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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(supl.2): 1-46, mayo 2019. ilus, graf, map
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012666

ABSTRACT

El accidente cerebrovascular es la tercera causa de muerte y la primera de discapacidad en la Argentina. Los eventos isquémicos constituyen el 80% de los casos. Los accidentes vasculares cerebrales requieren la implementación de protocolos sistematizados que permitan reducir los tiempos en la atención, la morbilidad y mortalidad. En el consenso participaron especialistas de nueve sociedades médicas relacionadas con la atención de pacientes con enfermedad cerebrovascular. Se consensuó un temario separado en capítulos y para la redacción de los mismos se conformaron grupos de trabajo con miembros de diferentes especialidades médicas. Se discutió y acordó para cada tema el nivel de recomendación en base a la mejor evidencia clínica disponible para cada tópico. Se realizó una adaptación al ámbito local de las recomendaciones cuando se consideró necesario. El sistema de la American Heart Association se utilizó para redactar las recomendaciones y su grado de evidencia. La corrección y edición fue realizada por cinco revisores externos, que no participaron en la redacción y con amplia experiencia en enfermedad vascular. Finalizado el documento preliminar, se organizó una reunión general con todos los integrantes de los grupos de trabajo y los revisores para redactar las recomendaciones definitivas. El consenso abarca la atención del paciente con accidente cerebrovascular isquémico en la fase pre-hospitalaria, evaluación inicial en la central de emergencias, terapias de recanalización (trombolisis y/o trombectomía mecánica), craniectomía descompresiva, neuroimágenes y cuidados clínicos en la internación.


Stroke is the third cause of death and the first cause of disability in Argentina. Ischemic events constitute 80% of cases. It requires the implementation of systematized protocols that allow reducing the time of care, morbidity and mortality. Specialists from nine medical societies related to the care of patients with cerebrovascular disease participated in the consensus. A separate agenda was agreed upon in chapters and for the writing of them, work groups were formed with members of different medical specialties. The level of recommendation was discussed and agreed upon for each topic based on the best clinical evidence available for each of them. An adaptation to the local scope of the recommendations was made when it was considered necessary.The American Heart Association system was used to draft the recommendations and their level of evidence. The correction and editing were done by five external reviewers, who did not participate in the writing and with extensive experience in vascular pathology. Once the preliminary document was finalized, a general meeting was held with all the members of the working groups and the reviewers to reach final recommendations. The consensus covers the management of ischemic stroke in the pre-hospital phase, initial evaluation in the emergency center, recanalization therapies (thrombolysis and/ or mechanical thrombectomy), decompressive craniectomy, neuroimaging and clinical care in the hospital.


Subject(s)
Humans , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , Argentina
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 78(5): 364-367, oct. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-976126

ABSTRACT

Presentamos dos casos de accidente cerebrovascular en sujetos con trayecto extracraneal de la arteria cerebeloso póstero-inferior. Caso 1: varón de 21 años, quien presentó ataxia y dismetría derecha luego de un traumatismo cervical en un partido de rugby. Caso 2: mujer de 56 años, quien inició con vértigo y hemiparesia izquierda luego de esfuerzo físico intenso. En ambos casos, los estudios angiográficos mostraron un trayecto extracraneal de la arteria cerebelosa póstero-inferior. Este vaso raramente se origina por debajo del foramen magno, en relación cercana con las primeras tres vértebras cervicales y la articulación atlanto-axial. En este nivel, está expuesta a daño mecánico causante de disección, como por ejemplo trauma directo, manipulación cervical abrupta o extensión cefálica prolongada. Por lo tanto, en pacientes con accidente cerebrovascular de región lateral de bulbo y trayecto extracraneal de la arteria cerebelosa póstero-inferior se debería considerar esta asociación.


We present two cases of lateral medullary stroke in subjects with extracranial trajectory of the postero-inferior cerebellar artery. Case 1: a 21-year-old male who presented ataxia and right dysmetria after cervical trauma in a rugby match. Case 2: 56-year-old woman, who started with vertigo and left hemiparesis after intense physical effort. In both cases, the angiographic studies showed an extracranial trajectory of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery. This vessel rarely originates below the foramen magnum, in close relationship with the first three cervical vertebrae and the atlanto-axial joint. At this level, it is exposed to mechanical damage causing dissection, such as direct trauma, abrupt cervical manipulation or prolonged cephalic extension. Therefore, this association should be considered in patients with stroke of the lateral region of the bulb and extracranial trajectory of the posterior-inferior cerebellar artery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Lateral Medullary Syndrome/etiology , Cerebellum/blood supply , Posterior Cerebral Artery/injuries , Aneurysm, Dissecting/complications , Lateral Medullary Syndrome/pathology , Lateral Medullary Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Cerebral Angiography/methods , Cerebellum/injuries , Cerebellum/pathology , Cerebellum/diagnostic imaging , Posterior Cerebral Artery/pathology , Posterior Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Aneurysm, Dissecting/pathology , Aneurysm, Dissecting/diagnostic imaging
3.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 74(3): 219-222, Mar. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777133

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) appears as a therapeutic option for some atrial fibrillation patients not suitable for oral anticoagulation because an increased hemorrhagic risk or recurrent ischemic events despite anticoagulant treatment. Methods Report of consecutive atrial fibrillation patients treated with LAAO with Amplatzer Cardio Plug because contraindication or failure of oral anticoagulation with acenocumarol. CHA2DS2VASC, HAS-BLED, NIHSS, mRS, procedural complications and outcome were assessed. Seven patients (73 ± 6 year-old) were treated after intracerebral (n = 5) and gastrointestinal (n = 1) hemorrhages or ischemic stroke recurrence while on acenocumarol (n = 1). Results Mean follow up was 18 months. Baseline CHA2DS2Vasc y HAS-BLED scores were 5.6 ± 0.7 and 4.1 ± 0.3 respectively. There were no strokes or deaths. There was only one non-serious adverse event. Conclusion LAAO with ACP appears as a feasible therapeutic option for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation and failure or contraindication to acenocumarol.


