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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 793-801, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922901

ABSTRACT

Multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) can simulate the structure and metabolic characteristics of tumors in vivo, which is of great significance to study the metabolic phenotype of tumor cells and the mechanism of drug intervention. In this study, esophageal cancer MCTS were constructed, and MCTS frozen sections were prepared after treated with different formulations of paclitaxel (PTX) including common PTX injection, PTX liposome and albumin bound PTX. MCTS mass spectrometry imaging analysis method was established by using air flow assisted desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (AFADESI-MSI). The visualization of the permeation and enrichment process of PTX in MCTs after PTX treatment was realized, and the spatially resolved metabolomics of PTX injection group was studied. The results showed that the permeation and enrichment behavior of PTX in MCTs model were related to the formulations. The changes of endogenous metabolites in MCTs of esophageal cancer after treated with PTX injection had temporal and spatial characteristics. The metabolic changes of MCTS during the initial 0-4 hours were dominated by the down-regulation of middle-high polarity metabolites and some lipids in the central region of MCTS, while the metabolic changes of MCTS during 8-72 hours were mainly up-regulated by lipid metabolites in the peripheral region of MCTS. The combination of in vivo tumor-associated MCTs model with label free, highly sensitive and high coverage mass spectrometry imaging technology provided a new method and strategy for the study of pharmacometabolomics.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922578

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical effects of interactive dynamic scalp acupuncture (IDSA), simple combination therapy (SCT), and traditional scalp acupuncture (TSA) on cognitive function, depression and anxiety in patients with post-stroke cognitive impairment.@*METHODS@#A total of 660 patients with post-stroke cognitive impairment who were admitted to 3 hospitals in Shenzhen City between May 2017 and May 2020 were recruited and randomly assigned to the IDSA (218 cases), SCT (222 cases) and TSA groups (220 cases) according to a random number table. All the patients received conventional drug therapy for cerebral stroke and exercise rehabilitation training. Scalp acupuncture and computer-based cognitive training (CBCT) were performed simultaneously in the IDSA group, but separately in the morning and in the afternoon in the SCT group. The patients in the TSA group underwent scalp acupuncture only. The course of treatment was 8 weeks. Before treatment (M0), 1 (M1) and 2 months (M2) after treatment, as well as follow-up at 1 (M3) and 2 months (M4), the cognitive function of patients was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA) Scales; depression, anxiety, sleep quality, and self-care ability of patients were assessed using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Modified Barthel Index (MBI), respectively. During this trial, all adverse events (AEs) were accurately recorded.@*RESULTS@#There were no significant differences in the MMSE, MoCA, HAMD, HAMA, PSQI, and MBI scores among the 3 groups at M0 (all P>0.05). In the IDSA group, the MMSE, MoCA and MBI scores from M2 to M4 were significantly higher than those in the SCT and TSA groups, while the HAMD, HAMA and PSQI scores were significantly reduced (all P<0.01). The changes of all above scores (M2-M0, M4-M0) were significantly superior to those in the SCT and TSA groups (all P<0.01, except M4-M0 of HAMD). At M2, the severity of MMSE, HAMD, HAMA, PSQI and MBI in the IDSA group was significantly lower than that in the SCT and TSA groups (all P<0.01). There was no serious AE during this trial.@*CONCLUSIONS@#IDSA can not only significantly improve cognitive function, but also reduce depression, anxiety, which finally improves the patient's self-care ability. The effect of IDSA was significantly better than SCT and TSA. (Trial registration No. ChiCTR1900027206).


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Anxiety/therapy , Cognition , Depression/therapy , Humans , Scalp , Stroke/therapy , Treatment Outcome
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921713

