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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 353-363, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929299

ABSTRACT

Nucleic acid drugs are highly applicable for cancer immunotherapy with promising therapeutic effects, while targeting delivery of these drugs to disease lesions remains challenging. Cationic polymeric nanoparticles have paved the way for efficient delivery of nucleic acid drugs, and achieved stimuli-responsive disassembly in tumor microenvironment (TME). However, TME is highly heterogeneous between individuals, and most nanocarriers lack active-control over the release of loaded nucleic acid drugs, which will definitely reduce the therapeutic efficacy. Herein, we have developed a light-controllable charge-reversal nanoparticle (LCCN) with controlled release of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [Poly(I:C)] to treat triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) by enhanced photodynamic immunotherapy. The nanoparticles keep suitably positive charge for stable loading of Poly(I:C), while rapidly reverse to negative charge after near-infrared light irradiation to release Poly(I:C). LCCN-Poly(I:C) nanoparticles trigger effective phototoxicity and immunogenic cell death on 4T1 tumor cells, elevate antitumor immune responses and inhibit the growth of primary and abscopal 4T1 tumors in mice. The approach provides a promising strategy for controlled release of various nucleic acid-based immune modulators, which may enhance the efficacy of photodynamic immunotherapy against TNBC.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929024

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) has recently been investigated as a new inflammatory marker in many inflammatory diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and immunoglobulin A vasculitis. However, there were very few reports regarding the clinical role of PLR in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis. This study was thus undertaken to investigate the relationship between inflammatory response and disease activity in Chinese patients with myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) associated vasculitis. Furthermore, we evaluated whether PLR predicts the progression of end stage of renal disease (ESRD) and all-cause mortality.@*METHODS@#The clinical, laboratory and pathological data, and the outcomes of MPO-ANCA associated vasculitis patients were collected. The Spearman correlation coefficient was computed to examine the association between 2 continuous variables. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the association between PLR and ESRD or all-cause mortality.@*RESULTS@#A total of 190 consecutive patients with MPO-ANCA associated vasculitis were included in this study. Baseline PLR was positively correlated with CRP (r=0.333, P<0.001) and ESR (r=0.218, P=0.003). PLR had no obvious correlation with Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS). Patients having PLR≥330 exhibited better cumulative renal survival rates than those having PLR<330 (P=0.017). However, there was no significant difference in the cumulative patient survival rates between patients with PLR≥330 and those with PLR<330 at diagnosis (P>0.05). In multivariate analysis, PLR is associated with the decreased risk of ESRD (P=0.038, HR=0.518, 95% CI 0.278 to 0.963). We did not find an association between PLR with all-cause mortality using multivariate analysis (HR=1.081, 95% CI 0.591 to 1.976, P=0.801).@*CONCLUSIONS@#PLR is positively correlated with CRP and ESR. Furthermore, PLR may independently predict the risk of ESRD.


Subject(s)
Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/diagnosis , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic/analysis , China/epidemiology , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Lymphocytes , Peroxidase , Retrospective Studies
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-940460

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of exogenous Fusarium oxysporum and Trichoderma viride on the diversity of soil fungal community and carbon metabolic function of cultivated Panax ginseng. MethodIllumina HiSeq 2500 high-throughput sequencing combined with Biolog-ECO was used to analyze the species diversity and functional diversity of soil fungal communities in P. ginseng soil under different exogenous treatments. ResultThe results of high-throughput sequencing showed that the number and species of microorganisms in the soil were significantly changed after exogenous microorganisms were added. The soil fungi with relative abundance greater than 1% included Mortierella sp.,Fusarium sp.,Humicola sp.,and Simplicillium sp. Mortierella sp. in each treatment group significantly increased. Humicola sp. and Simplicillium sp. could be induced to increase by exogenous addition of F. oxysporum,while T. viride at a high concentration could significantly inhibit the growth of F. oxysporum. As revealed by Biolog and principal component analysis (PCA),the average well color development (AWCD) in the high-dose T. viride group (MG) was significantly higher than that in the control group (QS)and the low-dose F. oxysporum group(LD). The utilization abilities for amino acids,carboxylic acids,polymers, and amines were enhanced in the MG group,but the microbial metabolic activity was reduced in the high-dose F. oxysporum group (LG). There was no significant increase in the utilization of phenolic acids by soil microorganisms in both groups. ConclusionExogenous addition of F. oxysporum can lead to the growth and reproduction of other pathogenic fungi. Exogenous addition of T. viride can enhance the soil fungal community structure and metabolic diversity,inhibit the proliferation of F. oxysporum,and improve the soil microbial environment of cultivated P. ginseng.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939651

