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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874558

ABSTRACT

An increasing number of studies have recently indicated the important effects of gut microbes on various functions of the central nervous system.However, the underlying mechanisms by which gut microbiota regulate brain functions and behavioral phenotypes remain largely unknown. We therefore used isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomic analysis to obtain proteomic profiles of the hippocampus in germ-free (GF), colonized GF, and specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice. We then integrated the resulting proteomic data with previously reported mRNA microarray data, to further explore the effects of gut microbes on host brain functions. We identified that 61 proteins were upregulated and 242 proteins were downregulated in GF mice compared with SPF mice. Of these, 124 proteins were significantly restored following gut microbiota colonization. Bioinformatic analysis of these significant proteins indicated that the glucocorticoid receptor signaling pathway and inflammation-related pathways were the most enriched disrupted pathways. This study provides new insights into the pathological mechanisms of gut microbiota-regulated diseases.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872076

ABSTRACT

Objective:This paper introduces the concepts of "Adding Value in Research" , along with strategies adopted by National Institute of Health Research(NIHR)in practice, to enlighten the establishment of domestic medical research administration and support system.Methods:Analyze the idea and its applications of Adding Value in Research in the UK medical research supervision and support system combined with concept discussion.Results:The key issues should be focused by the establishment of medical research supervision and support system including setting the priorities by evidence-based decision making, providing research design platform, whole process management, accessible and usable platform, and disseminating the findings effectively.Conclusions:All the stakeholders such as regulatory bodies, research institutions, funding agencies and researchers should pay attention to "Adding Value in Research" and engage in the establishment of related mechanisms.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-871925

ABSTRACT

Objective:To monitor the susceptibility of common used antimicrobial agents against nosocomial Gram-negative bacilli in 2018 across China.Methods:Prospective collection of Gram-negative bacilli from 13 teaching hospitals nationwide from January to December 2018. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs) of antibiotics such as meropenem was determined by agar dilution methods and broth microdilution methods. Interpretation of results using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute(CLSI) 2019 M100S (29th Edition) standard. Data were analyzed by using WHONET-5.6 software.Results:A total of 1 214 non-repetitive Gram-negative bacilli were collected, accounting for 96.7% (1 174/1 214) of blood and sterile body fluid samples. The activity of antimicrobial agents against 871 strains of Enterobacteriaceae was as follows in descending order of susceptible rate: amikacin (93.2%, 812/871), meropenem (92.0%, 801/871), ertapenem (88.9%, 774/871), imipenem (88.4%, 770/871), piperacillin-tazobactam (84.0%, 732/871), cefoperazone-sulbactam (83.1%, 724/871), cefepime (71.4%, 622/871), minocyline (68.9%, 600/871), ceftazidime (66.9%, 583/871), levofloxacin (54.4%, 474/871).The resistance rates of Escherichia coli to the third generation cephalosporins were 61.5% (155/252) (ceftriaxone) and 60.7% (153/252) (cefotaxime), respectively. The resistance rates of Klebsiella pneumoniae to the third generation cephalosporins were 56.6% (126/222) (ceftriaxone) and 57.9% (129/222) (cefotaxime), respectively. The incidence of extended-spectrum β lactamase (ESBLs) positive E. coli and K. pneumoniae was 50.2% (127/252) and 18.2% (40/222), respectively. Over 95% of all the ESBLs positive strains were susceptible to imipenem and meropenem. The incidence of carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was 2.8% (7/252) and 20.4% (45/222), respectively. For Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella aerogenes, Citrobacter freundii, the most susceptible agent were tigecycline (96.3%-100%), followed by amikacin (94.9%-97.1%), meropenem (89.8%-96.6%)and imipenem (89.8%-94.9%).The susceptibility of Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii and Serratia marcescens to meropenem and amikacin was over 90%.A total of 67 strains of carbapenems resistant enterobacteriaceae(CRE) were detected. Modified carbapenem inactivation method showed, 45 strains were serine carbapenemase and 20 were metalloenzymes. The susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to meropenem and imipenem were 73.2% (112/153) and 66.0% (101/153), respectively. Acinobacter baumannii has the highest sensitivity to colistin (100%, 163/163), followed by tigecycline (87.1%, 142/163).Compared with other sources of infection, specimens of bloodstream infections were less resistant to Klebsiella pneumoniae (17.6%, 27/153 vs 21.7%, 15/69) and Acinetobacter baumannii (68.3%, 71/104 vs 71.2%, 42/59). Escherichia coli (2.5%,4/198 vs 0%,0/54) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (37%, 33/89 vs 18.8%, 12/64) have a high proportion of carbapenem resistance. Conclusions:Carbapenems still maintain high antibacterial activity against Enterobacteriaceae bacteria, especially strains producing only ESBLs. Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae should be given sufficient attention. Carbapenemase is the most important drug resistance mechanism of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in China.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-746297

