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Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e08912020, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250824


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cerebrospinal fluid analysis contributes to the diagnosis and neuropathogenesis of neuroinvasive arboviruses. Neurological complications caused by dengue, Zika, and chikungunya infections have high clinical relevance because of their high potential to cause death or neurological deficits. We aimed to evaluate the use of cerebrospinal fluid assays for diagnostic support in neurological disorders associated with dengue, chikungunya, and Zika infections. METHODS: A systematic review was carried out by searching the electronic databases LILACS, PubMed, Scopus, and Embase for articles written in English, Portuguese, or Spanish in the last 19 years. Published studies were reviewed using the terms "dengue," "Zika", "chikungunya", alone or in combination with "cerebrospinal fluid" in the period from 2000 to 2019. RESULTS: A total of 98,060 studies were identified; of these, 1.1% (1,041 studies, 58,478 cases) used cerebrospinal fluid assays for neurological investigations. The most frequent neurological disorders included encephalitis (41.4%), congenital syndromes (17%), and microcephaly associated with Zika virus infections (8.9%). Neuroinvasive disorders were confirmed in 8.03% of 58,478 cases by specific cerebrospinal fluid analyses. The main methods used were IgM-specific antibodies (66%) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (10%). The largest number of scientific papers (29%) originated from Brazil, followed by India (18.4%) and the United States (14.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Although cerebrospinal fluid analysis is of great importance for increasing neurological diagnostic accuracy and contributes to the early diagnosis of neuroinvasive dengue, chikungunya, and Zika infections, it is underused in routine laboratory investigations worldwide.

Humans , Chikungunya virus , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue Virus , Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Brazil
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(3): 163-168, Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1098075


Abstract Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a cause of a severe disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in humans. The demonstration of specific antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may contribute to the retrospective neurological diagnosis. However, the commercial immunological tests for HSV infection are for use in serum samples. Objective: The aim of the present study was to adapt a commercial kit anti-HSV IgG used for serum samples to be performed with a CSF sample. Methods: Forty CSF specimens from 38 patients with suspected CNS HSV infection were serially diluted for detecting anti-HSV IgG by enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The same samples were also analyzed with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The sensitivity of EIA test for HSV was 5% (dilution 1:40) and 65% (dilution 1:2) in CSF, and HSV DNA PCR was 15%. The combined analysis of EIA (dilution 1:2) and PCR increased the sensitivity up to 72.5%. The inflammatory CSF was associated with positive HSV PCR. Conclusions: We demonstrated the importance to adapt serological anti-HSV IgG EIA test for CSF assays to increase the accuracy of the analysis, considering the low concentration of specific antibodies in CSF.

Resumo O vírus herpes simples (HSV) é um dos agentes causadores de uma doença grave no sistema nervoso central (SNC) em humanos. A detecção de anticorpos específicos no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) pode contribuir para o diagnóstico neurológico retrospectivo. Entretanto, os testes imunológicos comerciais são para uso em amostras de soro. Objetivo: Adaptar um kit comercial sorológico anti-HSV IgG para ser utilizado no de LCR. Metodos: Quarenta amostras de LCR de 38 pacientes com suspeita de infecção por HSV no SNC foram diluídas pesquisa de anticorpos anti-HSV IgG pelo método imunoenzimático (EIA). Além disso, as mesmas amostras também foram analisadas por reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Resultados: A sensibilidade do teste EIA para o HSV consistiu em 5% (diluição 1:40) e 65% (diluição 1:2) no LCR, e o PCR do DNA do HSV, 15%. A análise combinada de EIA (diluição 1:2) e PCR aumentou a sensibilidade para 72,5%. Houve associação entre presença do LCR inflamatório e PCR positiva para HSV. Conclusões: Demonstramos a importância na adaptação previa do teste sorológico anti-HSV IgG EIA para ensaios do no LCR, a fim de aumentar a acuracia da análise, considerando a baixa concentração de anticorpos específicos no LCR.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Simplexvirus/isolation & purification , Herpes Simplex/diagnosis , Herpes Simplex/virology , Antibodies, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Viral Proteins , DNA, Viral/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Retrospective Studies , Simplexvirus/genetics , DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/genetics , Exodeoxyribonucleases , Herpes Simplex/cerebrospinal fluid , Nervous System
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200477, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136842