ABSTRACT

A boy, aged 11 years, was admitted due to intermittent fever for 15 days, cough for 10 days, and "hemoptysis" for 7 days. The boy had fever and cough with left neck pain 15 days ago, and antibiotic treatment was effective. During the course of disease, the boy developed massive "hemoptysis" which caused shock. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed a left pyriform sinus fistula with continuous bleeding. In combination with neck and vascular imaging examination results, the boy was diagnosed with internal jugular vein injury and thrombosis due to congenital pyriform sinus fistula infection and neck abscess. The boy was improved after treatment with temperature-controlled radiofrequency ablation for the closure of pyriform sinus fistula, and no recurrence was observed during the follow-up for one year and six months. No reports of massive hemorrhage and shock due to pyriform sinus fistula infection were found in the searched literature, and this article summarizes the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of this boy, so as to provide a reference for the early diagnosis of such disease and the prevention and treatment of its complications.


Subject(s)
Abscess/surgery , Cough , Fever/complications , Fistula/surgery , Hemoptysis/complications , Humans , Male , Neck , Shock
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939505

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To compare the clinical efficacy between Wei's triple nine needling combined with esculin and digitalis glycosides eye drops and esculin and digitalis glycosides eye drops alone for presbyopia complicated with visual fatigue of liver depression and spleen deficiency.@*METHODS@#Forty-six cases (92 eyes) with presbyopia complicated with visual fatigue of liver depression and spleen deficiency were randomly divided into an observation group (23 cases) and a control group (23 cases, 2 cases dropped off). The cases in the observation group were treated with Wei's triple nine needling and esculin and digitalis glycosides eye drops. The acupoints included Shangming (Extra), Chengqi (ST 1), Cuanzhu (BL 2) to Jingming (BL 1), Sizhukong (TE 23) to Taiyang (EX-HN 5), etc; the needling was given once every other day, three times a week, and the eye drops were given one drop each time, three times a day. The cases in the control group were only treated with the eye drops. Both groups were treated for 7 days as one course of treatment, and 2 courses of treatment were given. The visual fatigue core symptoms score, adjustment amplitude, adjustment lag and best average corrected visual acuity were observed in the two groups before treatment, 1 week and 2 weeks into treatment, respectively.@*RESULTS@#Compared before treatment, the visual fatigue core symptoms scores in the two groups were decreased after 1-week and 2-week treatment (P<0.05); in the observation group, the adjustment amplitude was increased after 2-week treatment (P<0.05), while in the control group, the adjustment amplitude was increased after 1-week and 2-week treatment (P<0.05); in the observation group, the adjustment lag was decreased after 1-week and 2-week treatment (P<0.05). After 2-week treatment, the visual fatigue core symptoms score in the observation group was lower than that in the control group, and the adjustment amplitude was higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in adjustment lag and best average corrected visual acuity between the two groups after 1-week and 2-week treatment (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Wei's triple nine needling combined with esculin and digitalis glycosides eye drops could improve the visual fatigue and eye regulation ability in patients with presbyopia complicated with visual fatigue of liver depression and spleen deficiency, and the effect is better than esculin and digitalis glycosides eye drops alone.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Asthenopia , Depression , Digitalis Glycosides , Esculin , Humans , Liver , Ophthalmic Solutions , Presbyopia , Spleen , Treatment Outcome
6.
Chinese Journal of Oncology ; (12): 185-191, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935200

