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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874871

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Prokinetics such as mosapride citrate CR (conventional-release; Gasmotin) are commonly used in functional dyspepsia (FD). This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of once-a-day mosapride citrate SR (DWJ1252), a sustained-release formulation of mosapride citrate, compared with mosapride citrate CR 3 times a day, in patients with FD. @*Methods@#In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, non-inferiority study, 119 patients with FD (by the Rome III criteria, 60 for mosapride citrate SR and 59 for mosapride citrate CR) were randomly allocated to mosapride citrate SR once daily or mosapride citrate CR thrice daily for 4 weeks in 16 medical institutions. Primary end point was the change in gastrointestinal symptom (GIS) score from baseline, assessed by GIS questionnaires on 5-point Likert scale after 4-week treatment. Secondary end points and safety profiles were also analyzed. @*Results@#The study included 51 and 49 subjects in the mosapride citrate SR and mosapride citrate CR groups, respectively. GIS scores at week 4 were significantly reduced in both groups (mean ± SD: − 10.04 ± 4.45 and − 10.86 ± 5.53 in the mosapride citrate SR and mosapride citrate CR groups, respectively; P < 0.001), and the GIS changes from baseline did not differ between the 2 groups (difference, 0.82 point; 95% CI, − 1.17, 2.81; P = 0.643). Changes in GIS at weeks 2 and 4 and quality of life at week 4, and the improvement rates of global assessments at weeks 2 and 4, did not differ between the groups. Adverse events were similar in the 2 groups, and there were no serious adverse events. @*Conclusion@#In patients with FD, mosapride citrate SR once daily is as effective as mosapride citrate CR thrice daily, with a similar safety profile.

2.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-834119

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#A diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease is challenging in patients who have reflux symptoms but do not respond to proton pump inhibitors nor have reflux esophagitis and hiatal hernia (HH) on endoscopy. This study examined the predictive role of the endoscopic findings, including the flap valve grade for pathologic acid exposure (PAE) to establish an endoscopic prediction model in patients with neither reflux esophagitis nor HH. @*Methods@#Five hundred seventy-eight patients who underwent upper endoscopy and 24 hours pH monitoring for reflux esophageal symptoms without evidence of reflux esophagitis and HH were analyzed. The gastroesophageal flap valve (GEFV), esophageal metaplasia, and chronic atrophic gastritis were assessed. The association between the endoscopic parameters and PAE was evaluated. @*Results@#Four hundred ninety-four patients were enrolled. The most common complaint was chest discomfort (42.3%) followed by globus (31.8%), dysphagia (7.9%), and heartburn (7.7%). PAE was present in 43 patients (8.7%). Multivariable analysis revealed PAE to be associated with the GEFV grade (p<0.001) and inversely associated with the chronic atrophic gastritis grade (p=0.005). Using these features, a predictive model was established and showed an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.705 (95% CI 0.619-0.790). The cutoff value of 12.0 had a sensitivity and specificity of 44.0% and 84.0%, respectively. @*Conclusions@#A loosened GEFV is associated with a risk of PAE in patients with neither reflux esophagitis nor HH, while atrophic gastritis is preventive. On the other hand, the endoscopic predictive model revealed a low sensitivity for detecting PAE. Thus, reflux testing needs to be performed further when gastroesophageal reflux disease is suspected, even without endoscopic evidence.

3.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-831924

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims@#Effect of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use on the risk of hipfracture is controversial. This study aimed to clarify the association between PPIuse and hip fracture risk using a large cohort. @*Methods@#This study recruited participants from the nationwide cohort (n =1,025,340). After exclusion of participants who had hip fractures or were aged less than 40 years during the baseline period (2002 to 2004), 371,806 participants were followed to 2013. Participants prescribed PPIs for more than 90 days during baseline period were defined as users. Fracture cases were defined when participants were hospitalized with claims of a hip fracture. @*Results@#During 4,159,343 person-years of follow-up, fractures developed more oftenin PPI users than in nonusers (relative risk [RR], 1.787; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.260 to 2.534; p = 0.002). The results persisted after adjusting for age, sex, andmany drugs relevant to osteoporosis or influential in bone health. Furthermore,fracture risk associated with PPI use increased with duration of use ( p trend 180-day users. The positive association between PPI use and fracture was also confirmed in a subgroup with health screening data where further adjustment for body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and physical activity was available (adjusted RR, 2.025; 95% CI, 1.151 to 3.564, p = 0.014). Conclusions: PPI use is associated with hip fracture development.