ABSTRACT

Objective The management of medical projects of the National Key Research and Development Program of China is difficult.Thus this article aims to analyze the common problems and summarize the preparatory work before the project initiation.Methods Comprehensively adopted the methodologies of literature analysis,survey investigation to analyze the common problems before the project initiation,and then particularly summarize the preparatory works for biomedical research,especially for clinical research,from the perspective of investigators.Results Proposed several aspects that should take into consideration before the initiation of the projects..clarify the organizational management framework,play the role of kick-off meeting,organize tailored training on financial management,prepare research protocol and related documents,seek Institutional Review Board approval and conduct clinical research registration,normalize document managment,formulate project management plan,and prepare research facilities timely.Conclusions Investigators should develop a detailed project management plan before initiation of the project,preparation work should focus on personnel,financial resources,facilities,research progress,quality,data,etc.

5.
Journal of Medical Biomechanics ; (6): E193-E199, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802492

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the stress distributions of mandible defect by reconstruction with polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and its composite reconstruction plate through three-dimensional finite element analysis. Methods The finite element models of reconstruction plate of titanium alloy, PEEK, carbon-fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CFR)-PEEK with 30% endless carbon fibers and CFR-PEEK with 68% endless carbon fibers were established by CBCT scanning,Mimics software,SolidWorks, Geomagic Studio and ANSYS Workbench software, and titanium alloy served as control. Two occlusal situations were simulated in the mandible model. Loading I: anterior region loading with 300 N; loading II: left posterior region with 300 N. Results The ratio of the maximum Von Mises stress of the reconstructed plate to its yield strength under two load situations: PEEK system > 30%CFR-PEEK system > titanium alloy system > 68% CFR-PEEK system; the maximum stress of the mandible: PEEK system > 30% CFR-PEEK system > titanium alloy system > 68% CFR-PEEK system. In the PEEK system, the maximum Von Mises stress of reconstructed plate and mandibular exceeded its yield strength under loading I; in the other systems, the maximum Von Mises stresses of mandible and reconstruction plate were below the yield strength. Conclusions The reconstruction plate of CFR-PEEK with 68% endless carbon fibers distributed the stresses in a similar manner as the titanium reconstruction plate, which could meet the mechanical strength requirements of mandible defect reconstruction. The fracture risk of the reconstructed plate was lower than that of titanium alloy, but the incidence of stress shielding was slightly higher. The result can provide references for the selection of materials and clinical application of reconstruction plate for mandibular defects.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-753828