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the efficacy of sinonasal adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) with perineural invasion (PNI), and explore the prognostic value of PNI on sinonasal adenoid cystic carcinoma. Methods: The clinical data of 105 patients with sinonasal ACC admitted to Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from January 2000 to December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were restaged according to American Joint Committee on Cancer 8th edition. Follow-up visits were conducted to obtain information of treatment failure and survival outcome. The Log rank test was used for univariate analysis of prognostic factors, and Cox regression model was used for multivariate prognostic analysis. Results: The maxillary sinus (n=59) was the most common primary site, followed by the nasal cavity (n=38). There were 93 patients with stage Ⅲ-Ⅳ. The treatment modalities included surgery alone (n=14), radiotherapy alone (n=13), preoperative radiotherapy plus surgery (n=10), and surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy (n=68). The median follow-up time was 91.8 months, the 5-year local control (LC), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) rates were 72.6%, 73.0%, 52.9% and 78.0%, respectively. There were 33 patients (31.4%) with PNI-positive. The 5-year DMFS, PFS, and OS rates of PNI-positive group were 53.7%, 29.4% and 56.5%, respectively, which were significantly inferior to those of PNI-negative group (80.8%, 63.0% and 86.8%, respectively, P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in the 5-year LC rate between both groups (64.5% vs 76.5%, P=0.273). The multivariate Cox regression analysis showed PNI was one of the poor prognostic factors of DMFS (HR=3.514, 95%CI: 1.557-7.932), PFS (HR=2.562, 95%CI: 1.349-4.866) and OS (HR=2.605, 95%CI: 1.169-5.806). Among patients with PNI-positive, the 5-year LC, PFS and OS rates of patients received surgery combined with radiotherapy were 84.9%, 41.3% and 72.7%, respectively, which were significantly higher than 23.3%, 10.0% and 26.7% of patients receiving surgery or radiotherapy alone (P<0.05). Conclusion: The presence of PNI increases the risk of distant metastasis in patients with sinonasal ACC. Compared with patients with PNI-negative, the prognosis of patients with PNI-positive is relatively poor, and surgery combined with radiotherapy for PNI-positive sinonasal ACC results in good clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic/pathology , Humans , Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms/therapy , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-930189

ABSTRACT

Objective: Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) has recently been investigated as a new inflammatory marker in many inflammatory diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and immunoglobulin A vasculitis. However, there were very few reports regarding the clinical role of PLR in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis. This study was thus undertaken to investigate the relationship between inflammatory response and disease activity in Chinese patients with myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA) associated vasculitis. Furthermore, we evaluated whether PLR predicts the progression of end stage of renal disease (ESRD) and all-cause mortality.Methods:The clinical, laboratory and pathological data, and the outcomes of MPO-ANCA associated vasculitis patients were collected. The Spearman correlation coefficient was computed to examine the association between 2 continuous variables. Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the association between PLR and ESRD or all-cause mortality. Results:A total of 190 consecutive patients with MPO-ANCA associated vasculitis were included in this study. Baseline PLR was positively correlated with CRP (r=0.333, P<0.001) and ESR (r=0.218, P=0.003). PLR had no obvious correlation with Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS). Patients having PLR≥330 exhibited better cumulative renal survival rates than those having PLR<330 (P=0.017). However, there was no significant difference in the cumulative patient survival rates between patients with PLR≥330 and those with PLR<330 at diagnosis (P>0.05). In multivariate analysis, PLR is associated with the decreased risk of ESRD (P=0.038, HR=0.518, 95%CI 0.278 to 0.963). We did not find an association between PLR with all-cause mortality using multivariate analysis (HR=1.081, 95%CI 0.591 to 1.976, P=0.801).Conclusion: PLR is positively correlated with CRP and ESR. Furthermore, PLR may independently predict the risk of ESRD.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920798

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) test, and determine its predictive ability for the eye irritation evaluation of cosmetics. Methods A total of ten reference chemicals were selected to establish the BCOP test. Then eye irritation of 16 routinely collected cosmetics in our laboratory was predicted. In vitro scores were calculated by the change in the opacity and sodium fluorescein permeability after exposure to the testing cosmetics, and subsequently compared with the historical data by Draize test. Results Reference chemicals with known irritation classification were correctly classified by the BCOP test, which was consistent with the classification of UN globally harmonized system of classification and labeling of chemicals. Moreover, the specificity of the BCOP test for the classification of non-irritating cosmetics samples was 80.0% (8/10), and the sensitivity for weak to mild irritating cosmetics samples was 83.3% (5/6). The BCOP test demonstrated an overall classification consistency of 81.3% (13/16) with in vivo test. Conclusion BCOP test may be independently used to identify chemicals with potential eye irritation and serious eye damage, suggesting it is significant for in vitro integrated test strategy for predicting eye irritation due to cosmetics.