Abstract Recent reports indicate that besides respiratory and systemic symptoms among coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients, the disease has a wide spectrum of neurological manifestations (encephalitis, meningitis, myelitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, metabolic and acute hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalopathy, cerebrovascular diseases, Guillain-Barré syndrome, polyneuritis cranialis, dysautonomia, and myopathies). The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can spread from the respiratory system to the central nervous system, using transneuronal and hematogenous mechanisms. Although not every COVID-19 patient will test positive for the virus in the cerebrospinal fluid exam, the appearance of neurological symptoms associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection reveals the importance of understanding the neurologic manifestations and capacity for neural invasion associated with the pathogen. These aspects are relevant for correct diagnosis and treatment, and for the potential development of vaccines. This review highlights the latest evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection with a focus on neurological involvement and potential neuropathogenesis mechanisms.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pandemics , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Clinical Laboratory Techniques
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(2): 91-95, Feb. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983885


ABSTRACT Syphilis is a re-emerging sexually-transmitted infection, caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum, that may penetrate early into the central nervous system. The venereal disease research laboratory test (VDRL) on the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the most widely used for neurosyphilis diagnosis. We evaluated the performance of two other nontreponemal tests (rapid plasma reagin [RPR] and unheated serum reagin [USR] tests) in comparison with the VDRL in CSF. Methods: We analyzed CSF samples from 120 individuals based on VDRL reactivity in the CSF and the clinical picture of neurosyphilis. Results: High inter-rater reliability was found among all three tests, with equivalent sensitivity and specificity. Intraclass correlation coefficient for absolute agreement was 1 for VDRL versus USR, 0.99 for VDRL versus RPR, and 0.99 for RPR versus USR. Conclusions: Rapid plasma reagin and unheated serum reagin tests were identified as excellent alternatives for neurosyphilis diagnosis.

RESUMO A sífilis é uma infecção reemergente sexualmente transmissível pelo espiroqueta Treponema pallidum, que pode penetrar precocemente no sistema nervoso central. O teste venereal disease research laboratory test (VDRL) no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) é o mais amplamente utilizado para diagnóstico de neurossífilis. Avalia-se o desempenho de dois outros testes não treponêmicos (rapid plasma reagin - RPR and unheated serum reagin - USR tests) em comparação ao VDRL no LCR. Métodos: Foram analisadas amostras de LCR de 120 indivíduos com base no quadro clínico compatível com neurossifilis e reatividade no VDRL no LCR. Resultados: Os testes apresentaram elevada concordância. O coeficiente de correlação intraclasse para concordância absoluta foi de 1 para VDRL versus USR, 0,99 para VDRL versus RPR e 0,99 para RPR versus USR. Conclusões: Os testes rapid plasma reagin e unheated serum reagin foram identificados como excelentes alternativas para o diagnóstico de neurossífilis.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Syphilis Serodiagnosis/methods , Antibodies, Bacterial/cerebrospinal fluid , Neurosyphilis/diagnosis , Neurosyphilis/cerebrospinal fluid , Reference Values , Case-Control Studies , Reproducibility of Results , Analysis of Variance , Sensitivity and Specificity , Statistics, Nonparametric , Neurosyphilis/immunology , Neurosyphilis/blood
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180450, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976243


BACKGROUND Amazon, the largest tropical forest of the world, has suffered from dengue outbreaks since 1998. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients, from Amazonas state, suspected of central nervous system (CNS) viral infection was studied using molecular and immunological methods. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the importance of CSF investigation in patients with acute dengue virus (DENV) infection of CNS. METHODS CSF samples of 700 patients were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the presence of dengue virus (DENV) RNA and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect presence of DENV specific IgM. FINDINGS DENV infection was detected in 4.3% of the CSF samples; 85.7% (24/28) by DENV IgM and 14.3% (4/28) by viral RNA. DENV detected by viral RNA were to be found serotypes DENV-2 (three patients) and DENV-1 (one patient). The neurological diagnosis in patients CNS infection of DENV included encephalitis (10), meningoencephalitis (10), meningitis (6), acute myelitis (1), and encephalomyelitis (1). The majority (89.3%) had intrathecal inflammation: pleocytosis, hyperproteinorrachia and DENV IgM antibodies. Hypoglycorrhachia and/or high levels of lactate in CSF were found in 36% of the patients. Co-infection (CMV, HIV, EBV, and/or Mycobacterium tuberculosis) was observed in eight (28.6%) cases. CONCLUSIONS We found intense inflammatory CSF that is unusual in CNS disorders caused by dengue infection. It may be due co-infections or the immunogenetic background of the local Amerindian Brazilian population. CSF examination is an important diagnostic support tool for neurological dengue diagnosis.

Humans , Cerebrospinal Fluid/metabolism , Flavivirus Infections/prevention & control , Meningitis/therapy , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Dengue Virus , Encephalitis
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(2): 123-126, Feb. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838867


ABSTRACT Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya are emerging arboviruses and important causes of acute febrile disease in tropical areas. Although dengue does not represent a new condition, a geographic expansion over time has occurred with the appearance of severe neurological complications. Neglect has allowed the propagation of the vector (Aedes spp), which is also responsible for the transmission of other infections such as Zika and Chikungunya throughout the world. The increased number of infected individuals has contributed to the rise of neurological manifestations including encephalitis, myelitis, meningitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital malformations such as microcephaly. In this narrative review, we characterize the impact of the geographic expansion of the vector on the appearance of neurological complications, and highlight the lack of highly accurate laboratory tests for nervous system infections. This represents a challenge for public health in the world, considering the high number of travelers and people living in endemic areas.

