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1.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 135-146, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-966688

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Anxious depression is associated with greater chronicity, higher severity of symptoms, more severe functional impairment, and poor response to drug treatment. However, evidence for first-choice antidepressants in patients with anxious depression is limited. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of escitalopram, desvenlafaxine, and vortioxetine in the acute treatment of anxious depression. @*Methods@#Patients (n = 124) with major depressive disorder and high levels of anxiety were randomly assigned to an escitalopram treatment group (n = 42), desvenlafaxine treatment group (n = 40), or vortioxetine treatment group (n = 42) in a 6-week randomized rater-blinded head-to-head comparative trial. Changes in overall depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA), respectively. @*Results@#Patients demonstrated similar baseline-to-endpoint improvement in scores and similar response and remission rates for HAMD and HAMA. Analysis of the individual HAMD items revealed that desvenlafaxine significantly reduced anxiety somatic scores (p= 0.013) and hypochondriasis scores (p = 0.014) compared to escitalopram. With respect to the individual HAMA items, desvenlafaxine treatment showed significantly lower scores for respiratory symptoms (p = 0.013) than escitalopram treatment and cardiovascular symptoms (p = 0.005) than vortioxetine treatment. The treatments were well tolerated, with no significant differences. @*Conclusion@#Our results indicated no significant differences in the efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram, desvenlafaxine, and vortioxetine in this subtype of patients with anxious depression during the acute phase of treatment.

2.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 594-598, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1000095

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study tried to observe additional benefit of agomelatine (AGO) treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) in routine practice. @*Methods@#Retrospective chart review (n = 63) was conducted for additional benefit of combination with or switching to AGO in MDD patients without full remission. The primary endpoint was the mean change of Clinical Global Impression-Clinical Benefit (CGI-CB) total scores from baseline to the endpoint. Additional secondary endpoints were also collected. @*Results@#The changes of CGI-CB (Z = −3.073, p = 0.002) and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (Z = −3.483, p < 0.001) total scores were significantly decreased from baseline to the endpoint, respectively. At the endpoint, the remission rate was 22.6% (n = 18) and 28.6% of patient had improvement in CGI-CB total scores at the endpoint.No significant adverse events were observed. @*Conclusion@#This study has shown additional benefit of AGO treatment as combination or switching agent for MDD patients without full remission in routine practice. However, adequately-powered and well-controlled studies are necessary for generalization of the present findings.

3.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 268-280, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926896

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of escitalopram, vortioxetine, and desvenlafaxine for acute treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) with cognitive complaint (CC). @*Methods@#A total of 129 patients with MDD who also complained of CC were randomized evenly to either escitalopram, vortioxetine, or desvenlafaxine group and underwent a multi-center, six-week, rater-blinded, and head-to-head comparative trial. Differences in depressive symptoms following treatment were measured using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Subjective cognitive function and the presence of adverse events were assessed. @*Results@#The three antidepressant treatment groups did not show significant differences in the improvement of depressive symptoms as measured by HAMD and MADRS. Desvenlafaxine treatment was associated with a superior treatment response rate in depressive symptoms compared to vortioxetine or escitalopram treatment. However, no significant differences were found in the remission rate of depressive symptoms. The three antidepressant treatment groups did not show significant differences in the improvement of CC. Adverse profiles of each treatment group were tolerable, with no significant differences. @*Conclusion@#In acute antidepressant treatment for MDD with CC, escitalopram, vortioxetine, and desvenlafaxine presented similar efficacy in relief of depressive symptoms; however, desvenlafaxine was associated with a superior treatment. Further studies are needed to confirm these results by investigating the therapeutic efficacy and safety profile of long-term antidepressant treatment of MDD with CC (Clinical Trial Registry, http://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/en/: KCT0002173).

