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1.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 151-160, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981849

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To establish an LC-MS/MS method based on single hair micro-segmental technique, and verify the detection of 42 psychoactive substances in 0.4 mm hair segments.@*METHODS@#Each piece of single hair was cut into 0.4 mm segments and extracted by sonication and the segments were immersed in dithiothreitol-containing extraction medium. Mobile phase A was the aqueous solution containing 20 mmol/L ammonium acetate, 0.1% formic acid, and 5% acetonitrile. Mobile phase B was acetonitrile. An electrospray ionization source in positive ion mode was used for data acquisition in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode.@*RESULTS@#The 42 psychoactive substances in hair had a good linear relationship within their respective linear ranges (r>0.99), the limits of detection were 0.2-10 pg/mm, the limits of quantification were 0.5-20 pg/mm, the intra-day and inter-day precisions were 1.5%-12.7%, the intra-day and inter-day accuracies were 86.5%-109.2%, the recovery rates were 68.1%-98.2%, and the matrix effects were 71.3%-111.7%. The method was applied to hair samples collected from one volunteer at 28 d after a single dose of zolpidem, with zolpidem detected in 5 hairs was 1.08-1.60 cm near the root tip, and the concentration range was 0.62-20.5 pg/mm.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The micro-segmental technique of single hair analysis can be applied to the investigation of drug-facilitated sexual assault cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Zolpidem , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Hair , Acetonitriles , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
2.
Chinese Journal of Blood Transfusion ; (12): 1073-1078, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1004706

ABSTRACT

Apheresis platelets are extensively utilized in clinical practice due to high purity and minimal side effects. These platelets are primarily obtained from regular blood donors. However, there is no consensus on whether plateletpheresis leads to iron deficiency among blood donors. In recent years, increasing attention has been given to the impact of plateletpheresis on the iron nutritional status of these donors. Numerous studies have indicated a prevalence of iron deficiency among plateletpheresis donors. The process of plateletpheresis involves the loss of red blood cells, which can accumulate over time and disrupt iron metabolism, ultimately resulting in iron deficiency anemia. This condition not only affects the physical well-being of the donors but also leads to a decline in their willingness to donate blood. Blood collection and supply institutions should enhance their focus on the iron nutritional status of plateletpheresis donors and implement various measures, such as intensifying health education regarding the significance of iron supplementation, implementing programs for testing iron deficiency, considering the provision of iron supplements and extending blood donation intervals. It is crucial to prevent iron deficiency in plateletpheresis donors. These institutions should explore calculation models that can predict personalized blood donation intervals and iron supplementation strategies, and seek a balanced approach that is optimal for maintaining adequate collections while safeguarding donor health. The article comprehensively reviews literature at home and abroad on the etiology and hazards of iron deficiency in plateletpheresis donors, as well as detection methods and response measures. It serves as a foundation for developing scientific and reasonable care measures for blood donation, while also achieving personalized and scientific management and recruitment strategies for blood donors.

3.
Chinese Journal of Gastroenterology ; (12): 278-283, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1016011

ABSTRACT

Background: Colorectal polyp is a common lower gastrointestinal disease. Study of its risk factors is of great significance for prevention and treatment of colorectal polyps in clinical practice. Aims: To construct and verify a prediction model for risk of colorectal polyps. Methods: According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 254 subjects who were hospitalized for health examination in the Special Internal Medicine Ward of Shanghai Huadong Hospital from January 2019 to June 2021 were enrolled in the study. They were allocated into colorectal polyps group and non⁃polyp group based on the results of colonoscopy. The relevant risk factors of colorectal polyp were collected, including gender, age, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hyperuricemia, polyps/stones of gallbladder, fatty liver, etc. After screened by LASSO regression model, the selected factors were analyzed by multivariate Logistic regression to build the prediction model and nomogram. Furthermore, the prediction model was evaluated by ROC curve, C index, calibration curve and decision curve, and validated by internal samples. Results: Of the 254 subjects enrolled in the study, 116 cases were in colorectal polyps group and 138 in non⁃polyp group. The risk prediction model identified that gender (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.06⁃4.27), age (OR=2.76, 95% CI: 1.17⁃6.73), hypertension (OR=3.23, 95% CI: 1.52⁃7.12), diabetes (OR=4.37, 95% CI: 1.52⁃14.64), hyperlipidemia (OR=3.20, 95% CI: 1.74⁃5.95) and fatty liver (OR= 2.21, 95% CI: 1.13⁃4.35) were independent risk factors for colorectal polyps. The model showed good area under the ROC curve (0.807) and C index (0.807). The decision curve demonstrated that if the threshold probability of colorectal polyps was more than 12%, the model would be of clinical significance. Internal samples were randomly selected for validation, and the C index was 0.793. Conclusions: The prediction model and nomogram constructed by combination of risk factors including gender, age, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and fatty liver have a substantial reference value for risk prediction of colorectal polyps.