4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: An association between obesity and erosive esophagitis has been reported, but the effects of sarcopenia and obesity on erosive esophagitis are unknown. This study examined the relationship between obesity, sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity, and erosive esophagitis in a large population of asymptomatic men and women.METHODS: This study analyzed 32,762 subjects who underwent a comprehensive health check-up, which included upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, from August 2006 to December 2011 by a cross-sectional study. Sarcopenia was defined as a decrease in the appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM)/body weight value of two SD or more below the normal means for a younger reference group.RESULTS: The study was carried out on four groups according to obesity and sarcopenic status: normal, obesity, sarcopenic, and sarcopenic obese group. In a multivariable model, the risk of erosive esophagitis was higher in the obese (adjusted OR [aOR] 1.35, 95% CI 1.22–1.49), sarcopenic (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.40–3.19), and sarcopenic obese groups (aOR 1.54, 95% CI 1.27–1.87) than in the normal group. The risk of erosive esophagitis was higher in the sarcopenic and sarcopenic obese groups than the obese group; the ORs were 1.63 (95% CI 1.08–2.47) and 1.22 (95% CI 1.01–1.46), respectively. In dose-response analysis, increasing sarcopenia severity showed a positive and graded relationship with the overall, Los Angeles (LA)-B or higher grade, and LA-C erosive esophagitis.CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that sarcopenia is strongly and progressively associated with erosive esophagitis.

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dysphagia is encountered in a large proportion of patients with lung cancer and is associated with malnutrition and a poor quality of life. This study compared the clinical outcomes of self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) insertion and percutaneous gastrostomy (PG) feeding for patients with lung cancer and dysphagia. METHODS: A total of 261 patients with lung cancer, who underwent either SEMS insertion (stent group) or PG (gastrostomy group) as an initial treatment procedure for dysphagia between July 1997 and July 2015 at the Samsung Medical Center, were reviewed retrospectively, and 84 patients with esophageal obstruction were identified. The clinical outcomes, including the overall survival, additional intervention, complications, and post-procedural nutritional status in the two groups, were compared. RESULTS: Among the 84 patients finally analyzed, 68 patients received SEMS insertion and 16 had PG. The stent group had less cervical obstruction and more mid-esophageal obstruction than the gastrostomy group. The Kaplan-Meier curves revealed similar overall survival in the two groups. Multivariate analysis showed that the two modalities had similar survival rates (PG compared with SEMS insertion, hazard ratio 0.682, p=0.219). Fifteen patients (22.1%) in the stent group received additional intervention, whereas there was no case in the gastrostomy group (p=0.063). The decrease in the serum albumin level after the procedure was lower in the gastrostomy group than in the stent group (-0.20±0.54 g/dL vs. -0.65±0.57 g/dL, p=0.013) CONCLUSIONS: SEMS insertion and PG feeding for relieving dysphagia by lung cancer had a comparable survival outcome. On the other hand, PG was associated with a better nutritional status.


Subject(s)
Deglutition Disorders , Esophageal Stenosis , Gastrostomy , Hand , Humans , Lung Neoplasms , Lung , Malnutrition , Multivariate Analysis , Nutritional Status , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , Self Expandable Metallic Stents , Serum Albumin , Stents , Survival Rate
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715643