4.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 233-242, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897918

ABSTRACT

Objective@#In a number of controlled clinical trials and naturalistic studies, aripiprazole once monthly (AOM) has been found to be effective and safe as acute and maintenance treatment options for schizophrenia. However, such clinical data have been presented in selected patient population (i.e., antipsychotic monotherapy, etc.), in particular, clinical information on switching to AOM from antipsychotic polypharmacy and/or other long acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) has been scarce till today. @*Methods@#The study period was from the first switching day to AOM up to 12 months in patients with antipsychotic polypharmacy (APpoly)/LAIs (baseline, month 3, month 6, and month 12). Available demographics and clinical information were retrieved from electronic medical records (EMRs). Available scores of Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Clinical Global Impression-Clinical Benefit (CGI-CB), CGI-severity, Visual Analog Scale on Satisfaction-Patient/Health Professional (VAS-P/HP), and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Insigh (PANSS-I) scores were also taken from EMR. Proportional change of functional impairment before and after AOM was also captured. @*Results@#Data of 18 patients were available. Most commonly used combined APs before AOM were aripiprazole, blonanserin, quetiapine, and risperidone. At least 2 APs (n = 2.4) were combined before AOM. Scores of GAF (10.7% increase), CGI-CB (46.2% decrease), VAS-P (47.8% increase), VAS-HP (40.8% increase), and PANSS-I (27.9% increase) (all p = 0.001) were significantly improved from baseline to month 12, respectively. Approximately 59% of patients improved individual functioning with different level (i.e., employment, back to school, etc.) after AOM treatment at month 12. @*Conclusion@#The present study have clearly shown the clinical benefit and utility of switching to AOM for treatment of patients with APpoly/LAIs in routine practice. Subsequent, adequately-powered, well-controlled clinical trials may be necessary to confirm our findings in near future.

5.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 434-448, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-897897

ABSTRACT

Antipsychotic monotherapy (APM) is considered best-acceptable treatment option regardless of antipsychotic class and formulation types for treating schizophrenia. However, antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) has been also widely utilized in routine clinical practice. Despite APP has some clinical benefits it has also numerous pitfalls in relation with increased total number and doses of APs leading to adverse events as well as decrease of treatment adherence and persistence resulting in poor clinical outcomes. Recent introduction of long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) to the market has offered a chance for better medication adherence/persistence and also provided a simplification of treatment regime leading to more stabilized treatment for schizophrenia patients. When we cannot stay away from APP in the treatment of schizophrenia, clinicians need to find more proper APP regimens and thereby utilization of APP in efficient way should be a practical strategy to benefit schizophrenia patient in a real world treatment setting. With this regard, LAIs can be one of available APP regimen for treatment of schizophrenia in routine practice since their clinical utility and pharmacokinetic stability over oral APs have been well-elaborated today. However, when we have to commence LAIs as a part of APP with oral APs or other LAIs, every effort should be made before doing so whether or not validated and available treatment options or other clinical factors were not done or evaluated yet. Any treatment guidelines do not support APP regardless of the formulation of APP regimen or address two or more LAIs for treatment of schizophrenia till today.

6.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 600-609, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914082

ABSTRACT

The mainstay of schizophrenia treatment is pharmacological therapy using various antipsychotics including first- and second-generation antipsychotics which have different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic property leading to differential presentation of adverse events (AEs) and treatment effects such as negative symptoms, cognitive symptoms and cormorbid symptoms. Major treatment guidelines suggest the use of antipsychotic monotherapy (APM) as a gold standard in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, the effects of APM is inadequate and less potent to achieve symptom remission as well as functional recovery in real practice which has been consistently reported in numerous controlled clinical trials, large practical trials, independent small studies and systematic reviews till today. Therefore antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) regardless of the class of antipsychotics has been also commonly utilized for many reasons in real world practice. However, APP has also crucial pitfalls including increase of total psychotics including antipsychotics, high-doses of antipsychotics used, poor compliance, drug-drug interaction and risks for developing AEs, all of which are paradoxically related to poor clinical outcomes, whereas APP has also substantial advantages in reduction of re-hospitalization, severe psychopathology and targeted control of concurrent symptoms. Given currently limited therapeutic options, it is also important to properly utilize APP in order to maximize its clinical utility and minimize its risk for better treatment outcomes for patients with schizophrenia, based on risk/benefit with full understanding of pharmacological and clinical issues on APP. The present paper intends to address intriguing and important issues in the use of APP in real world practice.