9.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 287-290, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928810

ABSTRACT

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have become an important means of cancer treatment, and their application in the clinic is becoming more and more widespread. The adverse reactions caused by ICIs are gradually recognized. Among them, immunotherapy-related diabetes is a rare adverse reaction and type 1 diabetes mellitusis common. With the wide application of ICIs combined with chemotherapy in lung cancer patients, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have gradually been discovered during the treatment. However, the effect of continued use of ICIs maintenance therapy on blood glucose and ICIs treatment process in these patients is still unclear. This article reports two cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus induced by immune checkpoint inhibitor combined with chemotherapy, one of whom converted to type 1 diabetes mellitus, in order to increase the understanding of immunotherapy-related diabetes.
.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Molecular Targeted Therapy
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879019

ABSTRACT

Triterpenoids are one of the most active constituents in Ligustri Lucidi Fructus, but only oleanolic acid has been mostly studied. In recent years, a growing number of studies have shown that other triterpenes from Ligustri Lucidi Fructus also have various biological activities, so it is necessary to build up a detailed profile of the triterpenoids in Ligustri Lucidi Fructus. The chromatographic separation was performed on a C_(18) column(4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with mobile phase of methanol-acetonitrile-0.2% formic acid for gradient elution. The detection wavelength was set at 210 nm, with a flow rate of 0.5 mL·min~(-1), and the column temperature of 25 ℃. The HPLC fingerprint of triterpenoids in Ligustri Lucidi Fructus was built by testing 21 batches of samples from different sources. The structures of the total 15 common chromatographic peaks were elucidated with UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS/MS technique and six of them were identified as tormentic acid, pomolic acid, maslinic acid, botulin, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid by comparison to the reference substances. Under the same chromatographic condition, four main triterpenes(podocarboxylic acid, hawthorn acid, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid) were quantified and the results of system adaptability and methodology investigation all met the requirements of content determination. Meanwhile, with oleanolic acid(A) as the internal reference substance, quantitative analysis of multi-components by single marker(QAMS) method was used to analyze the above four components. The relative correction factor of oleanolic acid(B), hawthorn acid(C) and ursolic acid(D) to oleanolic acid was f_(B/A)=1.12, f_(C/A)=1.02 and f_(D/A)=0.88, respectively, and the relative retention values of these three to oleanolic acid was RRV_(B/A)=0.46, RRV_(C/A)=0.70 and RRV_(D/A)=1.03, respectively. The contents determined by two methods were similar. In conclusion, the method built in this paper is proved to be simple, reliable and specific for the simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of the triterpenoids in Ligustri Lucidi Fructus, which can lay foundation for further assays of the triterpenoids in Ligustri Lucidi Fructus and the relative products.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fruit , Ligustrum , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Triterpenes
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-908218

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the application of blunt needle buttonhole puncture for arteriovenous fistula in maintenance hemodialysis patients and its effect on complications.Methods:Thirty patients with maintenance hemodialysis using blunt needle buttonhole puncture for arteriovenous fistula in the hemodialysis center of Dalian Central Hospital from September 1, 2017 to September 1,2018 were included as blunt needle group. Thirty patients with common sharp needle rope ladder puncture were matched 1∶1 according to age, gender, primary disease and dialysis age as sharp needle group. They were followed up until August 31, 2019. The incidence of pain, compression hemostasis time, infection and internal fistula occlusion after puncture were compared between the two groups, and the methods and techniques of blunt needle puncture were summarized.Results:In blunt needle group, the puncture pain score was 0 in 3 cases, 1-3 in 25 cases, 4-6 in 2 cases and 7-10 in 0 case. In sharp needle group, the puncture pain score was 0 in 0 case, 1-3 in 10 cases, 4-6 in 20 cases and 7-10 in 0 case. The puncture pain in blunt needle group was significantly lower than that in sharp needle group. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant ( χ2 value was 24.156, P<0.01). The compression hemostasis time was less than 10 min in blunt needle group and more than 10 min in sharp needle group. There were 0 case of internal fistula hemangioma in blunt needle group and 21 cases in sharp needle group. The incidence of internal fistula hemangioma in blunt needle group was significantly lower than that in sharp needle group. There were 2 cases of redness at the puncture needle eye in blunt needle group and 1 case in sharp needle group. During the follow-up period, no other serious complications such as internal fistula occlusion occurred in both groups. Conclusions:Blunt needle buttonhole puncture can effectively reduce the incidence of puncture complications, reduce the degree of puncture pain in patients, shorten the compression time from the machine, the treatment is safe, worthy of clinical promotion.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907948