4.
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 41-45, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009813

ABSTRACT

Genetic risk factors have been shown to contribute to the development of sexual dysfunction. However, the role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene variants in the risk of erectile dysfunction (ED) remains unclear. In this study, we recruited 1254 participants who underwent ED assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function-5. The MTHFR c.677C>T variant was also measured by fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (PCR). No significant difference in the genotypic frequency of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism (CC, CT, and TT) was observed between men from the ED and non-ED groups. In addition, on binary logistic regression analysis, both crude and adjusted models showed that the risk of ED was not significantly associated with the C677T polymorphism. Interestingly, a significantly higher frequency of the 677TT polymorphism was found in severe and moderate ED (P = 0.02). The positive correlation between the MTHFR 677TT polymorphism and severe ED was confirmed by logistic regression analysis, even after adjusting for potential confounders (odds ratio [OR] = 2.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-5.50, P = 0.02). These findings suggest a positive correlation between the MTHFR 677TT polymorphism and the risk of severe ED. Identification of MTHFR gene polymorphisms may provide complementary information for ED patients during routine clinical diagnosis.

5.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 406-416, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009373

ABSTRACT

In recent years, the types and quantities of fentanyl analogs have increased rapidly. It has become a hotspot in the illicit drug control field of how to quickly identify novel fentanyl analogs and to shorten the blank regulatory period. At present, the identification methods of fentanyl analogs that have been developed mostly rely on reference materials to target fentanyl analogs or their metabolites with known chemical structures, but these methods face challenges when analyzing new compounds with unknown structures. In recent years, emerging machine learning technology can quickly and automatically extract valuable features from massive data, which provides inspiration for the non-targeted screening of fentanyl analogs. For example, the wide application of instruments like Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high resolution mass spectrometry, and other instruments can maximize the mining of the characteristic data related to fentanyl analogs in samples. Combining this data with an appropriate machine learning model, researchers may create a variety of high-performance non-targeted fentanyl identification methods. This paper reviews the recent research on the application of machine learning assisted non-targeted screening strategy for the identification of fentanyl analogs, and looks forward to the future development trend in this field.


Subject(s)
Fentanyl , Substance Abuse Detection/methods , Mass Spectrometry/methods , Illicit Drugs/analysis
6.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4731-4737, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008640

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the effect of matrine on tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)-induced inflammatory response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVECs) and explore whether the underlying mechanism was related to the miR-25-3p-mediated Krüppel-like factor 4(Klf4) pathway. The HUVEC cell inflammation model was induced by TNF-α stimulation. After 24 or 48 hours of incubation with different concentrations of matrine(0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 mmol·L~(-1)), CCK-8 assay was used to detect cell proliferation. After treatment with 2.5 mmol·L~(-1) matrine for 48 h, the expression of TNF-α, interleukin-6(IL-6), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), and Klf4 mRNA and miR-25-3p was detected by real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR, and the protein expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and Klf4 was detected by Western blot. The anti-miR-25-3p was transfected into HUVECs, and the effect of anti-miR-25-3p on TNF-α-induced cell proliferation and inflammatory factors was detected by the above method. The cells were further transfected with miR-25-3p and incubated with matrine to detect the changes in proliferation and expression of related inflammatory factors, miR-25-3p, and Klf4. The targeting relationship between miR-25-3p and Klf4 was verified by bioinformatics analysis and dual luciferase reporter gene assay. The results displayed that matrine could inhibit TNF-α-induced HUVEC proliferation, decrease the mRNA and protein expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, increase the mRNA and protein expression of Klf4, and reduce the expression of miR-25-3p. Bioinformatics analysis showed that there were specific complementary binding sites between miR-25-3p and Klf4 sequences. Dual luciferase reporter gene assay confirmed that miR-25-3p negatively regulated Klf4 expression in HUVECs by targeting. The inhibition of miR-25-3p expression can reduce TNF-α-induced cell proliferation and mRNA and protein expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β. MiR-25-3p overexpression could reverse the effect of matrine on TNF-α-induced cell proliferation and the mRNA and protein expression of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and Klf4. This study shows that matrine inhibits the inflammatory response induced by TNF-α in HUVECs through miR-25-3p-mediated Klf4 pathway.