7.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 233-242, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890214

ABSTRACT

Objective@#In a number of controlled clinical trials and naturalistic studies, aripiprazole once monthly (AOM) has been found to be effective and safe as acute and maintenance treatment options for schizophrenia. However, such clinical data have been presented in selected patient population (i.e., antipsychotic monotherapy, etc.), in particular, clinical information on switching to AOM from antipsychotic polypharmacy and/or other long acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) has been scarce till today. @*Methods@#The study period was from the first switching day to AOM up to 12 months in patients with antipsychotic polypharmacy (APpoly)/LAIs (baseline, month 3, month 6, and month 12). Available demographics and clinical information were retrieved from electronic medical records (EMRs). Available scores of Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Clinical Global Impression-Clinical Benefit (CGI-CB), CGI-severity, Visual Analog Scale on Satisfaction-Patient/Health Professional (VAS-P/HP), and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale-Insigh (PANSS-I) scores were also taken from EMR. Proportional change of functional impairment before and after AOM was also captured. @*Results@#Data of 18 patients were available. Most commonly used combined APs before AOM were aripiprazole, blonanserin, quetiapine, and risperidone. At least 2 APs (n = 2.4) were combined before AOM. Scores of GAF (10.7% increase), CGI-CB (46.2% decrease), VAS-P (47.8% increase), VAS-HP (40.8% increase), and PANSS-I (27.9% increase) (all p = 0.001) were significantly improved from baseline to month 12, respectively. Approximately 59% of patients improved individual functioning with different level (i.e., employment, back to school, etc.) after AOM treatment at month 12. @*Conclusion@#The present study have clearly shown the clinical benefit and utility of switching to AOM for treatment of patients with APpoly/LAIs in routine practice. Subsequent, adequately-powered, well-controlled clinical trials may be necessary to confirm our findings in near future.

8.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 434-448, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-890193

ABSTRACT

Antipsychotic monotherapy (APM) is considered best-acceptable treatment option regardless of antipsychotic class and formulation types for treating schizophrenia. However, antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) has been also widely utilized in routine clinical practice. Despite APP has some clinical benefits it has also numerous pitfalls in relation with increased total number and doses of APs leading to adverse events as well as decrease of treatment adherence and persistence resulting in poor clinical outcomes. Recent introduction of long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) to the market has offered a chance for better medication adherence/persistence and also provided a simplification of treatment regime leading to more stabilized treatment for schizophrenia patients. When we cannot stay away from APP in the treatment of schizophrenia, clinicians need to find more proper APP regimens and thereby utilization of APP in efficient way should be a practical strategy to benefit schizophrenia patient in a real world treatment setting. With this regard, LAIs can be one of available APP regimen for treatment of schizophrenia in routine practice since their clinical utility and pharmacokinetic stability over oral APs have been well-elaborated today. However, when we have to commence LAIs as a part of APP with oral APs or other LAIs, every effort should be made before doing so whether or not validated and available treatment options or other clinical factors were not done or evaluated yet. Any treatment guidelines do not support APP regardless of the formulation of APP regimen or address two or more LAIs for treatment of schizophrenia till today.

9.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 231-240, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832067

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Genetic variations in the gene encoding zinc finger protein 804A gene (ZNF804A) have been associated with major depression and bipolar disorder. In this work we focused on the potential influence of ZNF804A variations on the risk of developing specific sub-phenotypes as well as the individual response to available treatments. @*Methods@#We used two samples of different ethnic origin: a Korean sample, composed by 242 patients diagnosed with major depression and 132 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder and 326 healthy controls; an Italian sample composed 151 major depression subjects, 189 bipolar disorder subjects and 38 outpatients diagnosed for a primary anxiety disorder. @*Results@#Our analyses reported an association of rs1344706 with psychotic phenotype in the cross-diagnostic pooled sample (geno p = 4.15 × 10−4, allelic p = 1.06 × 10−4). In the cross-diagnosis Italian sample but not in the Korean one, rs7597593 was involved with depressive symptoms improvement after treatment (geno p = 0.025, allelic p = 0.007). @*Conclusion@#The present study evidenced the role of ZNF804A alterations in symptoms improvement after treatment. Both manic and depressive symptoms seem to be modulated by ZNF804A, though the latter was observed in the bipolar pooled sample only. The role of this factor is likely related to synaptic development and maintenance; however, further analyses will be needed to better understand the molecular mechanics involved with ZNF804A.