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been known to cause various extra-gastric diseases, which may be mediated by an increase in systemic inflammation. Thus, we examined the association between H. pylori infection and various markers of systemic inflammation in a large sample of asymptomatic adults. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were obtained from 17,028 adults who completed routine health check-ups. H. pylori infection status was determined using a serum immunoglobulin G test, and systemic inflammation was assessed using the C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet/lymphocyte ratio (PLR). RESULTS: Multiple linear regression model-adjusted for potential confounders-revealed that H. pylori infection was not associated with CRP levels (coefficient: −0.012, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.037, 0.012, p=0.319), NLR (coefficient: 0.055, 95% CI: −0.027, 0.138, p=0.192), or PLR (coefficient: 1.798, 95% CI: −1.979, 5.574, p=0.351). In a multivariable logistic regression model, H. pylori infection was not associated with the risk of CRP levels being elevated to ≥0.1 mg/dL (odds ratio: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.81, 1.08) or ≥0.3 mg/dL (odds ratio: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.19). In the multivariable model, CRP levels elevated to ≥0.1 mg/dL were significantly associated with body mass index, current smoking status, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Regular exercise and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were factors that minimized the elevation of CRP levels. CONCLUSIONS: Chronic infection with H. pylori was not associated with various inflammatory markers. Further investigation is needed to clarify the interaction between H. pylori infection, systemic inflammation, and extra-gastric disease.


Subject(s)
Adult , Body Mass Index , C-Reactive Protein , Cholesterol , Diabetes Mellitus , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter , Humans , Hypertension , Immunoglobulin G , Inflammation , Linear Models , Lipoproteins , Logistic Models , Smoke , Smoking
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Epidemiologic and clinical data indicate that allergies may be associated with reduced risks for several cancers; however, to date, only a few studies have examined the associations between allergies and gastric cancer. This study aimed to examine the associations between allergies and gastric cancer using a large population-based dataset. METHODS: This cross-sectional study obtained data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2010 and 2014, involving a total of 24,089 participants. The associations between allergies and gastric cancer were analyzed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses with complex sampling, while adjusting for confounding factors that included age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, and level of education. RESULTS: Multivariable logistic regression analyses that were adjusted for the potential confounders determined that a history of allergic diseases tended to be associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer; however, this relationship was not statistically significant (any allergy: odds ratio [OR], 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-1.12; atopic dermatitis: OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.50-1.72; allergic rhinitis: OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.34-1.46; asthma: OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.15-1.29). Multivariable analysis showed that a history of atopic dermatitis was associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer in men (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03-0.75). CONCLUSIONS: This findings of this study suggest that individuals with allergies tend to have a reduced risk of gastric cancer, without a statistically significant association. Furthermore, atopic dermatitis was associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer, particularly in men.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Body Mass Index , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dataset , Dermatitis, Atopic , Education , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Korea , Logistic Models , Male , Nutrition Surveys , Odds Ratio , Rhinitis, Allergic , Smoke , Smoking , Stomach Neoplasms
8.
Gut and Liver ; : 516-522, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717034

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a controlled release, once-daily formulation of mosapride (UI05MSP015CT) in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). METHODS: Patients with FD were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either UI05MSP015CT (15 mg once a day, study group) or mosapride (5 mg three times a day, control group) and corresponding placebo for 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was a change in the gastrointestinal symptom score (GIS) evaluated at enrollment and after 4 weeks. Secondary endpoints were changes in the Nepean Dyspepsia Index-Korean version (NDI-K), rate of satisfactory symptom relief, and rate of adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 138 patients were enrolled (female, 73.9%; mean age, 44.0±15.4 years). After excluding patients who violated the study protocol, 59 and 58 patients from the study and control groups, respectively, were included in the per-protocol analysis. No difference was observed in drug compliance between the control and study groups (97.07%±4.52% vs 96.85%±6.05%, p=0.870). Changes in GIS scores were 9.69±6.44 and 10.01±5.92 in the study and control groups. The mean difference in GIS change between groups was 0.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.75 to 2.41), demonstrating non-inferiority of UI-05MSP015CT (p=0.755). The rate of satisfactory symptom relief was not different between the study and control groups (39.0% vs 56.9%, p=0.053). No differences in change in NDI-K score (14.3 vs 16.9, p=0.263) or rates of adverse events (12.9% vs. 4.4%, p=0.062) were observed between the study and control groups. CONCLUSIONS: Once-daily mosapride is not inferior to conventional mosapride in efficacy and is safe in patients with FD.