Subject(s)
Humans , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells , Matrines , Interleukin-6/genetics , Signal Transduction , Antagomirs , Inflammation/metabolism , Luciferases/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger , Apoptosis
7.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 507-514, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984144

ABSTRACT

At present, the death cases of simple asphyxiant gas acute poisoning are increasing sharply. Common asphyxiant gases in death cases include nitrogen, helium, carbon dioxide, methane, propane, laughing gas, etc. Simple asphyxiant gas has no affinity for biological matrices and escapes quickly, which puts forward new requirements for autopsy procedures, selection and collection of samples, laboratory analysis and identification. This paper reviews the research and development process of death cases caused by simple asphyxiant gas acute poisoning and put forwards the collection and analysis strategy of the samples in such cases. The most valuable biological samples in such cases should be lung tissues associated with the airways, followed by brain tissue and cardiac blood. Gaseous samples from the esophageal cavity, tracheal cavity, pulmonary bronchi, gastric and cardiac areas are also recommended as valuable samples. In the case of postmortem examination, the gas should be injected into gas sample bag directly. Biological materials such as tissue and blood should be directly sealed in head-space vials and analyzed by using the headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.


Subject(s)
Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Autopsy , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Methane/analysis , Nitrogen
8.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 495-499, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984142

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To analyze the characteristics of diphenidol poisoning cases and to provide clues and technical means for the identification of such cases.@*METHODS@#Biological samples of 9 deaths caused by diphenidol poisoning were detected by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), and the characteristics of these cases were analyzed retrospectively.@*RESULTS@#Most of the deaths caused by diphenidol poisoning were young females. The dosage was between 60 and 300 tablets, and the mass concentration of diphenidol in the postmortem blood ranged from 0.87 to 99.00 μg/mL. There was no correlation between the dosage and the concentration of diphenidol in the blood.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Diphenidol poisoning has the characteristics of high concealment and lethality. More attention should be paid to suicide cases, and diphenidol should be recommended as a routine detection item to avoid missing detection.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Chromatography, Liquid/methods , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods , Retrospective Studies , Administration, Oral
9.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 400-407, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984133

ABSTRACT

Abstrct: Metabonomics is a relative discipline that develops after genomics and proteomics, and it is an important component of systems biology. It uses high-throughput and high-sensitivity instruments to perform qualitative and quantitative analysis of all metabolic components in specific biological samples under limited conditions and combines with multivariate statistics to analyze and process the data to obtain information about physiological, pathological or toxicological changes in organisms. In recent years, because of the complicated mechanism of substance abuse and the continuous emergence of new psychoactive substances, metabonomics is increasingly used in substance abuse research. Therefore, this article reviews the application of metabonomics of substance abuse in the toxic mechanism, the mechanism of addiction and the discovery of biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biomarkers , Metabolomics , Proteomics , Substance-Related Disorders
10.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 254-257, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984117

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the distribution of total phosphine in phosphine poisoning victims and summarize the characteristics of phosphine poisoning cases.@*METHODS@#The phosphine and its metabolites in the biological samples of 29 victims in 16 phosphine poisoning cases were qualified and quantified by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.@*RESULTS@#Five victims among 29 were poisoned by ingestion of aluminium phosphide and 24 by inhalation of phosphine gas. Phosphine metabolites were detected in the biological samples of 23 victims, and the concentrations of total phosphine in blood ranged 0.5-34.0 μg/mL. The total concentration of phosphine in liver tissue was up to 71.0 μg/g. Phosphine was not detected in the blood of the other six survived victims, which may be related to the small amount of phosphine exposure and the delay in blood sampling.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The total concentration of phosphine in blood and tissues caused by aluminum phosphine ingestion is higher than that caused by phosphine gas inhalation. The death cases of phosphine inhalation are characterized by long exposure time, repeated exposures and age susceptibility.


