indican que el efecto de impulsividad sobre el consumo de alcohol es indirecto mediado por las expectativas hacia el alcohol. Aunque ambos modelos presentan adecuado ajuste a los datos, el modelo que incorpora el efecto de las normas sociales de consumo presenta un ajuste excelente. Los resultados de este trabajo, el primero de nuestro medio en evaluar el modelo de predisposición adquirida sobre el consumo de alcohol, destacan la utilidad de diagramar esfuerzos preventivos focalizados en el control de los impulsos, en las expectativas positivas hacia el alcohol y en la reducción de la percepción del consumo de los pares.


The acquired preparedness model was examined in a sample of Argentinian adolescents. This model suggests that disinhibition has an indirect effect, through cognitive variables, on alcohol consumption. Asample of 343 adolescents from the city of Cordoba (Argentina) from public secondary education schools took part in the study. Standardised measurements were used to assess impulsivity, alcohol expectancies, social norms of alcohol drinking, and drinking patterns. A path analysis was conducted to determine the effect of these variables on quantity of alcohol consumption. Two theoretical models, that differed in the inclusion - or not - of social norms of alcohol drinking, were evaluated. The results, according to the acquired preparedness model, indicate that impulsivity influences alcohol consumption through alcohol expectancies. The model that incorporates the effect of social norms of alcohol drinking showed an excellent fit to the data. This study - the first in Argentina that evaluates this model - emphasises the usefulness of addressing impulse control and alcohol expectancies when developing interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption.

6.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 15(2): 11-20, jul.-dic. 2012. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-675092

ABSTRACT

Para complementar el proceso de validación del Cuestionario de Expectativas hacia el Alcohol para Adolescentes (CEA-A) iniciado en una etapa previa, se llevó adelante un análisis factorial confirmatorio (AFC). En el estudio participaron 343 adolescentes con edades entre 13 y 18 años, asistentes a escuelas de nivel medio del sector público. Se empleó el Cuestionario de Expectativas hacia el Alcohol para Adolescentes (CEA-A) para la medición de los efectos que los adolescentes anticipan del consumo de alcohol. Se evaluó el ajuste de los datos al modelo que propone a las expectativas divididas en tres escalas correspondientes a los efectos positivos y otras tres referidas a los efectos negativos del alcohol mediante los siguientes índices de ajuste: CIMIN/df, GFI, CFI, RMSEA. Los resultados permitieron confirmar la estructura previamente hallada, dando cuenta que el CEA-A es un instrumento válido y fiable para la medición de las expectativas hacia el alcohol en adolescentes argentinos.


In order to complete the validation process of the Cuestionario de Expectativas sobre el Alcohol para Adolescentes [Expectations Questionnaire on Alcohol Intake for Adolescents -CEA-A for its Spanish acronym] initiated at an earlier stage, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted. A sample of 343 adolescents aged 13 to 18 from public high schools participated in the present study. The Expectations Questionnaire on Alcohol Intake for Adolescents was used to assess the effects that adolescents anticipate from drinking alcohol. Data were assessed by means of a fit model whereby expectations are divided into three scales corresponding to the positive effects of alcohol intake and another three referring to the negative ones. The indices used were the following: CIMIN/df, GFI, CFI, RMSEA.Results confirmed the previously found structure of three scales for positive expectations on alcohol intake and three scales for negative expectations. According to that, the CEA-A is a valid and reliable measure to assess alcohol expectations of Argentinean adolescents.


Para completar o processo de validação do Questionário de Expectativas relacionadas com o Álcool para Adolescentes (CEA-A), iniciado em uma etapa prévia, foi realizada uma análise fatorial confirmatória (AFC). No estudo participaram 343 adolescentes com idades entre 13 e 18 anos, estudantes de escolas do nível médio do setor público. Empregou-se o Questionário de Expectativas relacionadas com o Álcool para Adolescentes (CEA-A) para a medição dos efeitos que os adolescentes antecipam com respeito ao consumo de álcool. Avaliou-se o ajuste dos dados ao modelo que propõe as expectativas divididas em três escalas correspondentes aos efeitos positivos e outras três correspondentes aos efeitos negativos do álcool mediante os seguintes índices de ajuste: CIMIN/df, GFI, CFI, RMSEA. Os resultados permitiram confirmar a estrutura previamente encontrada, mostrando que o CEA-A é um instrumento válido e confiável para a medição das expectativas relacionados com o álcool em adolescentes argentinos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Surveys and Questionnaires , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Adolescent , Underage Drinking
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