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the material basis and mechanism of Pinelliae Rhizoma Decoction in the treatment of airway inflammation. The cigarette smoke combined with lipopolysaccharide(LPS) was used to induce an airway inflammation model in mice. The expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) and the phosphorylation levels of p38 and IκB in the lungs of mice were taken as indexes to screen the effective extracts by system solvent extraction from Pinelliae Rhizoma Decoction(dichloromethane extract, ethyl acetate extract, n-butanol extract, etc.). Meanwhile, the human bronchial epithelial(16-HBE) cell model of cigarette smoke extract(CSE)-induced injury was established, and the mRNA expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 and the phosphorylation levels of p38 and IκB proteins were also taken as indexes to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of different extracts of Pinelliae Rhizoma Decoction. The results showed that Pinelliae Rhizoma Decoction significantly antagonized airway inflammation in mice by down-regulating the expression levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in mice with airway inflammation and 16-HBE cells with CSE-induced injury and inhibiting the phosphorylation levels of p38 and IκB. The dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts of Pinelliae Rhizoma Decoction showed significant anti-inflammatory effects, while such effects of other extracts were not prominent. Furthermore, the database of Pinelliae Rhizoma composition was constructed, and the components in effective extracts were analyzed by HPLC-TOF-MS and Nano-LC-MS/MS. As revealed by the results, the compositions of the two effective extracts were similar with 36 common components. They were combined and then divided into Pinelliae Rhizoma alkaloids(PTAs) and Pinelliae Rhizoma non-alkaloids(PTNAs) by 732 cation-exchange resin. Further in vitro investigation confirmed the significant anti-inflammatory effect of PTNAs, while such effect of PTAs was not manifest. The MS analysis showed 172 peptides and 7 organic acids in PTNAs. The peptide content in PTNAs was 63.5% measured by quantitative analysis of BCA assay, and the organic acid content was 9.92% by potentiometric titration method. The findings of this study suggested that Pinelliae Rhizoma Decoction could antagonize airway inflammation in mice by inhibiting phosphorylation of p38 and IκB and blocking the activation of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, and the effective components were related to the peptides and organic acids in PTNAs. The above results lay a foundation for the research on the mechanism and material basis of Pinelliae Rhizoma in antagonizing airway inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Mice , NF-kappa B/genetics , Pinellia/chemistry , Respiratory Tract Diseases/drug therapy , Rhizome , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921673

ABSTRACT

Triptolide(TP), the main active and toxic component of Tripterygium wilfordii, has the limitations of low bioavailability, poor absorption, low concentration in plasma, and small lethal dose. Microneedle(MN), the hybrid of hypodermic needle and transdermal patch, is a physical penetration-enhancing system. Dissolving microneedles(DMNs) can be tailored to specific needs of degradation rate. In this study, the TP-loaded DMNs(DMNs-TP) were prepared with the two-step centrifugation method. The optimal ratio of PVA to PVP K30, water content in matrix solution, demoulding method, and plasticizer for preparing DMNs were investigated with the indexes of formability and mechanical strength. The drug loading capacity was determined by HPLC and morphological characteristics were observed under an optical microscope. The mechanical properties were investigated by H&E staining and Franz diffusion cell was used to detect the in vitro skin permeation characteristics. Through the experiment, we confirmed that the optimal backing material should be PVA and PVP K30(3∶1) and the optimal ratio of matrix material to water should be 3∶4. The prepared DMNs-TP were pyramidal with smooth surface and length of approximately 550 μm. Each patch(2.75 cm~2) had the drug loading capacity of(153.41±2.29) μg, and TP was located in the upper part of the needle. The results of in vitro skin permeation assay demonstrated that the cumulative penetration of TP in DMNs-TP reached 80% in 24 h, while little TP solution penetrated the skin, which proved that DMNs promoted the transdermal delivery of TP.


Subject(s)
Administration, Cutaneous , Diterpenes , Drug Delivery Systems , Epoxy Compounds , Needles , Phenanthrenes , Skin
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921660

ABSTRACT

Delayed-or non-healing wounds caused by trauma, surgical procedures, acute diseases, or chronic diseases, and proli-ferating scar have a serious impact on patients' quality of life and increase the economic and psychological burden on their families. Therefore, how to accelerate wound healing and obtain satisfactory aesthetic results is of great concern to researchers and is an urgent clinical problem to be solved. In recent years, the mechanisms of Chinese medicinal materials in accelerating wound healing and inhi-biting scar formation by regulating cytokines have been clarified, which provides a scientific basis for revealing the efficacy of Chinese medicinal materials against clinical trauma. This review focuses on the therapeutic effects of active ingredients, extracts, and topical preparations of Chinese medicinal materials through regulating cytokines in the inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling phases of wound healing. It is expected to provide evidence for the application of Chinese medicinal materials in wound therapy.