RESUMO Dengue, Zika e Chikungunya são arbovírus emergentes e importante causa de doença febril aguda em áreas tropicais. Embora a dengue não represente uma doença nova, houve uma expansão geográfica ao longo do tempo, com o aparecimento de complicações neurológicas graves. A negligência desta situação permitiu a propagação do vetor (Aedes spp) em todo o mundo, que também é responsável pela transmissão de outras infecções pelos vírus Zika e Chikungunya. O grande número de casos infectados contribui para o aumento de manifestações neurológicas incluindo encefalite, mielite, meningite, síndrome de Guillain-Barré e má formações congênitas, como microcefalia. Nesta revisão narrativa, destaca-se o impacto da expansão geográfica do vetor no aparecimento de complicações neurológicas e a falta de testes laboratoriais de elevada acurácia para o diagnóstico da infecção neurológica. Estes aspectos representam desafio para a saúde pública mundial, considerando o grande número de indivíduos que moram ou viajam para áreas endêmicas.

Humans , Animals , Dengue/complications , Chikungunya Fever/complications , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Insect Vectors/virology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Dengue/transmission , Chikungunya Fever/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/transmission
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 74(4): 280-286, Apr. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-779811


ABSTRACT HTLV-1-associated myelopathy is a progressive disabling disease associated with gait abnormalities. Objective To identify and quantify the main muscles affected by weakness and spasticity, their impact on gait, functional capacity and on quality of life of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy patients. Method We evaluated lower limbs muscular strength according to the Medical Research Council scale, spasticity according to the modified Ashworth scale, daily activities according to the Barthel Index and quality of life according to the Short-Form Health Survey-36 of 26 HTLV-1-associated myelopathy patients. Results The muscles most affected by weakness included the dorsal flexors and knee flexors. Spasticity predominated in the hip adductor muscles and in plantar flexors. Assistance for locomotion, minimal dependence in daily activities, limitations in functional capacity and physical aspects were the most common findings. Conclusion The impairment of gait, functional dependence and quality of life were predominantly a consequence of intense muscle weakness in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy patients.

RESUMO Mielopatia associada ao HTLV-1 é uma doença inflamatória, incapacitante e progressiva que acomete o sistema nervoso central. Objetivo Identificar e quantificar os principais músculos comprometidos pela fraqueza e espasticidade, o impacto na capacidade funcional e na qualidade de vida dos pacientes com mielopatia associada ao HTLV-1. Método Força muscular ( Medical Research Council), espasticidade (escala Ashworth modificada), atividades de vida diária (Índice de Barthel) e qualidade de vida ( Short-Form Health Survey-36) foram avaliados em 26 pacientes . Resultados Os principais músculos comprometidos pela fraqueza incluíram os flexores dorsais e flexores do joelho. A espasticidade predominou nos músculos adutores do quadril e nos flexores plantares. Assistência para locomoção, dependência mínima nas atividades diárias, limitações na capacidade funcional e os aspectos físicos representaram os achados mais frequentes. Conclusão Dificuldade de deambulação, dependência funcional e prejuízo na qualidade de vida foram as principais consequências da intensa fraqueza muscular nos pacientes com mielopatia associada ao HTLV-1.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Gait Disorders, Neurologic/physiopathology , Muscle Weakness/physiopathology , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic/physiopathology , Quality of Life , Walking/physiology , Activities of Daily Living , Knee/physiopathology , Muscle Spasticity/physiopathology , Muscle Tonus/physiology , Prospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors , Wheelchairs
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(8): 698-703, 08/2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-753039


Dengue virus (DENV) infects approximately 390 million persons every year in more than 100 countries. Reports of neurological complications are more frequently. The objective of this narrative review is to bring up the advances in the dengue neuropathogenesis. DENV can access the nervous system through blood-brain barrier disturbance mediated by cytokine. The blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier seems to be also involved, considering the presence of the virus in the CSF of patients with neurological manifestations. As for neurotropism, several studies showed the presence of RNA and viral antigens in brain tissue and CSF in humans. In murine model, different virus mutations were associated to neurovirulence. Despite the advances in the dengue neuropathogenesis, it is still necessary to determine a more appropriate animal model and increase the number of cases of autopsy. The detection of neurovirulence markers may contribute to establish a prognosis, the disease control and vaccine development.