Subject(s)
Humans , Aluminum Compounds/analysis , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Liver/chemistry , Phosphines/analysis , Poisoning/diagnosis
11.
Journal of Environmental and Occupational Medicine ; (12): 410-418, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-960425

ABSTRACT

Background As emerging environmental contaminants with ecological risks, flame retardants (FRs) exhibit obvious toxicity and persistence. In recent years, as FRs have been widely detected in indoor environments and human samples, the human health risks after FRs exposure are of great concern. Objective To systematically understand the topic evolution, research status, progress, and development trends on the toxicity and health effects of FRs on humans worldwide. Methods We retrieved the literature regarding toxicity of FRs and their effects on human health through the Web of Science database from 2000 to 2020, screened and processed the literature using Endnote software, and analyzed annual publications, important citations, and authors. CiteSpace and VOSviewer were employed to draw co-citation network, keyword co-occurrence network, and keyword clustering map for bibliometric visualization analysis. Results From 2000 to 2020, 472 international papers on toxic effects and human health impacts of FRs were published. In terms of publication years, FRs-related research was mainly divided into three stages: the infancy and exploration stage (2001—2006), when the research on the toxic effects of FRs was just starting; the growth stage (2007—2015), when the risk assessments of FRs on human health were conducted; and the acceleration stage (2016—), when the studies have shifted to the mechanism of FRs damage to human health. In this field, China published the largest number of published articles in the world (177 papers), but the intermediary centrality (reflecting academic influence) was only 0.19, far lower than that of European and American countries such as the Netherlands (0.78), Britain (0.51), and Germany (0.44). Among the top 10 research institutions in terms of the number of articles published, the Chinese Academy of Sciences topped the list with 49 articles. Van der Veen and other researchers had a strong influence on the research of the toxic effects of phosphorous FRs since their papers published in 2012 were cited 1319 times and in the most prominent node in the literature co-citation network. The high-frequency keywords in the literature on the human health effects of FRs were polybrominated diphenyl ethers (217 times), brominated FRs (166 times), toxicity (147 times), FRs (102 times), exposure, polychlorinated biphenyls, in vitro experiment, plasticizer, etc. Through keyword clustering and co-occurrence analyses, it was found that current research is systematically exploring the toxic mechanism of FRs from a perspective integrating pollution source-exposure route-final receptor of pollutants, and is evaluating the environmental health risks via different exposure routes. The visualized bibliometric analysis findings suggested that future studies understand the underlying mechanisms of various cell damage caused by FRs toxicity, identify the key factors of change and their relationships, aiming to provide a scientific basis for targeted prevention of health effects of FRs. Conclusion The research hotspots on the toxic effects of FRs and their effects on human health have changed over time, and the breadth and depth have been increasing. The toxic effects of brominated/phosphorus FRs have always been the mainstream direction in this field. Further studies will focus on the molecular mechanisms of human toxicity after FRs exposure.

12.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 442-453, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881085

ABSTRACT

Salidroside (SAL), a major bioactive compound of Rhodiola crenulata, has significant anti-hypoxia effect, however, its underlying molecular mechanism has not been elucidated. In order to explore the protective mechanism of SAL, the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and hypoxia-induced factor 1α (HIF-1α) were measured to establish the PC12 cell hypoxic model. Cell staining and cell viability analyses were performed to evaluate the protective effects of SAL. The metabolomics and bioinformatics methods were used to explore the protective effects of salidroside under hypoxia condition. The metabolite-protein interaction networks were further established and the protein expression level was examined by Western blotting. The results showed that 59 endogenous metabolites changed and the expression of the hub proteins of CK2, p-PTEN/PTEN, PI3K, p-Akt/Akt, NF-κB p65 and Bcl-2 were increased, suggesting that SAL could increase the expression of CK2, which induced the phosphorylation and inactivation of PTEN, reduced the inhibitory effect on PI3K signaling pathways and activated the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB survival signaling pathway. Our study provided an important insight to reveal the protective molecular mechanism of SAL as a novel drug candidate.

13.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 493-499, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985238