Subject(s)
China , Cytokines , Humans , Inflammation , Quality of Life , Wound Healing
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-912007

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze any changes in the functional connectivity between the seed points of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the whole brain, as well as any fluctuations in the low-frequency amplitude among persons with post-stroke depression (PSD). The aim was to develop correlations among functional imaging results, clinical scales, and inflammation indicators including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 2 (IL-2), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 17a (IL-17a) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ).Methods:Between 2016 and 2020, 55 ischemic stroke survivors were tested. The 28 scoring 7 or more on the Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD-17) formed the PSD group, while the 27 others formed the control group. Functional magnetic resonance images were collected, and serum inflammation indicators were determined.Results:When seed points in the left DLPFC were used, in the PSD group the frontal cortex (FC) decreased in one cluster, with a voxel of 129mm3 and the MNI coordinates (x=9, y=30, z=33) indicating that the anatomical automatic labeling (AAL) brain regions were the Cingulum_Ant_L, Cingulum_Mid_R and the frontal_Sup_Medial_L. When the right DLPFC was used as the seed point the FC again decreased in one cluster, with voxels of 44mm 3 and the MNI coordinates (x=-27, y=12, z=47) referring to the AAL brain region of the frontal_Mid_L. In the PSD group, the FC value of abnormal brain areas with the R-DLPFC as the seed point was positively correlated with time since stroke. In the control group, the FC value of abnormal brain areas with L-DLPFC as the seed point was negatively correlated with MoCA, while with R-DLPFC as the seed point it was positively correlated with IFN-γ. The FC values of abnormal areas of the brain showed no significant correlation with other clinical scales, inflammation indicators or lesion volume. Conclusion:Abnormal functional connections within the executive control network and between the salience networks may participate in the mechanism of PSD, and may be related to the time since stroke, cognitive functioning, and IFN-γ levels.

7.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 1089-1093, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911840

ABSTRACT

Motor imagery (MI) and its related brain computer interface (BCI) technologies have been used for speech and movement disorders in patients with spinal cord injury, stroke, multiple sclerosis, etc. Current studies have shown that BCI can activate brain function in stroke patients with enhanced frequency, longer duration and more stable electroencephalogram signals. Imaging results showed a significant increase in functional connectivity between the two hemispheres and within the affected hemispheres. In this paper, MI-BCI for stroke patients with brain function activation and neural network remodeling were reviewed, the research progress on mechanisms of the technology was summarized, to provide reference for the application of the technology in clinical and future research.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911300

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the accuracy of lung ultrasound score (LUSS) in predicting emerging hypoxemia after tracheal extubation in the patients in postanesthesia care unit (PACU).Methods:A total of 333 patients of both sexes, aged 18-89 yr, of American Society of Anesthesiologist physical statusⅠ-Ⅲ, scheduled for elective abdominal surgery, were included in the study.Lung ultrasound examinations were performed before operation (T 0) and on admission to PACU (T 1), and the LUSS were recorded as LUSS 0 and LUSS 1.Arterial blood gas analysis was conducted at 20 min after tracheal extubation, and oxygenation index (PaO 2/FiO 2) were recorded.Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the oxygenation index: PaO 2/FiO 2<300 mmHg group (hypoxemia group), and PaO 2/FiO 2≥300 mmHg group (non-hypoxemia group). Multivariate logistic regression analysis and the receiver operating characteristic curve were used to evaluate the accuracy of LUSS 1 in predicting the emerging hypoxemia after extubation in the patients in PACU. Results:The incidence of emerging hypoxemia in PACU after extubation was 9.0%.Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that LUSS 1 and body mass index were independent risk factors for emerging hypoxemia after extubation in the patients in PACU.The area under the ROC curve for LUSS 1 was 0.873 ( P<0.001, 95%CI 0.812-0.935). The patients with LUSS 1<7 had a lower risk of hypoxemia after extubation (LR -=0.15, 95%CI 0.05-0.45), and the patients with LUSS 1>10 had a higher risk of hypoxemia after extubation (LR + =17.25, 95%CI 7.35-40.51). Conclusion:LUS can effectively predict the development of hypoxemia after tracheal extubation in the patients in PACU.