10.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 153-158, 2020.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-832038

ABSTRACT

Objective@#This study was done for collection of real world data of Aripiprazole Once Monthly (AOM) in patients with schizophrenia. @*Methods@#The observation was up to 12 months from the first use of AOM in patients with antipsychotic polypharmacy (APpoly)/other long acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) for treatment of schizophrenia in daily practice. Demographics and available clinical information such as The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Clinical Global Impression-severity (CGI-S) scores were retrieved from the electronic medical record (EMR). Adverse events were also noted as described in EMR. @*Results@#Eighteen patients were found to be switched from APpoly/LAIs. Mean numbers of previous APs treatment failure and immediate prior APs were 2.2 and 2.4, respectively; most commonly used APs before AOM were aripiprazole, blonanserin, quetiapine, and risperidone. Mean number of combined APs before AOM significantly decreased from 2.4 use to 0.7 at month 12 (p < 0.0001). The PANSS total (71.7 to 62.1, p = 0.000) and CGI-S (3.4 to 3.1, p = 0.008) scores were also significantly decreased from baseline (first use of AOM) to month 12, respectively. Other various psychotropics including anxiolytics were also significantly and substantially decreased at some point from baseline throughout the observation period as well. Mild hand tremor and akathisia were developed in 3 patients. @*Conclusion@#The present observation study clearly confirmed the use of AOM should be also effective and tolerable treatment option for patients with APpoly/LAIs in the real world practice. Subsequent, adequately-powered, and well-controlled clinical trials are warranted in near future.

12.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 495-502, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763573

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to observe potential benefit of aripiprazole augmentation in the treatment of major depressive disorder with mixed specifier (MDDM) in naturalistic treatment setting. METHODS: Data were collected from MDDM patients using a retrospective chart review for 8 weeks (week –8 and week 0) in routine practice. All patients were on current antidepressants upon starting of aripiprazole. Patients were treated without restriction of doses of aripiprazole. The primary endpoint was the mean change of Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total scores along with various secondary endpoint measures. RESULTS: In total 38 patients were analyzed. The changes of MADRS, Clinical Global Impression (CGI)-severity, Young Mania Rating Scale, Sheehan Disability Scale, and CGI-clinical benefit total scores from baseline to the endpoint were −7.1, −0.8, −4.9, −4.1, and −3.6, respectively (all p < 0.0001). At the endpoint, the responder and remitter rates by MADRS score criteria were approximately 32% and 21%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The present findings have clearly shown the effectiveness and tolerability of aripiprazole augmentation for MDDM patients in routine practice. The present study warrants subsequent, adequately-powered, well-controlled studies for generalizability near future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antidepressive Agents , Aripiprazole , Bipolar Disorder , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Depressive Disorder, Major , Retrospective Studies
13.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 364-368, 2019.
Article | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763557

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Genetics factors are likely to play a role in the risk, clinical presentation and treatment outcome in major depressive disorder (MDD). In this study, we investigated the role of three candidate genes for MDD; calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 C (CACNA1C), cholinergic receptor nicotinic alpha 7 subunit (CHRNA7), and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK1). METHODS: Two-hundred forty-two MDD patients and 326 healthy controls of Korean ancestry served as samples for the analyses. Thirty-nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within CACNA1C, CHRNA7, and MAPK1 genes were genotyped and subsequently tested for association with MDD (primary analysis) and other clinical features (symptoms’ severity, age of onset, history of suicide attempt, treatment outcome) (secondary analyses). Single SNPs, haplotypes and epistatic analyses were performed. RESULTS: Single SNPs were not associated with disease risk and clinical features. However, a combination of alleles (haplotype) within MAPK1 was found associated with MDD-status. Secondary analyses detected a possible involvement of CACNA1C haplotype in resistance to antidepressant treatment. CONCLUSION: These data suggest a role for MAPK1 and CACNA1C in MDD risk and treatment resistance, respectively. However, since many limitations characterize the analysis, the results must be considered with great caution and verified.