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the antimicrobial resistance profile of the clinical isolates collected from selected hospitals across China. Methods Twenty-nine general hospitals and five children's hospitals were involved in this program. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out according to a unified protocol using Kirby-Bauer method or automated systems. Results were interpreted according to CLSI 2017 breakpoints. Results A total of 190 610 clinical isolates were collected from January to December 2017, of which gram negative organisms accounted for 70.8% (134 951/190 610) and gram positive cocci 29.2% (55 649/190 610). The prevalence of methicillin-resistant strains was 35.3% in S. aureus (MRSA) and 80.3% in coagulase negative Staphylococcus (MRCNS) on average. MR strains showed much higher resistance rates to most of the other antimicrobial agents than MS strains. However, 91.6% of MRSA strains were still susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, while 86.2% of MRCNS strains were susceptible to rifampin. No staphylococcal strains were found resistant to vancomycin. E. faecalis strains showed much lower resistance rates to most of the drugs tested (except chloramphenicol) than E. faecium. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) was identified in both E. faecalis and E. faecium. The identified VRE strains were mainly vanA, vanB or vanM type based on phenotype or genotype. The proportion of PSSP or PRSP strains in the non-meningitis S.pneumoniae strains isolated from children decreased but the proportion of PISP strains increased when compared to the data of 2016. Enterobacteriaceae strains were still highly susceptible to carbapenems. Overall, less than 10% of these strains (excluding Klebsiella spp.) were resistant to carbapenems. The prevalence of imipenem-resistant K. pneumoniae increased from 3.0% in 2005 to 20.9% in 2017, and meropenem-resistant K. pneumoniae increased from 2.9% in 2005 to 24.0% in 2017, more than 8-fold increase. About 66.7% and 69.3% of Acinetobacter (A. baumannii accounts for 91.5%) strains were resistant to imipenem and meropenem, respectively. Compared with the data of year 2016, P. aeruginosa strains showed decreasing resistance rate to carbapenems. Conclusions Bacterial resistance is still on the rise. It is necessary to strengthen hospital infection control and stewardship of antimicrobial agents. The communication between laboratorians and clinicians should be further improved in addition to surveillance of bacterial resistance.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-806906

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To isolate and identify exosomes from human serum, explore the feasibility of exosomal CEA for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer.@*Methods@#Retrospective study.64 cases with colorectal cancer patients(41 cases with normal CEA results and 23cases with high CEA results), 20 cases with benign colorectal diseases patients and 40 cases with healthy people of department of physical examination from October 2015 to December 2016 in Tongji Hospital of Tongji University. Exosomes were isolated from these serum using ExoQuick, and then identified by using transmission electron microscopy, and Western Blot for morphology and molecular phenotype.The serum level of CEA and exosomal CEA was measureed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The diagnostic efficacy of serum Exosomal CEA concentration in the colorectal cancer by using U test and the subject work characteristic curve (ROC). @*Results@#Exosomes in human serum was successfully extracted with ExoQuick kit.Exosomal CEA concentration in 64 cases with colorectal cancer patients (1 056.36-28 637.78)pg/ml was significantly higher than in cases with benign colorectal diseases patients (394.61-2 437.83)pg/ml and healthy controls(610.89-2 076.70)pg/ml(U=124.000, U=119.000, P<0.01). Exosomal CEA concentration in 41 colorectal cancer patients with normal serum CEA concentration(1 056.36-5 832.07)pg/ml was significantly higher than in benign colorectal diseases patients and healthy controls(U=113.000, U=119.000; P<0.01). ROC analysis of exosomal CEA yielded an AUC(area under the ROC curve)of 0.954(95% CI=0.919-0.988), which was higher than the serum CEA.The area under the ROC curve of serum Exosomal CEA concentration for colorectal cancer diagnosis is 0.954(95% CI=0.919-0.988), which is superior to the serum CEA concentration[0.636 (95% CI=0.531-0.742)]. @*Conclusions@#Isolation and detection of serum Exosomal CEA concentrations have a good diagnostic efficacy in colorectal cancer. It′s possible to be a marker for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer.(Chin J Lab Med, 2018, 41: 503-508)

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-806902

ABSTRACT

Exosomes are nanovesicles secreted into the extracellular environment upon internal vesicle fusion with the cell membrane. A growing body of evidence suggests that exosomes may be used as biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of malignant tumors and other pathologies. At present, the standardization of exosomes detection at home and abroad is still in primary stage. The consistency and accuracy of measurement results for exosomes are needed to be solved urgently. In the era of precision medicine, exosomes detection will continue to have significant impacts on laboratory medicine, in spite of the inherent challenges posed by the technology. This article reviews the exosomes detection development course and illustrates the challenges of appropriately applying exosomes detection to clinical diagnostics.(Chin J Lab Med, 2018, 41: 487-490)