9.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 1015-1019, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910958

ABSTRACT

Objective:Immunologic characteristics of differed between younger and older patients.This study aimed to screen potentially key genes related to tumor-infiltrated immune cells(TIICs)in senile patients with lung adenocarcinoma(LUAD).Methods:In this retrospective study, the gene expression data for the training set were extracted from the Cancer Genome Atlas(TCGA)database, and the GSE72094 data set from Gene Expression Database was selected as the validation set.The 91 LUAD patients aged ≥75 years and 14 matched normal samples were screened for analysis.The components of tumor infiltrated immune cells(TIICs)were estimated by the deconvolution algorithm.Then a weighted gene co-expression network analysis was conducted in the training set so as to identify key genes correlating to TIICs.The GSE72094 dataset was used for validation.Results:In elderly patients with LUAD, the high expressions of IKZF1 and PRKCB were related to autoimmune diseases and T cell receptor signaling pathway.And their gene encoding proteins could interact with various immunomodulatory factors, such as IL2RB, LCK, and CD5.In the high expression group of IKZF1 and PRKCB, the expression levels of immunological checkpoint genes such as PD-L1, PD-1 and CTLA-4 were significantly higher than those of the low expression group(all P<0.01). The results of the validation set showed that CD8 + T cells were significantly correlated with the expression of IKZF1( r=0.75, P<0.01)and PRKCB( r=0.65, P<0.01). Conclusions:The expressions of IKZF1 and PRKCB in the tumor tissues are related to tumor infiltrating CD8 T cells and expression of immune checkpoint genes in elderly patients with LUAD.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910615

ABSTRACT

Objective:To evaluate the day-surgery unit-based training of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC).Methods:Perioperative data of 438 patients (187 males and 251 females) with a median age of 54 (aged 17 to 91) years undergoing LC during January 2019 to April 2021 in the day-surgery unit of Chinese PLA General Hospital were retrospectively collected and subdivided according to the training methods of surgeons [Group A( n=260): conventional training vs. Group B ( n=178): protocoled stepwise training]. The protocoled stepwise training consists of the rotation in open biliary surgery unit, the stimulator-based laparoscopic training, and the stepwise procedural tutoring. The conventional training features the traditional surgical practice following senior surgeons. The technical data involving operation time, blood loss, the percentages of intraoperative decision-making by senior surgeons and the handing-over of procedure to senior surgeons, etc. were statistically analyzed. Results:The operation time was shortened in Group B [(55±30) min vs. (61±33) min], with significantly decreased percentages of intraoperative decision-making by senior surgeons [7.9% (14/178)vs. 16.9%(44/260), P<0.05] and the handing-over of procedure to senior surgeons [3.4%(6/178) vs. 11.2%(29/260), P<0.05]. Conclusion:Based on the protocoled stepwise training and the consecutive, high-volumed and standardized procedures, the laparoscopic technical proficiency and competency of the trainee surgeons have been improved.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910488

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the efficacy and adverse events of salvage radiotherapy and other treatments for recurrent esophageal cancer after chemoradiotherapy in this Meta-analysis.Methods:Databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CNKI and Wanfang data were searched from the inception to April 2020 to collect the clinical trials which comparatively analyzed the efficacy and safety between radiotherapy and other treatments for recurrent esophageal cancer after chemoradiotherapy. Meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.1 software. RR and 95% CI were used to describe the differences among different groups. Results:According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 11 clinical trials involving 842 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that the overall survival in the salvage radiotherapy group was significantly lower than that in the salvage esophagectomy group ( RR=0.40, 95% CI: 0.27-0.61, P<0.001), whereas significantly higher than that in the chemotherapy group ( RR=2.91, 95% CI: 1.43-5.95, P=0.003). There was no significant difference in the treatment-related mortality between the salvage radiotherapy and salvage esophagectomy groups ( RR=0.53, 95% CI: 0.14-1.98, P=0.350), but the incidence was significantly higher in the salvage esophagectomy group (1.7%-11.4% vs. 1.9%-2.8%). Conclusion:Salvage radiotherapy is an effective treatment for recurrent esophageal cancer after chemoradiotherapy, which can be regarded as one choice for clinical patients.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909564

ABSTRACT

The etiology and pathological mechanism of panic disorder (PD) are still unclear, which hinders the development of clinical diagnosis and treatment. In order to clarify the pathogenesis, biological diagnostic markers, curative effect prediction of PD, and ultimately provide a basis for individualized treatment, this article reviews the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) research on PD in the past 5 years in conjunction with the hypothesis of the " fear network model" . It is found that the brain function and structural abnormalities of PD patients are not limited to the classic " fear network model" , but also a wider range of brain areas such as the cingulate gyrus, fronto-temporal cortex, insula, striatum, thalamus, sensorimotor related brain regions and cerebellum, together with classic brain regions such as the amygdala, form an expanded fear network. Among them, the amygdala, insula, medial prefrontal lobe, somato-motor network (SMN) and cerebellum are specific brain areas that differentiate PD from other anxiety disorders. The changes in the activity of the frontal lobe-limbic loop included in the fear network model can predict the treatment outcome of different methods for PD. This article improved the fear network hypothesis of PD, and more accurately identifies the biological indicators that can be used for accurate diagnosis and efficacy prediction of PD, which lays the foundation for the ultimate realization of personalized diagnosis and treatment of PD.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909017