Subject(s)
Humans , Age of Onset , Alleles , Calcium , Depression , Depressive Disorder, Major , Genetics , Haplotypes , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 , Neuronal Plasticity , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Suicide , Treatment Outcome
14.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 101-112, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714749

ABSTRACT

Randomized trials have shown that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) have better safety profiles than classical tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). However, an increasing number of studies, including meta-analyses, naturalistic studies, and longer-term studies suggested that SSRIs and SNRIs are no less safe than TCAs. We focused on comparing the common side effects of TCAs with those of newer generation antidepressants including SSRIs, SNRIs, mirtazapine, and bupropion. The main purpose was to investigate safety profile differences among drug classes rather than the individual antidepressants, so studies containing comparison data on drug groups were prioritized. In terms of safety after overdose, the common belief on newer generation antidepressants having fewer side effects than TCAs appears to be true. TCAs were also associated with higher drop-out rates, lower tolerability, and higher cardiac side-effects. However, evidence regarding side effects including dry mouth, gastrointestinal side effects, hepatotoxicity, seizure, and weight has been inconsistent, some studies demonstrated the superiority of SSRIs and SNRIs over TCAs, while others found the opposite. Some other side effects such as sexual dysfunction, bleeding, and hyponatremia were more prominent with either SSRIs or SNRIs.


Subject(s)
Antidepressive Agents , Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic , Bupropion , Depressive Disorder , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Hemorrhage , Hyponatremia , Mouth , Seizures , Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors , Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors
15.
Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience ; : 469-480, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718214

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pharmacogenomic-based antidepressant treatment (PGATx) may result in more precise pharmacotherapy of major depressive disorder (MDD) with better drug therapy guidance. METHODS: An 8-week, randomized, single-blind clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of PGATx in 100 patients with MDD. All recruited patients were randomly allocated either to PGATx (n=52) or treatment as usual (TAU, n=48) groups. The primary endpoint was a change of total score of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 (HAMD-17) from baseline to end of treatment. Response rate (at least 50% reduction in HAMD-17 score from baseline), remission rate (HAMD-17 score ≥7 at the end of treatment) as well as the change of total score of Frequency, Intensity, and Burden of Side Effects Ratings (FIBSER) from baseline to end of treatment were also investigated. RESULTS: The mean change of HAMD-17 score was significantly different between two groups favoring PGATx by −4.1 point of difference (p=0.010) at the end of treatment. The mean change in the FIBSER score from baseline was significantly different between two treatment groups favoring PGATx by −2.5 point of difference (p=0.028). The response rate (71.7 % vs. 43.6%, p=0.014) were also significantly higher in PGATx than in TAU at the end of treatment, while the remission rate was numerically higher in PGATx than in TAU groups without statistical difference (45.5% vs. 25.6%, p=0.071). The reason for early drop-out associated with adverse events was also numerically higher in TAU (n=9, 50.0%) than in PGATx (n=4, 30.8%). CONCLUSION: The present study clearly demonstrate that PGATx may be a better treatment option in the treatment of MDD in terms of effectiveness and tolerability; however, study shortcomings may limit a generalization. Adequately-powered, well-designed, subsequent studies should be mandatory to prove its practicability and clinical utility for routine practice.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antidepressive Agents , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Depressive Disorder, Major , Drug Therapy , Generalization, Psychological , Precision Medicine
16.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 289-297, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-164263

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A clinically relevant approach to patient care grounded in neurobiological constructs and evidence based practice which emphasizes a relevant psychopharmacology is needed to optimally train psychiatry residents. METHODS: We implemented a biological psychiatry course that now incorporates neurobiology, psychopharmacology, and evidence-based practice in conjunction with a Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) perspective. A survey launched prior to course implementation and following each class session, served as the outcome metric of residents' attitudes toward the new curriculum and followed a baseline attitudinal survey designed to evaluate the program. RESULTS: Greater than 90% of the psychiatry residents at Duke University who took the attitudinal survey agreed or strongly agreed with needing a course that helped them develop an understanding of neurobiology, psychopharmacology, and evidence-based practice concepts. Most residents also indicated a less than adequate understanding of the neurobiology and psychopharmacology of psychiatric disorders prior to sessions. CONCLUSION: Our biological psychiatry curriculum was associated with enthusiasm among residents regarding the incorporation of neurobiology, psychopharmacology, and evidence-based practice into course topics and discussions. A biological psychiatry curriculum with integrated neurobiology and psychopharmacology built on an evidence base approach is possible, well-received, and needed in training of future psychiatrists.