ABSTRACT

Objective:To summary the problems that may be encountered in the diagnosis of Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion associated renal cell carcinomas (Xp11 RCC) and to improve the understanding and diagnostic level.Methods:The clinical and pathological data of 5 children with Xp11 RCC pathologically diagnosed in Children′s Hospital of Capital Institute of Pediatrics from January 2015 to December 2019 were collected for retrospective analysis.Results:The 5 cases included 2 males and 3 females with the age of 4-8 years old.All cases presented with abdominal mass.Four cases received radical nephrectomy and radical tumor resection, and 1 case received simple tumor resection after related examination.Routine HE staining, immunohistochemical staining and fluorescence in situ hybridi-zation (FISH) were performed after surgery.The histological morphology of tumor was varied, and the tumor cells were arranged in nest flake, acinar or papillary pattern, with abundant cytoplasm form completely transparent to eosinophilic staining (pink), and gravel-like calcification was visible.Micropapillary arranged tumor cells appeared in 1 case besides classic pattern; in another case, the tumor cells were highly eosinophilic with abundant cytoplasm and visible round or elliptic eosinophilic bodies.The tumor cells in 5 cases showed diffuse and strong expression of TFE3, and FISH assay showed abnormal separation signal.Conclusions:Xp11 RCC is a relatively rare renal malignant tumor with diverse histological morphology, which should be distinguished from other common renal tumors in children.Its immunohistochemical expression and molecular detection are of specificity, and it should be diagnosed based on clinical incidence.

13.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3518-3525, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906829

ABSTRACT

A quantitative analysis method for ten principal components (phenylethanol, iridoids and triterpenes) of raw Ligustri Lucidi Fructus and its wine-steamed product was developed using liquid chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QQQ-MS) to study their pharmacokinetic behavior in vivo. The results of methodological investigation were in accord with the criteria of biological analysis. After a single administration to rats of the water extracts of Ligustri Lucidi Fructus and its wine-steamed product, the plasma concentration of each component at different time points was measured and the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. The AUC0-24 h and Cmax of the phenylethanol components (salidroside, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol) were the greatest, suggesting that these components are the main pharmacological substances of Ligustri Lucidi Fructus. In addition, the tmax values of the eight major components were even lower with administration of the wine-steamed product, suggesting that these components are rapidly absorbed. However, the tmax values of specnuezhenide and oleanolic acid were greater with administration of the wine-steamed product, indicating that these two components were more slowly absorbed. A secondary peak phenomenon of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol were observed in two sample groups, whereas the secondary peak phenomenon of salidroside occurred only with the wine-steamed product. This result suggests that the effect of wine-steamed product could persist for a long period. Meanwhile, the relative bioavailability of specnuezhenide and oleanolic acid was greater than 100% with administration of the wine-steamed product, consistent with the Traditional Chinese Medicine theory of the wine-steamed product being more effective than the raw material. The results reveal the different pharmacokinetic parameters and relative bioavailability of each component of Ligustri Lucidi Fructus and its wine-steamed product, and also demonstrate the variation and correlation of various components in vivo and in vitro, providing an experimental basis for the selection of quality control indexes, mechanisms of processing and the metabolic rule in vivo of Ligustri Lucidi Fructus. These experiments were approved by the Ethics Committee of Institute of Basic Theory for Chinese Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medicine Science.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906256

ABSTRACT

Qingjin Huatanpang, first contained in Yixue Tongzhi, was composed of eleven medicinal materials of Scutellariae Radix, Gardeniae Fructus, Fritillariae Thunbergii Bulbus, Mori Cortex, Trichosanthis Semen Tostum, Citri Exocarpium Rubrum, Platycodonis Radix, Ophiopogonis Radix (core removed), Anemarrhenae Rhizoma, Poria and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. It is a classic prescription created by YE Wen-ling in Ming dynasty for treating pulmonary disease with phlegm-heat obstructing lung syndrome. With the significant functions of clearing heat and moistening lung, reducing phlegm and relieving cough, it has been included in the "Classic Catalogue of Ancient Classics (First Batch)". Modern pharmacological studies have shown that Qingjin Huatantang has multiple activities such as relieving cough and eliminating phlegm, anti-inflammatory, bronchodilation, and immunoregulatory, and now it is commonly used for treating infectious lung diseases, such as acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, community acquire pneumonia, bronchiectasis, acute and chronic bronchitis in a form of its modified prescription or its combined use with western medicine, consistent with the clinical application in ancient times. According to the literatures on the study of Qingjin Huatantang published in recent years, this paper summed up the historical evolution, compatibility analysis, chemistry constituents, quality control, advances in pharmacology research, and clinical uses, which can provide theoretical and experimental data reference for further research and development, and proposed to establish a biological activity assay for quality control based on the pharmacological effect such as immunoregulatory activity, which can improve its quality control method and provide a reference for other famous classical formulas.