ABSTRACT

Objective:To develop a scale to assess motivation and use of learning strategies in the course of biochemistry for medical students in the theoretical frame of Zimmerman's cognitive theory.Methods:A total of 62 items was developed in the scale based on the revised motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ), and 323 medical students from Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine were selected as subjects. The collected data were analyzed by item correlation, reliability and exploratory factor analysis.Results:Results of reliability analyses showed that Cronbach's α of the scale and two sub-scales were robust (all greater than 0.8), demonstrating good internal consistency. Results of exploratory factor analysis revealed that three factors in the motivation sub-scale were intrinsic value, self-efficacy and learning anxiety, and eight factors in the strategy sub-scale were critical thinking, organization, rehearsal, learning monitoring, learning planning, learning summarizing, time and study environment management, and peer learning.Conclusion:The reliability and validity of the scale are considered to be good, and the scale is of certain application value to understand self-regulated learning of biochemistry for medical students.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908479

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the current status of prevention and treatment of esophagogastric variceal bleeding (EVB) in cirrhotic portal hypertension patients in Ningxia region.Methods:The retrospective and descriptive study was conducted. The clinical data of 820 cirrhotic portal hypertension patients who were admitted to 21 medical centers in Niangxia region from January 2018 to December 2020 were collected, including 85 cases in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region People′s Hospital, 73 cases in the Fifth People′s Hospital of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, 59 cases in the Wuzhong People′s Hospital, 52 cases in the Qingtongxia People′s Hospital, 50 cases in the Guyuan People′s Hospital, 47 cases in the Yuanzhou District People′s Hospital of Guyuan City, 47 cases in the Yinchuan Second People′s Hospital, 40 cases in the General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, 40 cases in the Tongxin People′s Hospital, 35 cases in the Yinchuan First People′s Hospital, 34 cases in the Third People′s Hospital of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, 32 cases in the Zhongwei People′s Hospital, 30 cases in the Lingwu People′s Hospital, 30 cases in the Wuzhong New District Hospital, 30 cases in the Yanchi People′s Hospital, 29 cases in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 28 cases in the Shizuishan Second People′s Hospital, 25 cases in the Shizuishan First People′s Hospital, 21 cases in the Haiyuan People′s Hospital, 20 cases in the Pengyang People′s Hospital, 13 cases in the Longde People′s Hospital. There were 538 males and 282 females, aged (56±13)years. Observation indicators: (1) clinical charac-teristics of cirrhotic portal hypertension patients; (2) overall prevention and treatment of EVB in cirrhotic portal hypertension patients; (3) prevention and treatment of EVB in cirrhotic portal hypertension patients from different grade hospitals. Measurement data with normal distribution were represented as Mean± SD. Count data were described as absolute numbers, and comparison between groups was analyzed using the chi-square test. Results:(1) Clinical characteristics of cirrhotic portal hypertension patients: of 820 cirrhotic portal hypertension patients, 271 cases were in compensated stage and 549 cases were in decompensated stage. Of the 271 cases in compensated stage, there were 183 maels and 88 females, aged (53±12)years. There were 185 Han people, 85 Hui people and 1 case of other ethic group. The etiological data of liver cirrhosis showed 211 cases of viral hepatitis B, 4 cases of alcoholic liver disease, 8 cases of viral hepatitis C, and 48 cases of other etiology. There were 235 cases of Child-Pugh grade A and 36 cases lack of data. Of the 549 cases in decompensated stage, there were 355 males and 194 females, aged (57±14) years. There were 373 Han people, 174 Hui people and 2 cases of other ethic group. The etiological data of liver cirrhosis showed 392 cases of viral hepatitis B, 33 cases of alcoholic liver disease, 10 cases of viral hepatitis C, and 114 cases of other etiology. There were 80 cases of Child-Pugh grade A, 289 cases of grade B, 170 cases of grade C and 10 cases lack of data. (2) Overall prevention and treatment of EVB in cirrhotic portal hypertension patients: of 271 patients in compensated stage, 38 cases received non-selective β-blocker (NSBB) therapy, 16 cases received endoscopic treatment, 6 cases received interventional therapy. Of 549 patients in decompensated stage, 68 cases received NSBB therapy, 46 cases received endoscopic treatment, 28 cases received interventional therapy. (3) Prevention and treatment of EVB in cirrhotic portal hypertension patients from different grade hospitals: of 271 patients in compensated stage, 181 cases came from tertiary hospitals, of which 28 cases received NSBB therapy, 15 cases received endoscopic treatment, 6 cases received interventional therapy. Ninety cases came from secondary hospitals, of which 10 cases received NSBB therapy, 1 cases received endoscopic treatment. There was no significant difference in NSBB for prevention of EVB between tertiary and secondary hospitals ( χ2=0.947, P>0.05), while there was a significant difference in endoscopic treatment for prevention of EVB between tertiary and secondary hospitals ( χ2=5.572, P<0.05). Of 549 patients in decompensated stage, 309 cases came from tertiary hospitals, of which 22 cases received NSBB therapy, 29 cases received endoscopic treatment, 22 cases received interventional therapy. Two hundreds and fourty cases came from secondary hospitals, of which 46 cases received NSBB therapy, 17 cases received endoscopic treatment, 6 cases received interven-tional therapy. There were significant differences in NSBB and interventional therapy for prevention of EVB between tertiary and secondary hospitals ( χ2=18.065, 5.956, P<0.05). Conclusions:The proportion of receiving EUB prevention in cirrhotic portal hypertension in Ningxia is relatively low. For patients with compensated liver cirrhosis, the proportion of NSBB therapy and endoscopic treatment in the secondary hospitals was lower than that in tertiary hospitals. For patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis, the proportion of interventional treatment in secondary hospitals is lower than that of tertiary hospitals, but the proportion of NSBB in secondary hospitals taking is higher than that of tertiary hospitals.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907339