Subject(s)
Biological Psychiatry , Curriculum , Evidence-Based Practice , Learning , Neurobiology , Patient Care , Problem-Based Learning , Psychiatry , Psychopharmacology , Teaching
17.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 159-172, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788352

ABSTRACT

Less than one third of patients who suffer from major depressive disorder (MDD) report remission following antidepressant treatments requiring more diverse treatment approaches. Augmentation of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) has been increasingly recognized as an important treatment option. The authors have previously provided a comprehensive review of SGAs for the treatment of MDD in 2013. Since then, numerous additional clinical trials have been conducted to investigate diverse issues regarding the utility of SGAs in MDD. Moreover, a new SGA, brexpiprazole, was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration in July 2015 for the treatment of MDD as an augmentation agent to antidepressants. Thus, the aim of this study was to provide a concise update of all the available SGAs for the treatment of MDD, in particular on the additional clinical trials which have been published since 2013.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antidepressive Agents , Antipsychotic Agents , Depressive Disorder , Depressive Disorder, Major , Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant , United States Food and Drug Administration
18.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 91-100, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-788341

ABSTRACT

Vilazodone is a novel antidepressant having a selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT(1A) receptor partial agonist profile, so it has been regarded as a serotonin partial agonist-reuptake inhibitor (SPARI). We aimed to provide Vilazodone's clinical implications mainly by reviewing published clinical trials. Vilazodone has been speculated to have three potential benefits including faster onset of action, greater efficacy, and better tolerability owning to its SPARI properties. However, no studies conducted so far have directly proven the above speculations. Five initial phase II trials failed to distinguish vilazodone from placebo in the treatment of MDD, but 4 randomized clinical trials (RCT), 3 post-hoc or pooled analysis, 1 long-term open label study, and a meta-analysis showed vilazodone's superior efficacy over placebo. The studies also showed vilazodone is generally safe and tolerable. However, diarrhea, nausea, headache, dizziness, dry mouth, and insomnia warrant close attention in clinical practice because they have been constantly noted throughout the clinical studies. 2 RCTs recently documented the efficacy and safety of vilazodone in patients with generalized anxiety disorder, which could be a start of broadening vilazodone's usage or FDA approval in diverse anxiety disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antidepressive Agents , Anxiety Disorders , Depression , Diarrhea , Dizziness , Headache , Mouth , Nausea , Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A , Serotonin , Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Vilazodone Hydrochloride
19.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 159-172, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-25332

ABSTRACT

Less than one third of patients who suffer from major depressive disorder (MDD) report remission following antidepressant treatments requiring more diverse treatment approaches. Augmentation of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) has been increasingly recognized as an important treatment option. The authors have previously provided a comprehensive review of SGAs for the treatment of MDD in 2013. Since then, numerous additional clinical trials have been conducted to investigate diverse issues regarding the utility of SGAs in MDD. Moreover, a new SGA, brexpiprazole, was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration in July 2015 for the treatment of MDD as an augmentation agent to antidepressants. Thus, the aim of this study was to provide a concise update of all the available SGAs for the treatment of MDD, in particular on the additional clinical trials which have been published since 2013.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antidepressive Agents , Antipsychotic Agents , Depressive Disorder , Depressive Disorder, Major , Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant , United States Food and Drug Administration
20.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 91-100, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-94059

ABSTRACT

Vilazodone is a novel antidepressant having a selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT(1A) receptor partial agonist profile, so it has been regarded as a serotonin partial agonist-reuptake inhibitor (SPARI). We aimed to provide Vilazodone's clinical implications mainly by reviewing published clinical trials. Vilazodone has been speculated to have three potential benefits including faster onset of action, greater efficacy, and better tolerability owning to its SPARI properties. However, no studies conducted so far have directly proven the above speculations. Five initial phase II trials failed to distinguish vilazodone from placebo in the treatment of MDD, but 4 randomized clinical trials (RCT), 3 post-hoc or pooled analysis, 1 long-term open label study, and a meta-analysis showed vilazodone's superior efficacy over placebo. The studies also showed vilazodone is generally safe and tolerable. However, diarrhea, nausea, headache, dizziness, dry mouth, and insomnia warrant close attention in clinical practice because they have been constantly noted throughout the clinical studies. 2 RCTs recently documented the efficacy and safety of vilazodone in patients with generalized anxiety disorder, which could be a start of broadening vilazodone's usage or FDA approval in diverse anxiety disorders.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antidepressive Agents , Anxiety Disorders , Depression , Diarrhea , Dizziness , Headache , Mouth , Nausea , Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT1A , Serotonin , Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Vilazodone Hydrochloride
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