15.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 935-943, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878142

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Since 2019, a novel coronavirus named 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has emerged worldwide. Apart from fever and respiratory complications, acute kidney injury has been observed in a few patients with coronavirus disease 2019. Furthermore, according to recent findings, the virus has been detected in urine. Angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) has been proposed to serve as the receptor for the entry of 2019-nCoV, which is the same as that for the severe acute respiratory syndrome. This study aimed to investigate the possible cause of kidney damage and the potential route of 2019-nCoV infection in the urinary system.@*METHODS@#We used both published kidney and bladder cell atlas data and new independent kidney single-cell RNA sequencing data generated in-house to evaluate ACE2 gene expression in all cell types in healthy kidneys and bladders. The Pearson correlation coefficients between ACE2 and all other genes were first generated. Then, genes with r values larger than 0.1 and P values smaller than 0.01 were deemed significant co-expression genes with ACE2.@*RESULTS@#Our results showed the enriched expression of ACE2 in all subtypes of proximal tubule (PT) cells of the kidney. ACE2 expression was found in 5.12%, 5.80%, and 14.38% of the proximal convoluted tubule cells, PT cells, and proximal straight tubule cells, respectively, in three published kidney cell atlas datasets. In addition, ACE2 expression was also confirmed in 12.05%, 6.80%, and 10.20% of cells of the proximal convoluted tubule, PT, and proximal straight tubule, respectively, in our own two healthy kidney samples. For the analysis of public data from three bladder samples, ACE2 expression was low but detectable in bladder epithelial cells. Only 0.25% and 1.28% of intermediate cells and umbrella cells, respectively, had ACE2 expression.@*CONCLUSION@#This study has provided bioinformatics evidence of the potential route of 2019-nCoV infection in the urinary system.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 , Gene Expression , Humans , Kidney/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Analysis, RNA , Single-Cell Analysis , Urinary Bladder/metabolism
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876491

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the biochemical indicators of patients with coronary slow flow phenomenon (CSFP) in high altitude areas and to analyze the risk factors of CSFP. Methods A total of 90 CSFP patients with no coronary artery stenosis were selected as the CSFP group (48 patients in high altitude area and 50 patients in low and middle altitude area)and 101 patients with normal blood flow were selected as the control group (50 patients in high altitude area and 51 patients in low and middle altitude area). The biochemical indicators of the patient's admission were obtained, and the high risk factors of CSFP were analyzed. Results ALT, GOT, Na, CK, CG, LDL-C, TG, and ET-1 in the CSFP group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05), while HDL-C and NO in the CSFP group were lower than those in the control group (P<0.05). CG, TG and ET-1 in the high altitude group were higher than those in the low and middle altitude group (P<0.05), while NO was lower than that in the low and medium altitude group (P<0.05). ET-1 and NO were independent influencing factors of CSFP (P<0.05). Conclusion Dyslipidemia can occur in patients with CSFP, especially in high altitude areas. The change of blood lipid level is an independent influencing factor of CSFP.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873568

ABSTRACT

Triclosan(TCS)is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent that is widely used in personal care products. Humans are exposed to these chemicals through oral intake or direct dermal absorption. The main way to eliminate TCS is through urine. Studies have shown that TCS may interfere with thyroid function and the reproductive endocrine system. In recent years, increasing epidemiological studies have focused on TCS exposure during pregnancy and the relationship between TCS exposure and birth outcomes. Compared with other countries and regions, pregnant women have lower levels of TCS exposure in China. Animal experiments suggested that high dose of TCS exposure during pregnancy may affect birth outcomes through its endocrine disruption. This review is aimed to summarize the effects of TCS exposure during pregnancy on the birth outcomes.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873564