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the correlation between collateral circulation and infarct pattern and outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients with anterior circulation intracranial atherosclerosis.Methods:Acute ischemic stroke patients with anterior circulation intracranial atherosclerotic severe stenosis or occlusion admitted to the Department of Neurology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical College from September 2018 to March 2020 were included prospectively. According to diffusion-weighted imaging, the infarct patterns were divided into perforator pattern, territorial pattern, watershed pattern, and mixed pattern. At 90 d after onset, the modified Rankin Scale was used to evaluate the outcome. 0-2 was defined as good outcome, and >2 was defined as poor outcome. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the independent influencing factors of clinical outcome. Results:A total of 89 patients were enrolled, 50 (56.2%) had good collateral circulation and 39 (43.8%) had poor collateral circulation. The distribution patterns of infarct: 22 patients (24.7%) were perforator pattern, 26 (29.2%) were territorial pattern, 17 (19.1%) were watershed pattern, and 24 (30.0%) were mixed pattern. The proportion of patients with good collateral circulation was 81.8%, 65.4%, 29.4% and 41.7%, respectively in the perforator pattern group, territorial pattern group, watershed pattern group, and mixed pattern group. Good collateral circulation was more common in the perforator pattern group, and poor collateral circulation was more common in the watershed pattern group. At 90 d after onset, 53 patients (59.6%) had a good outcome and 36 (40.4%) had a poor outcome. The baseline homocysteine level in the good outcome group was significantly lower than that in the poor outcome group (17.91±4.62 μmol/L vs. 20.35±4.67 μmol/L; t=2.436, P=0.017), and the proportion of patients with good collateral circulation was significantly higher than that of patients with poor outcome (73.6% vs. 30.6%; χ2=16.124, P<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that higher homocysteine level was an independent risk factor for poor outcome (odds ratio 1.174, 95% confidence interval 1.061-1.298; P=0.002) and good collateral circulation was an independent protective factor for good outcome (odds ratio 0.095, 95% confidence interval 0.038-0.239; P<0.001). Conclusions:Good collateral circulation was more common in patients with perforator pattern, and poor collateral circulation was more common in patients with watershed pattern. Good collateral circulation was independently associated with the good clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients with anterior circulation intracranial atherosclerosis.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907132