Subject(s)
Compliance , Dyspepsia , Humans
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740734

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although bisacodyl is a widely administered laxative, its underlying mechanism of action remains generally unknown. This study focuses on investigating the effects of bisacodyl on the human colon muscle contraction, and elucidating its mechanism of action. METHODS: Sigmoid colon muscle strips (20 longitudinal and 18 circular muscles) were obtained from 20 subjects who underwent colectomy for colon cancer. Isometric force measurements were calculated in response to electrical field stimulation (EFS, 0.3 milliseconds in trains of 10 Hz for 20 seconds, 150 V). Peak and nadir (tone) during and after EFS, were measured in a controlled state, and after sequential addition of bisacodyl (1 μM), atropine (1 μM), N-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, 100 μM), MRS2500 (1 μM), and tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 μM) to the organ bath. RESULTS: Transient phasic contractions were observed during EFS, and after cessation of EFS. In the longitudinal muscles, nadir during EFS, and tone after EFS, significantly increased after addition of bisacodyl, and persisted after sequential addition of atropine, L-NNA, MRS2500, and TTX, indicating a direct action of bisacodyl on the smooth muscle. In the second experiment, pretreatment of TTX abolished EFS-induced phasic contractions. Although no phasic contraction was produced after perfusion of bisacodyl, tone was increased, thereby supporting evidence of a direct mechanism of action of bisacodyl on the colon smooth muscle. CONCLUSIONS: Bisacodyl increases the tone of longitudinal muscle in the human sigmoid colon through a direct action on the smooth muscle. Further study is warranted to investigate the neural mechanism of action of bisacodyl.


Subject(s)
Atropine , Baths , Bisacodyl , Colectomy , Colon , Colon, Sigmoid , Colonic Neoplasms , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Muscle Contraction , Muscle, Smooth , Muscles , Perfusion , Physiology , Tetrodotoxin
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225692

ABSTRACT

This study compared the efficacy of DA-9601 (Dong-A ST Co., Seoul, Korea) and its new formulation, DA-5204 (Dong-A ST Co.), for treating erosive gastritis. This phase III, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, non-inferiority trial randomly assigned 434 patients with endoscopically proven gastric mucosal erosions into two groups: DA-9601 3 times daily or DA-5,204 twice daily for 2 weeks. The final analysis included 421 patients (DA-5204, 209; DA-9601, 212). The primary endpoint (rate of effective gastric erosion healing) and secondary endpoints (cure rate of endoscopic erosion and gastrointestinal [GI] symptom relief) were assessed using endoscopy after the treatment. Drug-related adverse events (AEs), including GI symptoms, were also compared. At week 2, gastric healing rates with DA-5204 and DA-9601 were 42.1% (88/209) and 42.5% (90/212), respectively. The difference between the groups was −0.4% (95% confidence interval, −9.8% to 9.1%), which was above the non-inferiority margin of −14%. The cure rate of gastric erosion in both groups was 37.3%. The improvement rates of GI symptoms with DA-5204 and DA-9601 were 40.4% and 40.8%, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in both secondary endpoints. AEs were reported in 18 (8.4%) patients in the DA-5204 group and 19 (8.8%) in the DA-9601 group. Rates of AE were not different between the two groups. No serious AE or adverse drug reaction (ADR) occurred. These results demonstrate the non-inferiority of DA-5204 compared to DA-9601. DA-5204 is as effective as DA-9601 in the treatment of erosive gastritis. Registered randomized clinical trial at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02282670)


Subject(s)
Artemisia , Double-Blind Method , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Endoscopy , Gastritis , Humans , Seoul
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225690