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the metabolic transformation pathways of 4F-MDMB-BUTINACA in vivo by establishing zebrafish models. Methods Six adult zebrafish were randomly divided into blank control group and experimental group, with three fish in each group. After the zebrafish in the experimental group were exposed to 1 μg/mL 4F-MDMB-BUTINACA for 24 h, they were transferred to clean water and cleaned three times, then pretreated for instrumental analysis. The zebrafish in blank control group were not exposed to 4F-MDMB-BUTINACA. Mass spectrometry and structural analysis of 4F-MDMB-BUTINACA and its metabolites were conducted by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry and Mass Frontier software. Results A total of twenty-six metabolites of 4F-MDMB-BUTINACA were identified in zebrafish, including eighteen phase Ⅰ metabolites and eight phase Ⅱ metabolites. The main metabolic pathways of phase Ⅰ metabolites of 4F-MDMB-BUTINACA in zebrafish were ester hydrolysis, N-dealkylation, oxidative defluorination and hydroxylation, while the main metabolic pathway of phase Ⅱ metabolites was glucuronidation. Conclusion Metabolite Md24 (ester hydrolysis) and Md25 (ester hydrolysis combined with dehydrogenation) would be recommended to be potentially good biomarkers for abuse of 4F-MDMB-BUTINACA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cannabinoids , Chromatography, Liquid , Illicit Drugs , Microsomes, Liver/chemistry , Zebrafish
14.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 479-485, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985236

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a detection method for common new psychoactive substances of synthetic cannabinoids in hair with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Methods In the 1 mL of internal standard methanol solution, 20 mg hair was added. After cryogenic grinding and ultrasonic extraction, the extract was separated by ACQUITY UPLC HSS T3 column (100 mm×2.1 mm, 1.8 μm). The mobile phase A was aqueous solution that composed of 20 mmol/L ammonium acetate, 0.1% formic acid, and 5% acetonitrile. The mobile phase B was acetonitrile. Electrospray ionization source in positive ion mode was used for data acquisition in multi-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Results The seven common new psychoactive substances of synthetic cannabinoids in hair had a good linear relationship within their respective linear ranges (r>0.99), the limits of detection were 0.5-2 pg/mg, the limits of quantification were 1-5 pg/mg, the intra-day and inter-day precisions were 0.1%-12.6%, the intra-day and inter-day accuracies were 89.2%-110.7%, the recovery rates were 52.3%-93.3%, and the matrix effects were 19.1%-95.2%. Conclusion The established method has a simple sample preparation process and high sensitivity. It is suitable for qualitative and quantitative analysis of common new psychoactive substances of synthetic cannabinoids in hair.


Subject(s)
Cannabinoids , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chromatography, Liquid , Hair , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
15.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 470-478, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985235

ABSTRACT

In recent years, as the third-generation of drugs, new psychoactive substances (NPS) have expanded rapidly and become a serious concern for China's anti-drug prevention and control system. As a new drug monitoring technology in the current anti-drug field, wastewater analysis is an objective, real-time, accurate, convenient and effective drug monitoring method. In recent years, it has gradually been applied to the monitoring of NPS. This study summarizes wastewater sample collection, target stability research, wastewater sample pretreatment, wastewater sample analysis methods, target NPS consumption calculations and actual monitoring applications, with a view to the construction of a monitoring system for NPS in wastewater, real-time and accurate grasp of information on the use of NPS in cities, the reflection of the actual consumption of different types of NPS and consumption trends in a short period of time, and prediction of the development trend of abused use, which is of great significance for combating NPS crimes, serving and guaranteeing the personal safety of the people, and maintaining social stability.


Subject(s)
China , Cities , Illicit Drugs/analysis , Psychotropic Drugs/analysis , Wastewater/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
16.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 459-459, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985234

ABSTRACT

Synthetic cannabinoids are currently a class of new psychoactive substances with the largest variety and most abused. Metabolite identification research can provide basic data for monitoring synthetic cannabinoids abuse, which is the current research hotspot. The main trend of structural modification of synthetic cannabinoid is to replace the fluorine atom on pentyl indole or indazole cyclopentyl with hydrogen atom, which greatly improves the biological activity of the compound. The main metabolic reactions include hydroxylation, fluoropentyl oxidative, ester hydrolyze, amide hydrolysis. Liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry has become the preferred choice for the structural identification of metabolites. This review mainly summarizes research on metabolism software prediction and human hepatocyte model, human liver microsomes model, rat in vivo model, zebrafish model and fungus C. elegans model in metabolite identification based on the structure and classification of synthetic cannabinoids.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Caenorhabditis elegans , Cannabinoids , Chromatography, Liquid , Microsomes, Liver/chemistry , Zebrafish
17.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 402-401, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985232