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo understand the satisfaction and comfort level of the rail transit passengers regarding hygienic environment of one city, and provide a basis of hygienic management and suggestions for rail transit operations. MethodsPassengers who have lived in the city for the past 6 months and used rail transit as their main transportation tool were selected to conduct a questionnaire survey to collect basic information, satisfaction with environmental cleanliness, perception of crowdedness, air quality and noise, etc. The Chi-square, Pearson contingency coefficient and linear trend test of orderly grouped data were used for statistical analysis. ResultsA total of 820 valid questionnaires were collected, with a total effective rate of 94.0%. Passengers' overall satisfaction with the environmental cleanliness of each link of rail transit was between basic and relatively better satisfaction, with an average of 3.52. Passengers with different one-way trip times had different satisfaction with the cleanliness of each link (P<0.05). Passengers generally thought that the rail transit was crowded and the carriages were more crowded than the station. The level of feeling congestion was correlated with the age and gender of passengers (P<0.05). Passengers thought that the air quality of the rail transit was inferior in carriages during the evening rush hour, and experienced different symptoms such as drowsiness, dizziness, and headache. Passengers perceived that the rail transit was noisy, and much noisier in the carriages. ConclusionPassengers are basically satisfied with the hygienic environment of rail transit. It is necessary to focus on strengthening the hygiene and cleanliness of toilets and X-ray luggage inspection systems in the future rail transit hygienic design and management. Passengers are uncomfortable with the air quality, congestion and noise in the rail transit environment. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the management and control of the centralized air conditioning and ventilation systems, enhance fresh air volume, reduce ambient noise, and focus on controlling the hygiene environment in the carriages in order to improve the comfort and satisfaction of passengers in the rail transit environment.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907109

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo understand the satisfaction and comfort level of the rail transit passengers regarding hygienic environment of one city, and provide a basis of hygienic management and suggestions for rail transit operations. MethodsPassengers who have lived in the city for the past 6 months and used rail transit as their main transportation tool were selected to conduct a questionnaire survey to collect basic information, satisfaction with environmental cleanliness, perception of crowdedness, air quality and noise, etc. The Chi-square, Pearson contingency coefficient and linear trend test of orderly grouped data were used for statistical analysis. ResultsA total of 820 valid questionnaires were collected, with a total effective rate of 94.0%. Passengers' overall satisfaction with the environmental cleanliness of each link of rail transit was between basic and relatively better satisfaction, with an average of 3.52. Passengers with different one-way trip times had different satisfaction with the cleanliness of each link (P<0.05). Passengers generally thought that the rail transit was crowded and the carriages were more crowded than the station. The level of feeling congestion was correlated with the age and gender of passengers (P<0.05). Passengers thought that the air quality of the rail transit was inferior in carriages during the evening rush hour, and experienced different symptoms such as drowsiness, dizziness, and headache. Passengers perceived that the rail transit was noisy, and much noisier in the carriages. ConclusionPassengers are basically satisfied with the hygienic environment of rail transit. It is necessary to focus on strengthening the hygiene and cleanliness of toilets and X-ray luggage inspection systems in the future rail transit hygienic design and management. Passengers are uncomfortable with the air quality, congestion and noise in the rail transit environment. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the management and control of the centralized air conditioning and ventilation systems, enhance fresh air volume, reduce ambient noise, and focus on controlling the hygiene environment in the carriages in order to improve the comfort and satisfaction of passengers in the rail transit environment.

18.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3203-3211, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906826

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine has a long history, unique system and perfect technology, which has been used to prevent or treat a variety of diseases in the form of compound medicine. Recently, some of the active ingredients from Chinese medicine were found to have self-assembly properties, mainly through non-covalent interactions, including π-π stacking, electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bond and coordination interactions, etc. Carrier-free nanoparticles based on self-assembly of active ingredients from Chinese medicine could not only improve the solubility of insoluble active ingredients, but also the bioavailability. As nanocarriers, the natural active ingredients could exert synergistic therapeutic effects. The strategy of self-assembly without carrier is safer and almost non-toxic compared to the commonly used nanocarriers. In addition, some ingredients from Chinese medicine could coordinate with metal ions to form stable nanoparticles, which could be applied to photothermal therapy. In this paper, we summarized and analyzed the recent achievements of carrier-free nanoparticles based on self-assembly of active ingredients from Chinese medicine, and briefly outlined the future development of this kind of nanomedicine.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906391