ABSTRACT

The predictive role of lactate in patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) has been suggested. This study evaluated several lactate parameters in terms of predicting outcomes of bleeding patients and sought to establish a new scoring model by combining lactate parameters and the AIMS65 score. A total of 114 patients with NVUGIB who underwent serum lactate level testing at least twice and endoscopic hemostasis within 24 hours after admission were retrospectively analyzed. The associations between five lactate parameters and clinical outcomes were evaluated and the predictive power of lactate parameter combined AIMS65s (L-AIMS65s) and AIMS56 scoring was compared. The most common cause of bleeding was gastric ulcer (48.2%). Lactate clearance rate (LCR) was associated with 30-day rebleeding (odds ratio [OR], 0.931; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.872–0.994; P = 0.033). Initial lactate (OR, 1.313; 95% CI, 1.050–1.643; P = 0.017), maximal lactate (OR, 1.277; 95% CI, 1.037–1.573; P = 0.021), and average lactate (OR, 1.535; 95% CI, 1.137–2.072; P = 0.005) levels were associated with 30-day mortality. Initial lactate (OR, 1.213; 95% CI, 1.027–1.432; P = 0.023), maximal lactate (OR, 1.271; 95% CI, 1.074–1.504; P = 0.005), and average lactate (OR, 1.501; 95% CI, 1.150–1.959; P = 0.003) levels were associated with admission over 7 days. Although L-AIMS65s showed the highest area under the curve for prediction of each outcome, differences between L-AIMS65s and AIMS65 did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, lactate parameters have a prognostic role in patients with NVUGIB. However, they do not increase the predictive power of AIMS65 when combined.


Subject(s)
Hemorrhage , Hemostasis, Endoscopic , Humans , Lactic Acid , Mortality , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Ulcer
12.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 182-186, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-211323

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for tumors occurring in the remnant stomach is technically difficult to perform because of limited working space and severe fibrosis and staples present around the suture line. We aimed to elucidate the feasibility and clinical outcomes of performing ESD for tumors in the remnant stomach. METHODS: Between December 2007 and January 2013, 18 patients underwent ESD for tumors (six adenomas and 12 differentiated-type early gastric cancers [EGCs]) occurring in the remnant stomach after distal gastrectomy. Clinicopathologic features and clinical outcomes after ESD were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: Two-thirds of the lesions were located on the body, and half were located on the suture line. En bloc resection, R0 resection, and en bloc with R0 resection rates were 88.9%, 100%, and 88.9%, respectively. Curative resection rate for EGC was 91.7%. Perforation occurred in one patient (5.6%) and was successfully managed by endoscopic closure with metallic clips and conservative management. There was no significant bleeding after ESD. During a median follow-up of 47.5 months, no local, metachronous, or extragastric recurrence was seen for either EGC or adenoma lesions. CONCLUSIONS: ESD is a feasible and effective treatment modality and can be considered a primary intervention for early gastric neoplasia occurring in the remnant stomach.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Fibrosis , Follow-Up Studies , Gastrectomy , Gastric Stump , Hemorrhage , Humans , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Stomach Neoplasms , Sutures
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-204976

ABSTRACT

Neostigmine can successfully decompress patients with acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO) who are unresponsive to conservative therapy. However, neostigmine is contraindicated in renal failure, so it is underused in ACPO patients with renal failure who would be otherwise appropriate candidates. We described the first successfully treated case of acute kidney injury (AKI) with neostigmine in a patient with ACPO. A 72-year-old man who underwent a coronary artery bypass graft surgery 11 days prior presented to the emergency room with abdominal distension, peripheral edema, and dyspnea on exertion. Plain abdominal radiographs and abdomen computed tomography scan showed diffuse colonic dilatation without obstruction. Serum creatinine level was increased five-fold over baseline. We diagnosed the patient as ACPO with AKI. With conservative treatment, renal function failed to improve because the ACPO was not corrected. Administration of neostigmine rapidly resolved ACPO and renal function, avoiding more invasive procedures such as colonoscopic decompression and hemodialysis. Neostigmine appears to be an effective and safe treatment option for ACPO patients with renal failure. Prospective large-scale studies should be carried out to determine the safety and efficacy of neostigmine in ACPO patients with renal failure.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Aged , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction/complications , Creatinine/blood , Humans , Male , Neostigmine/therapeutic use , Radiography, Abdominal
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-162049