O vírus da dengue (DENV) infecta anualmente cerca de 390 milhões de indivíduos em mais de 100 países. Complicações neurológicas estão se tornando frequentes. O objetivo desta revisão narrativa é abordar os avanços sobre neuropatogênese na dengue. O DENV invade o sistema nervoso central através do distúrbio da barreira hemato-encefálica, mediado por citocina. A barreira hemato-liquórica (LCR) parece também estar envolvida, considerando a presença do vírus no LCR. Estudos demonstraram RNA e antígenos virais no tecido cerebral e LCR de indivíduos infectados pelo DENV, confirmando o neurotropismo viral. Em modelo murino, diferentes mutações virais foram associadas a neurovirulência. Apesar dos avanços no conhecimento da neuropatogênese da dengue, ainda são necessários a determinação de um modelo animal mais adequado e aumento do número de casos de autopsia. A determinação de marcadores de neurovirulência pode contribuir para o estabelecimento de prognóstico, controle da doença e no desenvolvimento de vacina.

Animals , Humans , Central Nervous System Diseases/virology , Dengue Virus , Dengue/complications , Central Nervous System/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Dengue Virus/genetics , Dengue/virology , Medical Illustration , Mutation
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 108(6): 730-734, set. 2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-685488


Intrathecal synthesis of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) antibodies (Abs) represents conclusive evidence of a specific immune response in the central nervous system of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients. Western blotting (WB) for HTLV Abs in serum is a confirmatory test for HTLV-1 infection. The aim of this study was to standardise the Western blot to demonstrate the intrathecal pattern of Abs against HTLV-1 proteins in HAM/TSP patients. Paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples were selected from 20 patients with definite HAM/TSP, 19 HTLV-1 seronegative patients and two HTLV-1 patients without definite HAM/TSP. The presence of reactive bands of greater intensity in the CSF compared to serum (or bands in only the CSF) indicated the intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs. All definite HAM/TSP patients presented with an intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs; these Abs were not detected in the control patients. The most frequent intrathecal targets of anti-HTLV-1 Abs were GD21, rgp46-I and p24 and, to a lesser extent, p19, p26, p28, p32, p36, p53 gp21 and gp46. The intrathecal immune response against env (GD21 and rgp46-I) and gag (p24) proteins represents the most important humoral pattern in HAM/TSP. This response may be used as a diagnostic marker, considering the frequent association of intrathecal anti-HTLV-1 Ab synthesis with HAM/TSP and the pathogenesis of this neurological disease.

Humans , Antibodies, Viral , Blotting, Western/standards , Central Nervous System/immunology , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1/immunology , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Central Nervous System/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gene Products, env/immunology , Gene Products, gag/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/cerebrospinal fluid , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic/blood , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic/cerebrospinal fluid , Sensitivity and Specificity
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 71(9B): 667-671, set. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688521


Dengue is an important global public health problem. The World Health Organization estimates that 2/5 of entire world population are in risk of dengue infection. Almost 50 millions cases occur annually, with at least 20 thousand deaths. The etiological agent of this acute febrile disease is a single-strand positive-sense RNA virus of Flavivirus genus. It is an arboviral disease transmitted by Aedes sp. mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus). Most infected individuals present asymptomatic infection, but some may develop clinical signs. Therefore, a wide spectrum of illness can be observed, ranging from unapparent, mild disease, called dengue fever, to a severe and occasionally fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome. Currently, neurological manifestations related to dengue infections are increasingly been observed and appears as a challenge for medical practice. In this study the neurological complications of dengue infection will be reviewed, focusing a better understanding of the disease for the clinical practice.

A dengue é um importante problema de saúde pública. A Organização Mundial de Saúde estima que 2/5 da população mundial encontra-se em risco de desenvolver a infecção. Cerca de 50 milhões de casos ocorrem anualmente, com ao menos 20 mil mortes. O agente etiológico desta doença febril aguda é um vírus RNA, do gênero Flavivirus. Este arbovírus é transmitido pelo mosquito Aedes sp. A maioria dos indivíduos infectados apresenta infecção assintomática, porém alguns desenvolvem sintomas clínicos. Estes manifestações podem variar desde uma doença inaparente, branda, conhecida como febre da dengue, até uma forma severa, sendo fatal em alguns casos como na febre hemorrágica da dengue/síndrome de choque da dengue. Atualmente, manifestações neurológicas associadas à dengue são cada vez mais frequentes, tornando-se um desafio na rotina médica. Neste estudo, as complicações neurológicas da dengue serão revisadas, com ênfase na melhor compreensão acerca da doença para a prática clínica.