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-735071

ABSTRACT

Objective With the encouragement of Shenzhen government and medical institutions,the investment in clinical research projects is keep increasing,it is urgent to explore the construction of a well-functioning and effective clinical research technical support and supervision system.Methods The unmet needs were obtained and identified by survey and interview at first.The work plan has been made on the basis of the requirements and followed to building the infrastructure.Results The recent actions and achievements for setting up the support and supervision infrastructure have been listed in summary:(1) the government initiated the construction of support system and technical platform for clinical research;(2) set up multiple levels biomedical ethical review board in Shenzhen;(3) conduct comprehensive trainings for clinical research investigators.Conclusions To summarize the advantages and disadvantages of conducting clinical research in Shenzhen,through the systematic planning and top-level design from the government,establish a multidimensional talent training system and construct the technical platform to ensure the sustainable development of clinical research.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-688019

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>This work aims to investigate the effect of porous tantalum and porous titanium on osseointegration.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Two kinds of porous materials with same microporous parameters, namely, porous tantalum and porous titanium, were fabricated by computer-aided design (CAD) modeling and 3D printing technology. A defect model was established in 24 New Zealand white rabbits in the bilateral femoral lateral malleolus at the left and right side of each animal. Then, animals were randomly divided into two groups, and bone defects were repaired by porous tantalum and porous titanium (experimental and control groups, respectively). Animals were sacrificed at two, four, and eight weeks after implantation. Gross observation and methylene blue-acid fuchsin staining were used to observe osseointegration of the implant and bone interface, and the osseointegration strength of implant bone interface was tested by push-out test.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>At two, four, and eight weeks after operation, the new bone tissue in the two groups increased gradually, and new bone trabecula appeared and grew into the pores of the materials. No significant difference (P>0.05) in osteogenesis and the strength of implant bone tissue interface between the two groups was observed.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>3D
printed porous tantalum implants, which exhibit comparable osseointegration capabilities to porous titanium implants, can form an early biological combination with bone tissue.</p>

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-688003

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>This study aimed to investigate the role and mechanism of neuropeptide substance P (SP) in ST2 cell (bone mesenchymal stem cells of mice) osteogenic differentiation to provide a basis for the treatment of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Third-generation ST2 cells were cultured with different concentrations of SP (0, 10⁻¹⁰, 10⁻⁸, 10⁻⁶, and 10⁻⁵ mol·L⁻¹). After 24, 48, and 72 h, cell proliferation was detected by CCK-8. The ST2 cells were cultured with 10⁻⁶ mol·L⁻¹ SP for 1, 3, 5, and 7 days. Subsequently, the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), collagen typeⅠ(CollaⅠ), and osteocalcin (OCN) in the culture supernatant was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). ALP activity was detected by immunofluorescence staining. The ST2 cells were cultured with SP, Noggin (inhibitor of the bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway), SP+Noggin, and 2% fetal bovine serum, respectively. Finally, the expression of ALP, CollaⅠ, and OCN in the culture supernatant was tested by ELISA.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>CCK-8 showed that the effect of cell proliferation was most obvious when the SP concentration was 10⁻⁶ mol·L⁻¹ (P<0.01). The ELISA results demonstrated that ALP expression significantly increased at day 5 compared with that in the control group (P<0.01), whereas the expression of CollaⅠand OCN significantly increased at day 7 (P<0.05). Immunofluorescence results showed that ALP activity was strongest at day 5. The expression of ALP, CollaⅠ, and OCN decreased after Noggin addition (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>SP can promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of ST2 cells, and the bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway may be involved in this process.</p>