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Limited data exist on the outcome of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) treatment and its impact on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the Asian population. This study aims to evaluate the treatment outcomes, to investigate the factors associated with recurrence, and to evaluate the impact of the treatment outcome on the HRQoL in a Korean GERD population. METHODS: This was a prospective, multicenter study involving a total of 824 GERD patients. The response to treatment was assessed at week 4 (or week 8 for the patients who did not achieve complete resolution [CR] at week 4). The EQ-5D questionnaire was used at baseline, end of treatment, and first recurrence to assess the HRQoL. To assess GERD symptoms, contact of patients by phone at 1, 6, and 12 months following treatment was carried out. RESULTS: CR was achieved in 65.6% and recurrence was observed in 47.8% following treatment. CR and recurrence rates did not differ by the presence of esophagitis. Multivariate analysis revealed that acid regurgitation (odds ratio 2.249; 95% confidence interval 1.293-3.912; P = 0.004) and both acid regurgitation and heartburn (odds ratio 2.330; 95% confidence interval 1.392-3.901; P = 0.001) were independent risk factors for GERD recurrence. EQ-5D scores were more improved in patients with CR than in those without CR, and worsened more during follow-up in patients with recurrence than in those without recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: We should achieve complete symptom relief and attempt to prevent recurrence in GERD patients to improve their HRQoL.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Esophagitis , Follow-Up Studies , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Heartburn , Humans , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Recurrence , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
15.
Gut and Liver ; : 859-863, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-179839

ABSTRACT

Hypercontractile esophagus (nicknamed jackhammer esophagus) is a recently defined disease within the esophageal motility disorders classification. Responses to treatments for jackhammer esophagus have been inconsistent in previous trials, possibly due to its heterogeneous manifestation. Thus, we reviewed 10 patients diagnosed with jackhammer esophagus and compared their clinical and manometric features at baseline. Additionally, manometric and symptomatic responses after treatment with known smooth muscle relaxants, including anticholinergic drugs (cimetropium bromide and scopolamine butylbromide) and a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (sildenafil) were compared. We observed two distinct subgroups in the findings: one with hypercontractility and normal distal latencies (“classic jackhammer esophagus,” n=7) and the other with hypercontractility and short distal latencies (“spastic jackhammer esophagus,” n=3). The two types also differed in their responses to medications in that symptoms improved upon treatment with an anticholinergic agent in classic jackhammer esophagus patients, while spastic jackhammer esophagus was unresponsive to both the anticholinergic drugs and the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor. In conclusion, hypercontractile esophagus may be a heterogeneous disease with different underlying pathophysiologies. We introduced two novel terms, “classic jackhammer esophagus” and “spastic jackhammer esophagus,” to distinguish the two types.


Subject(s)
Classification , Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5 , Deglutition Disorders , Esophageal Motility Disorders , Esophagus , Humans , Muscle Spasticity , Muscle, Smooth , Scopolamine
16.
Gut and Liver ; : 549-555, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical effects of preoperative and postoperative dexamethasone on pain after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric neoplasm. METHODS: Forty patients with early gastric neoplasm who were scheduled for ESD were randomized into two groups according to the timing of steroid administration: preoperative ("pre", n=20) and postoperative ("post", n=20) steroid administration. The pre group received 0.15 mg/kg dexamethasone before ESD and placebo after, and the post group received pre-ESD placebo and post-ESD dexamethasone. The present pain intensity (PPI) index and the short-form McGill pain (SF-MP) questionnaire were evaluated. RESULTS: The primary outcome was PPI score at 6 hours after ESD. There was a greater reduction in 6-hour PPI in the pre group than in the post group (2.1±0.8 vs 3.0±1.1, respectively; p=0.006). The immediate PPI was also significantly lower in the pre group than in the post group (1.6±0.6 vs 2.9±0.6, respectively; p<0.001), and the total SF-MP scores were significantly lower in the pre group than in the post group both immediately and at 6 hours after the operation. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative administration of dexamethasone may produce a superior analgesic effect in patients who undergo ESD compared with the postoperative administration of dexamethasone.