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the effect of total flavonoids from Epimedii Folium (TEF) on the angiogenesis of ischemic myocardium in rats after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and discuss its molecular biological mechanism of attenuating myocardial ischemia and improving cardiac function. Method:AMI in rats was induced through the ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery. All male SD rats were randomized into sham-operated group, model group, diltiazem group (10 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup>), and TEF low-dose and high-dose groups (100 and 200 mg·kg<sup>-1</sup>·d<sup>-1</sup>), with 8 rats in each group. After modeling, rats in the diltiazem group and TEF groups were given corresponding doses of diltiazem and TEF, respectively, and those in the model group and sham-operated group received normal saline of equivalent volume, once a day for 7 days. After the administration, VisualSonics Vevo2100 imaging system was used to detect the cardiac structure and function and hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining to observe the histomorphological changes in myocardial ischemic area. Immunohistochemistry was employed to analyze the expression of CD31 and <italic>α</italic>-smooth muscle actin (<italic>α</italic>-SMA) in ischemic myocardium and Western blot to detect the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-receptor 2 (VEGF-R2) and phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) in ischemic myocardium. Real-time PCR was applied to quantify the mRNA levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Result:Compared with the sham-operated group, the model group demonstrated significant increase in left ventricular systolic diameter (LVIDs), left ventricular internal diameter at end-diastole (LVIDd), left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVEVs), and left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEVd), significant decrease in End-systolic thickness of left ventricular anterior wall (LVAWs), end-diastolic thickness of left ventricle anterior wall (LVAWd), end systolic thickness of left ventricular posterior wall (LVPWs), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), and cardiac output (CO), obvious pathological changes in the ischemic myocardium, and plummet of the expression of CD31 and <italic>α</italic>-SMA (<italic>P</italic><0.01), Akt phosphorylation level, protein level of VEGF-R2, and mRNA levels of VEGF and bFGF (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). High-dose TEF significantly alleviated the pathological changes of ischemic myocardium as compared with the model group. Moreover, TEF high-dose group showed significantly lower levels of LVIDs, LVIDd, LVEVs, and LVEVd, significantly higher levels of LVAWs, LVAWd, LVPWs, SV, EF, FS, and CO, higher expression of CD31 and <italic>α</italic>-SMA (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), and higher levels of VEGF-R2 protein, phosphorylated Akt, and VEGF and bFGF mRNA than the model group (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). Conclusion:TEF can effectively improve myocardial perfusion in peri-myocardial infarction area and attenuate ventricular remodeling and heart failure after AMI by up-regulating the expression of bFGF, VEGF, and VEGF-R2 in ischemic myocardium following AMI and activating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3K)/Akt/VEGF signaling transduction pathway which can promote angiogenesis in ischemic myocardium.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906327

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the inhibitory effect and mechanism of Jingulian extract (JGL) on inflammation. Method:The following groups were set up in this study: a control group (10% fetal bovine serum), a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model group (0.5 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>), and JGL groups (10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 120, 160, 200, 250, 300 mg·L<sup>-1</sup> + 0.5 mg·L<sup>-1 </sup>LPS). The RAW264.7 cells were cultured for 24 hours. Cell proliferation was detected by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Nitric oxide (NO) release was detected by Griess assay. The release of cytokines interleukin (IL)-1<italic>β</italic>, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-<italic>α</italic> was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and intraprostaglandin peroxidase synthase 2 (PTGS2)/cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was measured by real-time fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time PCR) and the activation of key proteins in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway by Western blot. Result:Compared with the control group, LPS (0.5 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>)could promote the proliferation of RAW264.7 cells after stimulation for 24 hours (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, JGL had no significant effect on cell proliferation. Compared with the control group, LPS (0.5 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>)increased the release of NO, IL-1<italic>β</italic>, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-<italic>α</italic> (<italic>P</italic><0.01). Compared with the model group, JGL (20-300 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>)inhibited the release of NO in a dose-dependent manner after stimulation for 24 hours (<italic>P</italic><0.05) and reduced IL-1<italic>β</italic>, IL-6, and IL-10 (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), but no obvious inhibition on the release of TNF-<italic>α</italic> was observed. LPS (0.5 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>) could induce the expression of iNOS and PTGS2/COX-2 genes as compared with the control group (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). JGL could down-regulate the mRNA expression of iNOS and PTGS2/COX-2 genes as compared with the model group (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01). LPS (0.5 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>) could activate the PI3K/Akt pathway (<italic>P</italic><0.01) as compared with the control group, while JGL (10, 20, 40, and 80 mg·L<sup>-1</sup>) decreased the expression of PI3K-p110, p-p85, and p-Akt (<italic>P</italic><0.01), and inhibited the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway. Conclusion:JGL extract could significantly inhibit the inflammatory response and activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells. The anti-inflammatory effect was related to the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway.

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