Humans , Dengue Virus , Dengue/complications , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Dengue/cerebrospinal fluid , Nervous System Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Practice Patterns, Physicians'
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 70(9): 686-690, Sept. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-649302


The World Health Organization recommends the use of Osame's criterion (1990) for the diagnosis of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM/TSP). In 2006, a group of neurologists developed a Brazilian criterion that can diagnose HAM/TSP from its onset. OBJECTIVE: It was to test the agreement between both criteria. METHODS: The study included evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings of 35 patients. The ELISA, Western blot and/or polymerase chain reaction was used to search for anti-HTLV-I antibodies. The analysis of agreement was based on the calculation of Kappa. RESULTS: Concordance of 100% (Kappa=1) occurred in cases of "defined" HAM/TSP, but not in patients with "probable" diagnosis. CONCLUSION: The Brazilian criteria was as effective as Osame's criteria for the diagnosis of "defined" HAM/TSP. However, both require more specific biological markers in cerebrospinal fluid for the laboratory diagnosis of probable cases.

A Organização Mundial da Saúde recomenda o uso do critério de Osame (1990) para o diagnóstico da mielopatia associada ao vírus HTLV-I (HAM/TSP). Em 2006, um grupo de neurologistas elaborou um critério brasileiro capaz de diagnosticar HAM/TSP desde suas manifestações iniciais. OBJETIVO: Foi testar a concordância entre ambos os critérios. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu a avaliação dos achados clínicos e laboratoriais de 35 pacientes. Os métodos de ELISA, Western blot e/ou reação em cadeia da polimerase foram utilizados para pesquisa de anticorpos anti-HTLV-I. A análise da concordância baseou-se no cálculo do índice Kappa. RESULTADOS: Concordância de 100% (índice Kappa=1) ocorreu nos casos de HAM/TSP "definida", mas não nos pacientes com o diagnóstico "provável". CONCLUSÃO: O critério brasileiro foi tão eficaz quanto o critério de Osame para o diagnóstico de HAM/TSP "definido". No entanto, ambos necessitam de marcadores biológicos mais específicos no líquido cefalorraquidiano para o diagnóstico laboratorial dos casos prováveis.

Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , HTLV-I Antibodies/analysis , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic/diagnosis , Blotting, Western , Biomarkers/analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diagnosis, Differential , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prospective Studies
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 70(4): 246-251, Apr. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622586


OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between clinical data, white matter lesions and inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings in HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). METHOD: We studied brain and cervical spinal cord on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and CSF examinations of 28 Brazilian HAM/TSP patients. RESULTS: The majority of patients had severe neurological incapacity with EDSS median of 6.5 (3-8). The brain MRI showed white matter lesions (75%) and atrophy (14%). The preferential brain location was periventricular. Cervical demyelination lesions occurred in 11% of the cases, and cervical atrophy in 3.5%. One patient had enhancement lesions on T1 cervical spinal cord MRI. Cases with spinal cord lesions had signs of acute CSF inflammation. The brain white matter lesions predominated in the patients with higher age. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that an active inflammatory process is associated with the cervical spinal cord lesions in HAM/TSP. The brain abnormalities are not related to the clinical picture of HAM/TSP.

OBJETIVO: Analisar a associação entre aspectos clínicos, lesões de substância branca e reação inflamatória aguda no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) na mielopatia associa ao HTLV-1 (HAM/TSP). MÉTODO: Foram estudadas ressonâncias magnéticas (RM) do encéfalo/medula espinhal cervical e exame do LCR de 28 pacientes com HAM/TSP. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes apresentava grave incapacidade neurológica, com EDSS 6,5 (3-8). A RM revelou lesões da substância branca (75%) com predominância periventricular e atrofia cortical (14%). Lesões desmielinizantes cervicais ocorreram em 11% dos casos e atrofia em 3,5%. Um paciente apresentou lesão cervical na T1 com captação de contraste. Sinais de inflamação aguda no LCR ocorreram em situações de lesão da medula espinhal cervical. As alterações de substância branca do encéfalo predominaram nos indivíduos com maior faixa etária. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos achados sugerem que processo inflamatório com atividade clínica na HAM/TSP está associado a lesões da medula espinhal cervical. As anormalidades da substância branca encefálicas não são relacionadas ao quadro clínico de HAM/TSP.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Brain/pathology , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic/cerebrospinal fluid , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic/pathology , Atrophy/cerebrospinal fluid , Atrophy/pathology , Brain/virology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Prospective Studies , Spinal Cord/pathology , Spinal Cord/virology
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 69(2a): 208-211, Apr. 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-583774


OBJECTIVE: To identify the functional status and quality of life of HAM/TSP patients. METHOD: We evaluated prospectively 30 HAM/TSP patients (20 females) seen in the Neuroinfection Clinic of the HUGG. The functional capacity was analyzed by the functional independence measure (FIM), the expanded disability status (EDSS) scale and the Osame's motor disability score (OMDS). The quality of life was assed by the Short-Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36)TM. RESULTS: All patients need assistance device. The FIM, OMDS and EDSS scores classified 70 percent, 67 percent and 67 percent of the patients as dependent, respectively. The lowest scores of the SF-36 survey were found in the domains related to the physical health (D1, D2), role-emotional functioning (D7) and social functioning (D6). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the HAM/TSP physical impairment has an impact in the emotional and social issues, considering the limitation in the daily activities.