Subject(s)
Dexamethasone , Humans , Stomach Neoplasms
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-84972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: The effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) in Asian functional dyspepsia (FD) patients has not been well established as in Western countries. DA-9701, a novel prokinetic agent, stimulates gastric emptying and modulates visceral hypersensitivity in vivo and in human studies. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of DA-9701 with a conventional PPI in mono or combination therapy in patients with FD. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, non-inferiority trial, 389 patients diagnosed with FD using Rome III criteria were allocated among 3 groups: 30-mg DA-9701 t.i.d (means 3 times a day), 40-mg pantoprazole, and 30-mg DA-9701 t.i.d + 40-mg pantoprazole. The primary efficacy end-point was a global assessment of the patient binary response or response on a 5-Likert scale after 4 weeks. RESULTS: The global symptomatic improvement was 60.5% in the DA-9701 group, 65.6% in the pantoprazole group, and 63.5% in the DA-9701 + pantoprazole group using a 5-Likert scale at week 4 with no significant difference among 3 groups (P = 0.685). Symptom improvement measured by binary outcome was significantly achieved in each of the 3 groups, but not different among groups. Patients in all treatment groups reported significant improvement in the response rate and symptoms according to FD subtypes and dyspepsia-related quality of life (P < 0.001), but there were no significant differences among the 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS: DA-9701 improves global and individual symptoms and increases dyspepsia-specific quality of life in patients with FD. The efficacy of DA-9701 monotherapy is comparable with pantoprazole and there is no additive effect with combination of DA-9701 and pantoprazole in patients with FD.


Subject(s)
Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Dyspepsia , Gastric Emptying , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Quality of Life
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-78155

ABSTRACT

The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility first published guidelines for chronic constipation in 2005 and was updated in 2011. Although the guidelines were updated using evidence-based process, they lacked multidisciplinary participation and did not include a diagnostic approach for chronic constipation. This article includes guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of chronic constipation to realistically fit the situation in Korea and to be applicable to clinical practice. The guideline development was based upon the adaptation method because research evidence was limited in Korea, and an organized multidisciplinary group carried out systematical literature review and series of evidence-based evaluations. Six guidelines were selected using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research & Evaluation (AGREE) II process. A total 37 recommendations were adopted, including 4 concerning the definition and risk factors of chronic constipation, 8 regarding diagnoses, and 25 regarding treatments. The guidelines are intended to help primary physicians and general health professionals in clinical practice in Korea, to provide the principles of medical treatment to medical students, residents, and other healthcare professionals, and to help patients for choosing medical services based on the information. These guidelines will be updated and revised periodically to reflect new diagnostic and therapeutic methods.


Subject(s)
Constipation , Delivery of Health Care , Diagnosis , Health Occupations , Humans , Korea , Methods , Risk Factors , Students, Medical
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-67616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although it is generally known that the risk for all types of cancer increases with adult height, combined and for several common site-specific cancers (including colon and rectal), evidence is limited for adenomas, which are precursors to colorectal cancer. We evaluated the association between height and risk of colorectal adenoma at various stages of the adenoma-carcinoma pathway. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study using data from patients who had undergone a complete colonoscopy as part of a health examination at the Health Promotion Center of Samsung Medical Center between October 13, 2009 and December 31, 2011. A total of 1,347 male subjects were included in our study. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between height and colorectal adenoma. RESULTS: Each 5-cm increase in height was associated with 1.6% and 5.3% higher risks of advanced colorectal adenoma and high-risk colorectal adenoma, respectively, but associations were not significant after adjusting for age, body mass index, metabolic syndrome, alcohol intake, smoking, family history of colorectal cancer, and regular aspirin use (p = 0.840 and p = 0.472, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: No clear association was found between colorectal adenoma risk and height. Unlike other site-specific tumors reported to have a consistent relationship with height, the association between colorectal tumor and height remains controversial.


Subject(s)
Adenoma , Adult , Aspirin , Body Height , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Colon , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms , Health Promotion , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking
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