ABSTRACT

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a new imaging technology that can simultaneously detect and record the spatial distribution information of multiple molecules on the sample surface without labeling. The main principle of MSI is to combine mass spectrometry with imaging technology and irradiate the sample slice with ion beam or laser to ionize the molecules on its surface, obtain the mass spectrometry signal through the detector, convert the obtained data into pixel points by the imaging software, and then construct the spatial distribution image of the target compound on the tissue surface. The sample preparation for MSI include: sample collection and storage, tissue section, tissue pretreatment, selection and application of matrix. At present, this technology has been widely used in the fields of biomedicine, new drug development and proteomics, and its application in the field of forensic toxicology has also gradually attracted attention. This article reviews the principles and sample preparation process of MSI, describes the application of MSI in abused substances and metabolites of various material matrices, herbal mixtures, latent fingerprints, hair and animal and plant tissues, and discusses the prospects of the application of this technology in forensic toxicology, in order to provide ideas and references for the application of MSI technology in forensic toxicology.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Diagnostic Imaging , Forensic Toxicology , Mass Spectrometry , Plants , Proteomics , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization
18.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 248-255, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985216

ABSTRACT

Herbicides are a kind of chemical or biological agents that can effectively destroy or inhibit weed growth. Because of the widespread and frequent use of herbicides, herbicide poisonings have often been reported. At present, the main species reported to have caused poisoning are paraquat, diquat, glyphosate, and glufosinate. The main instrumental analysis method is LC-MS. This paper reviews the research progress on analysis methods of common herbicides in biological material and their application, summarizes the sample pretreatment and instrumental analysis situation of qualitative and quantitative analysis of herbicides in biological material, and collects test data of actual poisoning cases, to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment and forensic identification of herbicide poisoning.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Liquid , Herbicides , Mass Spectrometry , Paraquat
19.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 187-191, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985207

ABSTRACT

Objective To assess the feasibility of the rbcL sequence of chloroplast DNA as a genetic marker to identify Cannabis sativa L. Methods The rbcL sequences in 62 Cannabis sativa L. samples, 10 Humulus lupulus samples and 10 Humulus scandens DNA samples were detected, and 96 rbcL sequences of the Cannabaceae family were downloaded from Genbank. Sequence alignment was performed by MEGA X software, the intraspecific and interspecific Kimura-2-Parameter (K2P) genetic distances were calculated, and the system clustering tree was constructed. Results The rbcL sequence length acquired by sequencing of Cannabis sativa L. and Humulus scandens were 617 bp and 649 bp, respectively, and two haplotypes of Cannabis sativa L. were observed in the samples. The BLAST similarity search results showed that the highest similarity between the sequences acquired by sequencing and Cannabis sativa L. rbcL sequences available from Genbank was 100%. The genetic distance analysis showed that the maximum intraspecific genetic distance (0.004 9) of Cannabis sativa L. was less than the minimum interspecific genetic distance (0.012 9). The results of median-joining network and system clustering tree analysis showed that Cannabis sativa L. and other members of the Cannabaceae family were located in different branches. Conclusion The rbcL sequence could be used as a DNA barcode for identifying Cannabis sativa L., and combined with comparative analysis of the rbcL sequence and system cluster analysis could be a reliable and effective detection method for Cannabis sativa L. identification in forensic investigation.


Subject(s)
Cannabis/genetics , Genetic Markers , Sequence Analysis, DNA
20.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 646-652, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-984066

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To develop a method for the simultaneous and rapid detection of five mushroom toxins (α-amanitin, phallacidin, muscimol, muscarine and psilocin) in blood by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS).@*METHODS@#The blood samples were precipitated with acetonitrile-water solution(Vacetonitril∶Vwater=3∶1) and PAX powder, then separated on ACQUITY Premier C18 column, eluted gradient. Five kinds of mushroom toxins were monitored by FullMS-ddMS2/positive ion scanning mode, and qualitative and quantitative analysis was conducted according to the accurate mass numbers of primary and secondary fragment ions.@*RESULTS@#All the five mushroom toxins had good linearity in their linear range, with a determination coefficient (R2)≥0.99. The detection limit was 0.2-20 ng/mL. The ration limit was 0.5-50 ng/mL. The recoveries of low, medium and high additive levels were 89.6%-101.4%, the relative standard deviation was 1.7%-6.7%, the accuracy was 90.4%-101.3%, the intra-day precision was 0.6%-9.0%, the daytime precision was 1.7%-6.3%, and the matrix effect was 42.2%-129.8%.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The method is simple, rapid, high recovery rate, and could be used for rapid and accurate qualitative screening and quantitative analysis of various mushroom toxins in biological samples at the same time, so as to provide basis for the identification of mushroom poisoning events.


Subject(s)
Humans , Agaricales , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Mushroom Poisoning/diagnosis , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
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