OBJETIVO: Avaliar a capacidade funcional e sua interferência na qualidade de vida de pacientes com HAM/TSP. MÉTODO: Foram analisados prospectivamente 30 casos (20 mulheres) de HAM/TSP, atendidos no Ambulatório de Neuroinfecção do HUGG. As escalas para avaliação da capacidade funcional consistiram em: medida de independência funcional (FIM), escala de incapacidade expandida (EDSS) e pontuação da incapacidade motora de Osame (OMDS). A qualidade de vida foi analisada pelo Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36)TM. RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes necessitavam de assistência para deambular. As escalas FIM, OMDS e EDDS classificaram 70 por cento, 67 por cento e 67 por cento dos pacientes como dependentes, respectivamente. A avaliação pelo SF-36 demonstrou menores escores nos domínios físico (D1, D2), emocional (D7) e social (D6). CONCLUSÃO: Os achados sugerem que a limitação nas atividades diárias decorrentes do envolvimento físico comprometem aspectos emocionais e sociais na HAM/TSP.

Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Activities of Daily Living , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic/physiopathology , Psychomotor Disorders/physiopathology , Quality of Life/psychology , Disability Evaluation , Prospective Studies , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic/complications , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic/psychology , Psychomotor Disorders/psychology , Psychomotor Disorders/virology , Severity of Illness Index
Rev. bras. neurol ; 46(4)out.-dez. 2010. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-577577


Introduction: Cysticercosis is an endemic disease in developing countries and is the most common parasitic infection of the central nervous system. The diagnosis is difficult and imaging may contribute to the confirmation. Objective: To report the evolution of brain lesions and the clinical response of a patient with a definitive diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NCC). Methods: We analyzed six computed tomography (CT) and three magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams, performed in a period of six years. Results: The serial imaging study revealed the involution of nine viable cysts and two degenerating cysts out of 39 lesions. It occurred after six years of disease and four courses of treatment with Albendazole. The other 28 lesions were calcified. Clinically, there was reduction in frequency of seizures after treatment with Albendazole and the onset of regular use of anticonvulsants (six per year to 1.8 per year). Conclusion: This case illustrates an instance of partial NCC efficacy to antiparasitic therapy, and demonstrates the role of serial imaging studies in the monitoring the evolution of NCC lesions and in characterizing the diversity of lesion appearance over time.

Introdução: A cisticercose é uma doença endêmica nos países em desenvolvimento. Representa a infecção parasitária mais comum dosistema nervoso central. O diagnóstico é difícil e o exame de imagem pode contribuir para a confirmação. Objetivo: Relatar a evolução das lesõesencefálicas, assim como avaliar a resposta clínica de um paciente com um diagnóstico definitivo do NCC. Métodos: Foram analisadas seistomografias computadorizadas (TC) e três ressonâncias magnéticas (RM) realizadas durante o período de seis anos. Resultados: O estudode imagem seriada revelou a involução de nove cistos viáveis e dois cistos em degeneração de 39 lesões. Isso ocorreu após seis anos de evolução da doença e quatro cursos de tratamento com albendazol. As outras 28 lesões encontravam-se calcificadas e aumentaram para 36 em número. Clinicamente, houve redução na frequência das crises após o tratamento com albendazol e do início do uso regular de anticonvulsivantes (seis por ano para 1,8 por ano). Conclusão: O caso demonstra a importância dos estudos da imagem seriada no acompanhamento das lesões da neurocisticercose (NCC), considerando a possibilidade de resistência medicamentosa e a necessidade da repetição do tratamento.

Humans , Male , Adult , Central Nervous System Parasitic Infections , Neurocysticercosis/diagnosis , Neurocysticercosis/drug therapy , Albendazole/therapeutic use , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Brazil , Skull , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Seizures , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 68(5): 761-763, Oct. 2010.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-562804


Meningitis and encephalitis are complications of West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Although WNV is endemic in North America, the virus has recently been reported in Colombia and Argentina. Investigation of WNV in Brazil is important since this virus has never been studied previously in this country. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of WNV infection in viral encephalitis/meningitis cases of unknown etiology in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHOD: Thirty-seven adults with viral meningitis/encephalitis had their serum and CSF tested for WNV antibodies using the ELISA method. RESULTS: Only one case was WNV-positive, but this case was also positive for dengue. The plaque reduction neutralization test distinguished infections, and was negative for WNV. CONCLUSION: WNV can be confused with dengue infection. Their symptoms and neurological picture are similar. We did not find WNV in any patients with encephalitis and meningitis in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Up to now, it has not been detected in Brazil.