12.
Basic & Clinical Medicine ; (12): 381-384, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-693906

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the expression of γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor α1 subunit (GABAAα1) in the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vLPAG) in rats with formalin-induced acute pain. Methods The rats were randomly divided into two groups:control group(group C) and formalin-induced pain group(group F),12 rats in each group:0.9% sodium chloride solution or 2% formaldehyde 50 μL was injected into the ventral surface of right hind paw respectively. The pain scores were recorded for every 5 minutes and the mechanical pain threshold were recorded for every 10 minutes until 1 h. The expression levels of GABAAα1in vLPAG were determined by Western blot analysis in each group.Results The rats in formalin group showed significant nociceptive behaviors immedi-ately, such as paw withdrawal and/or paw licking. Results demonstrated that the rats exhibited a biphasic response to pain. The pain behavior scores in group F were significantly higher than that in group C (P<0.05),and the mechanical pain threshold in group F was decreased after injection compared with group C(P<0.05). The expression of GABAAα1 protein in group F was significantly higher than that in group C (P<0.05).Conclusions The up-regulation of GABAAα1 expression in ventrolateral periaqueductal gray is associated with the decrease of pain threshold in rats with acute pain.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690964

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the anti-myeloma effect of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and on mouse myeloma cell line SP2/0 in vitro and in vivo and its mechanism.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The inhibitory effect of SAHA on SP2/0 cells was measured by CCK-8 assay,and the apoptosis and cell cycle were analyzed by flow cytometry FACS. The protein expression of Caspase-3 and p53 of SP2/0 cells treated with SAHA were examined by Western blot. Annexin V/7-AAD double staining was performed to detect the apoptosis of SP2/0 induced by SAHA in vitro. SP2/0 cells (1×10) resuspended in 200 µl PBS were inoculated subcutaneously and intravenously into BALB/c mice, so as to establish aggressive or non-aggressive myeloma-bearing mouse models respectively. On day 3 after modeling, mice received SAHA or vehicle control treatment by intraperitoneal injection. The dose of SAHA was 60 mg/kg·d, 5 times a week for 3 weeks.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In SAHA-treated SP2/0 cells, the proliferation inhibition rate and apoptotic cells increased in a dose dependent manner. Also, SAHA significantly increased the ratio of cells in G phase and decreased in S phase. Molecular mechanisms of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of SP2/0 induced by SAHA partly correlated with up-regulating the expression level of Caspase-3 and p53. In the non-aggressive myeloma-bearing mice, SP2/0 cells disappeared in peripheral blood after SAHA treatment. In the aggressive myeloma-bearing mice, inhibition of tumor growth and prolongation of the cell survival were observed after SAHA treatment.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>SAHA inhibited SP2/0 cell proliferation, this effect associates with inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, the mechanism of SAHA ralates partly with activating Caspase-3 and p53 pathway.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents , Apoptosis , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors , Hydroxamic Acids , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Multiple Myeloma
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-772766

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#The present study aims at determining the stability of a popular type 2 diabetes rat model induced by a high-fat diet combined with a low-dose streptozotocin injection.@*METHODS@#Wistar rats were fed with a high-fat diet for 8 weeks followed by a one-time injection of 25 or 35 mg/kg streptozotocin to induce type 2 diabetes. Then the diabetic rats were fed with regular diet/high-fat diet for 4 weeks. Changes in biochemical parameters were monitored during the 4 weeks.@*RESULTS@#All the rats developed more severe dyslipidemia and hepatic dysfunction after streptozotocin injection. The features of 35 mg/kg streptozotocin rats more resembled type 1 diabetes with decreased body weight and blood insulin. Rats with 25 mg/kg streptozotocin followed by normal diet feeding showed normalized blood glucose level and pancreatic structure, indicating that normal diet might help recovery from certain symptoms of type 2 diabetes. In comparison, diabetic rats fed with high-fat diet presented decreased but relatively stable blood glucose level, and this was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#This model easily recovers with normal diet feeding. A high-fat diet is suggested as the background diet in future pharmacological studies using this model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Glucose , Metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Blood , Diet, High-Fat , Insulin , Blood , Lipids , Blood , Liver , Pathology , Male , Malondialdehyde , Blood , Oxidative Stress , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Streptozocin , Toxicity , Superoxide Dismutase , Blood , Uric Acid , Blood
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-710000