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the effect of metabolic syndrome on the fertility and reproduction in model animals. Methods The model of"high fat diet for spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHR)"was adopted to construct the model of metabolic syndrome in rats. The metabolic syndrome model rats were used to mate with male and female 1 : 1 cage, and the mating cycle was 2 weeks. Results After the SHR rats were fed a high-fat diet for 10 weeks, 16 males and 15 females met the screening criteria for metabolic syndrome, with the modeling rates of 40% and 37.5%, respectively. In addition to the abnormal metabolism-related indicators(such as blood glucose, blood lipid and blood pressure), the male rats with metabolic syndrome mainly had decreased sperm motility(P < 0.05), increased sperm malformation rate(P < 0.01), and decreased mating rate(P < 0.05). In addition to abnormal metabolism-related indicators, the conception rate and the live fetal rate of the female rats with metabolic syndrome were slightly lower than that of the control group; however, there was no statistical difference. The mean birth weight of the litter was significantly lower than that of the control group(P < 0.05). Conclusion According to the whole process from mating to natural production, metabolic syndrome is determined to have a significant effect on the fertility and reproductive ability of rats.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-849621

ABSTRACT

Objective To construct a high-throughput screening model for transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel modulators based on calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC). Methods RT-PCR was used to detect the endogenous expression of TRPV4 in Fischer rat thyroid (FRT) cells. The PCR products obtained were subjected to nucleic acid sequencing using gel-recovery technology. Western blotting was employed to detect the expression of TRPV4 protein in FRT cells. The liposome transfection method was applied to construct the FRT cell model that co-expressed anoctamin 1 (ANO1) and YFP-H148Q/ I152L. The expressions of ANO1 and YFP-H148Q/I152L in cells were identified by the inverted fluorescence microscope and the fluorescence quenching kinetics test. After adding TRPV4 activators and inhibitors, the fluorescence quenching kinetics experiment was used to test whether the model could screen TRPV4 modulators. The Fura-2 fluorescent probe method was applied to detect the calcium concentration in cells after adding TRPV4 activators; The Z' factor was calculated to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the cell model. Results RT-PCR and Western blotting confirmed the endogenous expression of TRPV4 in FRT cells; ANO1 was clearly expressed on the FRT cell membrane and YFP-H148Q/I152L was clearly expressed in the cytoplasm of FRT cells under the inverted fluorescence microscope. The FRT cell model co-expressing ANO1 and YFP-H148Q/I152L was successfully constructed. Fluorescence quenching kinetics experiments confirmed that the model could screen TRPV4 regulators, and the slope value of fluorescence change and the concentration of TRPV4 regulator concentration were in a dose-dependent manner. The model could sensitively detect changes in intracellular calcium concentration, and the slope value could reflect intracellular calcium concentration. The Z' factor was 0.728, which demonstrates its capacity for high-throughput screening. Conclusions We successfully constructed a high-throughput model that could screen TRPV4 modulators sensitively and efficiently.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876342

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the feasibility of genotoxicity assessment for chemicals via flow cytometry (FCM) and high-content screening (HCS) based on high-throughput screening in vitro micronucleus assays. Methods In reference to the methodology of OECD TG487, the typical positive controls, cyclophosphamide (CP) and mitomycin C (MMC), were selected.And no serum MEM medium was treated as negative control.Dose range of CP was 5-20 mg/L and MMC was 0.25-1.0 mg/L.CHL cells were treated with three concentrations of each chemical for 4 h.High-throughput screening in vitro micronucleus assays based on FCM and HCS were established.The results of the frequency of micronuclei were compared to traditional cytokinesis blocking micronucleus assay in each group with or without metabolic activation. Results The frequencies of micronuclei induced by CP and MMC (ascending rank) were separately 1.9%, 7.6%, 10.4% and 5.9%, 11.4%, 16.7%, which were obtained by conventional microscopic scoring.The frequencies of micronuclei induced by CP and MMC (ascending rank) were separately 2.8%, 2.6%, 7.8% and 3.2%, 3.7%, 5.1%, which were obtained by flow cytometry screening.The frequencies of micronuclei induced by CP and MMC (ascending rank) were separately2.8%, 6.2%, 9.1% and 7.9%, 10.1%, 10.2%, which were obtained by high-content screening.Compared with negative controls, the differences of the results were statistically significant(P < 0.05), and there was a dose-response relationship. Conclusion In this study, the results of high-throughput screening assays of FCM and HCS are in accordance to the results of traditional cytokinesis blocking micronucleus assay, indicating that high-throughput screening in vitro micronucleus assays could detect micronucleus formation automatically and improve the efficiency.Therefore, the method could provide data support for using high-throughput screening in vitro micronucleus assays into genotoxicity assessment of chemicals.

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