Meningite e encefalite são complicações da infecção pelo vírus do Oeste do Nilo (VON). Embora o VON seja endêmico na América do Norte, recentemente o vírus foi descrito na Colômbia e Argentina. Sua pesquisa no Brasil é importante uma vez que o vírus nunca fora estudado antes em nosso país. OBJETIVO: Investigar a presença do VON em casos de meningite e encefalite viral de etiologia desconhecida, na cidade no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. MéTODO: Trinta e sete adultos com quadro de meningite/encefalite tiveram seu LCR e soro testados para anticorpos anti-VON, pelo método ELISA. RESULTADOS: Apenas um caso obteve sorologia positiva para VON, mas a sorologia para dengue também fora positiva. O teste da neutralização por redução de placa foi utilizado para distinção entre as infecções, sendo negativo para VON. CONCLUSÃO: A infecção por VON pode ser confundida com a infecção pelo vírus da dengue, seus sintomas e quadro neurológico são similares. Nós não encontramos o VON em pacientes com meningite/ encefalite na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Até o momento ele ainda não foi identificado no Brasil.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Dengue/diagnosis , Encephalitis/virology , Meningitis, Viral/virology , West Nile Fever/diagnosis , West Nile virus/immunology , Acute Disease , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Brazil , Diagnosis, Differential , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Encephalitis/diagnosis , Meningitis, Viral/diagnosis , Prospective Studies
Rev. bras. neurol ; 45(2): 41-46, abr.-jun. 2009.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-518014


A mielopatia associada ao HTLV-I ou paraparesia espástica tropical (HAM/TSP) é caracterizada por uma paraparesia espástica lentamente progressiva associada a disfunções esfincterianas e sensitivas. A enfermidade acomete indivíduos na faixa etária dos 30 aos 50 anos, sendo um diagnóstico negligenciado em crianças que se apresentam com paraparesia espástica de curso evolutivo. O presente estudo propõe uma revisão dos aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos relacionados à HAM/TSP, suas principais formas de transmissão e os critérios para o diagnóstico em crianças com queixas neurológicas sugestivas.O conhecimento detalhado dos aspectos clínicos e laboratoriais que definem tal condição na infância e na adolescência contribui para o diagnóstico precoce desta enfermidade neurológica incapacitante.

The HTLV-I-associated myelopathy or tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is characterized by a slowly progressive spastic paraparesis associated with sphincter and sensory dysfunction. The disorder usually affects people aged from 30 to 50 years. This diagnosis is neglected by many clinicians in children who present with spastic paraparesis of progressive course. This study proposes a revision of clinical and epidemiological aspects related to HAM/TSP in children, their main mechanisms of transmission and the diagnosis criteria with suggestive neurological complaints. The detailed knowledge of clinical and laboratory that define this condition in childhood and adolescence will help to early diagnosis of this disabling neurological illness.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Blood Transfusion , Breast Feeding , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic/diagnosis , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Brazil , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1
J. bras. patol. med. lab ; 45(2): 99-110, abr. 2009. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-522581


O vírus linfotrópico de células T humanas do tipo I (HTLV-I) pode causar uma doença neurológica inflamatória, crônica e incapacitante, que acomete a medula espinhal, denominada mielopatia associada ao HTLV-I/paraparesia espástica tropical (PET/MAH). A verificação de anticorpos da classe G (IgG) anti-HTLV-I no soro e no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) representa importante parâmetro para o diagnóstico laboratorial da PET/MAH. OBJETIVO: Avaliação crítica dos métodos utilizados para verificação da presença e da produção intratecal de anticorpos totais e anti-HTLV-I no LCR para o diagnóstico de PET/MAH. MÉTODO: Realizou-se uma revisão sistemática de artigos da literatura médica, usando-se palavras-chave da língua inglesa como cerebrospinal fluid, intrathecal synthesis of antibodies, HTLV-I, HAM/TSP. As bases de dados utilizadas incluíram Pubmed, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs), MEDlars onLINE (Medline) e Cochrane Library. RESULTADO: Foram selecionados 14 artigos: cinco relacionados com a presença do anticorpo IgG específico no LCR; nove sobre síntese intratecal de anticorpos totais (IgG ou IgG/IgA/IgM) e específicos anti-HTLV-I (IgG ou IgM). DISCUSSÃO: O estudo isolado da presença de anticorpo IgG anti-HTLV-I no LCR não discrimina a fração produzida no sistema nervoso central (SNC), possui baixa especificidade (40 por cento) para o diagnóstico de PET/MAH. A demonstração da síntese intratecal de anticorpos IgG anti-HTLV-I possui maior relevância por suas elevadas especificidade (89 por cento) e sensibilidade (83 por cento). Entre os métodos para a avaliação da síntese intratecal de anticorpo específico, destaca-se o índice de IgG anti-HTLV-I, segundo Reiber e Felgenhauer(18), o qual se baseia no teste do ensaio imunossorvente ligado à enzima (ELISA), com análise simultânea do LCR e do soro. Outros estudos utilizam pequenas amostragens e não demonstram sensibilidade e especificidade no teste do LCR...