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the antigen-specific T cell functionality in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Methods Peripheral blood from 38 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and 47 health controls (control group) have been collected. The proportions of CD4+and CD8+T cell as well as the ratio of CD4+/CD8+were monitored by flow cytometry. Meanwhile, antigen- nonspecific and specific Th1 responses were compared between two groups through detecting interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin 2 (IL-2), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α producing cells upon propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PMA)/ionomycine and epstein-barr virus ( EBV) peptides stimulation, respectively followed by an intracellular cytokine staining. Results Compared to control group, the proportion of CD4+T cell and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+were significantly increased in type 2 diabetes mellitus group (P<0.05) whereas CD8+T cells exhibited no significant difference between two groups. Antigen-nonspecific Th1 responses in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were significantly decreased, demonstrated by lower percentages of IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α producing CD4+T cells when compared to control group , while CD8+T cells in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients exhibited similar cytokine production patterns. However, when stimulated by EBV specific peptides, the percentages of IFN-γ, IL-2, and TNF-α producing CD8+T cells were significantly higher in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients than those in control group (P<0.05). HbA1Cwas positively correlated with the percentage of EBV-specific TNF-α producing CD8+T cells (P<0.05). Conclusion In type 2 diabetes mellitus, the secretion capacity of CD4+and CD8+T cell was significantly decreased and the antigen-specific responses represent the presence of an abnormal activated status, which indicates that chronic hyperglycemia may damage T cells function and aggravate chronic inflammation.

16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690647

ABSTRACT

The estimate of dental caries among Chinese children at the microscale level using standard methodology remains unclear. In this study, we assessed and analyzed the disease burden of childhood dental caries in China by extracting data from the Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016). In 2016, the number of cases, prevalence, years lived with disability (YLD), and age-standardized YLD rate of dental caries was 93.0 million, 43.0%, 32,200 person years, and 14.8 per 100,000, respectively. Across 33 provincial units, the disease burden was highest in Hubei (YLD rate 28.6 per 100,000), lowest in Macao (9.1 per 100,000), while geographical clustering was not observed. Compared with 1990, the prevalence in 2016 decreased from 46.8% to 43.0%, and the YLD rate decreased from 16.5 per 100,000 to 14.8 per 100,000. Given the slight decrease in dental caries burden, the prevalence and disease burden remained high among Chinese children. Strategies for addressing the spatial inequity of childhood dental caries require geographical targeting.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Aging , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Epidemiology , Dental Caries , Epidemiology , Disabled Persons , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Prevalence , Time Factors
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-664210

ABSTRACT

Objective To observe the effect of electrical stimulation combined with bladder function training on autonomic bladder pa-tients after S2-4spinal cord injury or cauda equina and pelvic nerve injury.Methods From January,2016 to August,2017,76 patients with au-tonomic bladder after spinal cord injury were divided into control group(n=29)and observation groups(n=47)in real world study.The con-trol group received routine bladder function training,and the observation group received bladder muscle stimulation therapy in addition.The micturition diary and urodynamic indexes were assessed before and three months after treatment.Results After treatment,the frequency of urinary incontinence and the number of micturition in 24 hours,and residual urine volume significantly reduced(t>3.251,P<0.01),the urine output every time significantly increased (t>5.000, P<0.001), the maximum bladder capacity and urine flow rate increased (t>1.922, P<0.05),and the detrusor pressure in the end of filling period significantly reduced(t>8.302,P<0.001).All the indexes above were better in the observation group than in the control group(t>1.919,P<0.05). Conclusion Electrical muscular stimulation combined with the bladder func-tional training could improve the urination function in the patients with autonomic bladder after spinal cord injury.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-664117