The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) may cause HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), an incapacitating chronic inflammatory disease of the spinal cord. The detection of IgG anti-HTLV-I antibodies in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been an important parameter for the laboratorial diagnosis of HAM/TSP. OBJECTIVE: critical evaluation of the methods applied to detect the presence and intrathecal production of total antibodies and anti-HTLV-I in the CSF for the diagnosis of HAM/TSP. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of medical articles by using the key words: "cerebrospinal fluid, intrathecal synthesis of antibodies, HTLV-I associated myelopathy, HTLV-I, HAM/TSP". The used databases included: PubMed, Lilacs, Medline and Cochrane Library. RESULTS: A total of 14 articles were selected: five studies were related to the presence of specific IgG antibody in the CSF and nine studied the intrathecal synthesis of total antibodies (IgG or IgG/IgA/IgM) and specific anti-HTLV-I (IgG or IgM). DISCUSSION: The isolated study of the presence of IgG antibody anti-HTLV-I in the CSF does not show the fraction produced in the central nervous system, which represents low specificity (40 percent) for the diagnosis of HAM/TSP. The demonstration of the intrathecal synthesis of IgG anti-HTLV-I antibodies is more relevant due to its high specificity (89 percent) and sensibility (83 percent). According to Reiber & Felgenhauer (1987), the index IgG anti-HTLV-I, which is based on ELISA test with simultaneous CSF and serum analysis, stands out from the other methods applied to evaluate the intrathecal synthesis of specific antibody. Other studies use small samples and do not demonstrate the sensibility and specificity of the test in the CSF. Only one study shows statistical analysis. CONCLUSION: The immunological diagnosis of the CSF in HAM/TSP requires the standardization of methods, which should be based...

Humans , HTLV-I Antibodies/analysis , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic/diagnosis , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic/immunology , Paraparesis, Tropical Spastic/cerebrospinal fluid
DST j. bras. doenças sex. transm ; 21(4): 163-165, 2009.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-552498


Introdução: depressão maior ocorre em 2 a 6,6% da população em geral e em 5 a 10% em pacientes ambulatoriais. Objetivo: avaliar a prevalência do episódio depressivo maior e dos sintomas depressivos em pacientes infectados com o vírus HTLV-1. Métodos: foram selecionados prospectivamente 36 pacientes infectados pelo vírus HTLV-1. O diagnóstico para depressão seguiu os critérios do DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders). Em todos os deprimidos aplicou-se a escala de Hamilton (HAM-D 21 itens) para quantificação da doença. Resultados: dez participantes (28%) apresentavam depressão maior, sendo nove mulheres e um homem. Sessenta e sete por cento (n = 22) apresentavam, pelo menos, um sintoma depressivo. Os sintomas depressivos mais prevalentes consistiram em alterações do sono, do apetite e anedonia. Conclusão: maior prevalência da depressão ocorre como possível forma de manifestação da infecção pelo HTLV-1. Os autores destacam a importância de investigação de sintomas depressivos como possível forma de manifestação da infecção pelo HTLV-1.

Introduction: major depression occurs at a rate of 2 to 6.6% in the population at large and 5 to 10% in hospitalized patients. Objective: to evaluate the prevalence of the major depression episode and of symptoms of depression in patients infected with the HTLV-1 virus. Methods: we prospectively selected 36 patients infected with the HTLV-1 virus. The diagnosis for depression was based on the DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) criteria. In all of the depressed patients, we applied the Hamilton scale (HAM-D 21 items) in order to quantify the disease. Results: ten participants (28%) had major depression. Seventy-seven percent presented at least one symptom of depression. The most prevalent symptoms consisted of sleep disturbances, changes in appetite and anhedonia. Conclusion: we found a higher prevalence of depression among patients infected with the HTLV-1 virus. The authors emphasize the importance of investigating symptoms of depression in patients infected with HTLV-1.

Humans , Male , Female , Carrier State , Depressive Disorder, Major , HTLV-I Infections , Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 , Prevalence , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Prospective Studies