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the efficacy of Wang Juyi meridian regulating method for determining abnormal meridians versus syndrome differentiation-based acupoint selection in the textbook in treating stroke patients and analyze whether this method has an advantage in discriminating and treating stroke disorders. Method One hundred and thirty-eight stroke patients were allocated, in order of visits, to treatment and control groups. The therapeutic effects were evaluated after 20 treatments and compared at three months after treatment. The Stroke Specific Quality of Life (SS-QOL) scale score, meridian distribution state and correlation between syndrome type and meridian distribution were used as indicators. Result In the treatment group, the SS-QOL score had a statistically significant difference after treatment and at three months after that compared with before (both P<0.05), indicating that the quality of life improved in the treatment group of stroke patients. There was no statistically significant difference in the SS-QOL score after treatment (P>0.05) but there was at three months after treatment (P<0.05) between the two groups, indicating that after stroke the quality of life improved more in the treatment group than in the control group. In the stroke patients,meridian abnormality mainly occurred in hand and foot Taiyin, hand and foot Yangming, foot Jueyin and hand and foot Shaoyang meridians and seldom in hand and foot Taiyang, foot Shaoyin, Ren and Du meridians. There was a correlation between every syndrome type and a certain meridian. Conclusion Meridians have a specific distribution in stroke patients. There is a correlation between different syndrome type and the corresponding meridian. In stroke patients, Wang Juyi meridian regulating method can improve the quality of life in discriminating and treating stroke disorders.

19.
Drug Evaluation Research ; (6): 1408-1413, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-663958

ABSTRACT

Objective To study that puerarin can prevent the renal glucose reabsorbtion process and promote urinary glucose excretion by inhibiting sodium-dependent glucose cotransporters 2 (SGLT2) to reduce plasma glucose in diabetes rats.Methods Molecular docking was carried out on puerarin and the obtained SGLT2 complexes through homology modeling method with dapagliflozin as positive control.Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing human SGLT2 and [14C]-MethylD-glucopyranoside ([14C]-AMG) as the substrate were used in vitro for the transport assays and IC50 for SGLT2.The antihyperglycemic activity ofpuerarin was operated by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and urinary glucose excretion (UGE) test in rats.Results Puerarin was identified as the substrate of SGLT2 through molecular docking,but the overall effect was not as strong asdapagliflozin.In vitro experiments showed that puerarin can strongly inhibit hSGLT2,the maximum effect was about 84% with the half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.40 mol/L.OGTT results showed that glucose inhibition rates of puerarin 10,30,60 and 120 mg/kg doses were 5.1%,6.5%,16%,and 22% respectively,in a dose-dependent manner.In the UGE experiment,the urine sugar increased with the increase of puerarin dose.Compared with model group,the 30,60,and 120 mg/kg dose groups had significant difference (P < 0.05 and 0.01).Conclusion Puerarin exhibited antiglycemic activity through inhibiting SGLT2 and was considered to be a new lead compound of SGLT2 inhibitors.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-663045

ABSTRACT

Objective· To observe real-time changes of calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) exposure to bilirubin in synaptosomes isolated from brainstem nucleus of rats. Methods · Forty P7-14 SD rats were randomly assigned to three groups: control group, bilirubin group (with levels of 0.1, 1 and 10 μmol/L) and bulirubin plus glycoursodeoxycholic acid (GUDCA) group. The synaptosomes were purified from brainstem nucleus by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. After loading OG-BAPTA in synaptosomes, two dimensional image of intracellular calcium and analysis of fluorescence intensity were achieved by Confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results · Synaptosomes with well biological activity were obtained from brainstem of the SD rats. In the control group, a progressive increase in fluorescent intensity of [Ca2+]I was detected. In the bilirubin group, acuter increases in fluorescent intensity were observed in all levels of bilirubin, with a manner of both concentration and time-dependent (P<0.05). Fluorescent intensity of [Ca2+]I was reduced in the present of GUDCA, which was not significant compared with the control group (P=0.656). However, GUDCA could abate the increase of fluorescent intensity of [Ca2+]I induced by bilirubin exposure, of which showing significant decrease in 10 μmol/L bilirubin exposure (P=0.000). Conclusion · Bilirubin could induce calcium overload in synaptosomes. GUDCA could abate bilirubin-induced calcium overload in synaptosomes, possibly explaining its protection effect of neurons from bilirubin neurotoxicity.

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