RESUMEN La oclusión de la orejuela auricular izquierda (OOAI) es una opción terapéutica en pacientes con fibrilación auricular y alto riesgo hemorrágico o recurrencia de accidente cerebrovascular isquémico (ACVi) a pesar del tratamiento anticoagulante. Métodos Reporte de pacientes con fibrilación auricular y contraindicación o fallo terapéutico con acenocumarol tratados con OOAI. Se evaluaron escalas CHA2DS2VASC, HAS-BLED, NIHSS y mRS, complicaciones procedurales y resultados. Resultados Siete pacientes (73 ± 6 años) fueron tratados luego de sufrir hemorragia cerebral (n = 5), gastrointestinal (n = 1) o ACVi recurrente a pesar del tratamiento con acenocumarol. Las escalas CHADS2VASC y HAS-BLED fueron 5.6 ± 0.7 y 4.1 ± 0.3 respectivamente. Luego de un seguimeinto promedio fue de 18 meses (3-50) no se registraron ACVi o muertes. Se registró sólo un evento adverso no serio. Conclusión La OOAI es una opción terapéutica factible para prevenir ACVi en pacientes con fibrilación auricular y fallo o contraindicación para recibir acenocumarol.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Appendage , Stroke/therapy , Balloon Occlusion/methods , Acenocoumarol , Anticoagulants , Recurrence , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Secondary Prevention , Contraindications
4.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 73(9): 751-754, Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757392

ABSTRACT

CADASIL is the most common cause of hereditary stroke and vascular dementia. Published information about this disease in South America is scant. We describe clinical and demographic characteristics of 13 patients (10 families) with CADASIL from Argentina.Methods Medical records, diagnostic tests and family history of patients with CADASIL were reviewed.Results Thirteen patients with CADASIL (10 families) were included. All patients had European ancestry. Initial presentation was stroke in most patients (n = 11). Stroke patients later developed cognitive complaints (n = 9), migraine with aura (n = 1), apathy (n = 4) and depression (n = 6). External capsule and temporal lobe involvement on MRI were characteristic imaging findings. Two patients died after intracerebral hemorrhage.Conclusion This is the first report of non-related patients with CADASIL in South America addressing ancestry. Since European ancestry is not highly prevalent in all South American countries, there may be variable incidence of CADASIL within this region.


CADASIL é a causa mais frequente de acidente vascular cerebral e demência hereditários. São poucas as publicações sobre esta doença na América do Sul. Aqui descrevemos dados clínicos e demográficos de 13 pacientes (10 famílias) da Argentina com CADASIL.Métodos Prontuários médicos testes diagnósticos e história familiar de pacientes com CADASIL foram revisados.Resultados Treze pacientes com CADASIL (10 famílias) foram incluídos. Todos os pacientes tinha ancestralidade europeia. A apresentação inicial foi acidente vascular cerebral na maioria dos pacientes (n = 11). Pacientes com acidente vascular cerebral depois desenvolveram alterações cognitivas (n = 9), enxaqueca com aura (n = 1), apatia (n = 4) e depressão (n = 6). Os achados de imagem característicos da RM foram na cápsula externa e no lobo temporal. Dois pacientes morreram por hemorragia intracerebral.Conclusão Este é o primeiro relato de série de casos de pessoas não relacionadas entre si que apresentavam CADASIL na América do Sul, discutindo ancestralidade. Uma vez que a ascendência europeia tem prevalência variada em diferentes países da América do Sul, é possível que esta seja uma variável de incidência de CADASIL nesta região.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Brain/pathology , CADASIL , Stroke/etiology , Argentina , Biopsy , CADASIL , Cerebral Arterial Diseases , Whites , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/ethnology
5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 74(1): 37-41, ene.-feb. 2014. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-708552

ABSTRACT

La hiperglucemia después de un accidente cerebrovascular isquémico (ACVi) se asocia con peor pronóstico. Se compararon retrospectivamente los efectos entre el control de la glucemia moderado (corrección a partir de 135 mg/dl) y el conservador (a partir de 200 mg/dl) en evolución neurológica, tiempo de internación y complicaciones asociadas al tratamiento de pacientes con ACVi internados en unidad de cuidados intensivos, al alta y 30 días post-egreso. Se estudiaron 208 pacientes, 103 (24% diabéticos) con tratamiento moderado y 105 (23% diabéticos) con tratamiento conservador. La glucemia media a lo largo de la internación tendió a ser menor con el tratamiento moderado sin significancia estadística (129 ± 30 vs. 138 ± 31 mg/dl; p = 0.06). La diferencia fue significativa en los no diabéticos (119 ± 24 vs. 128 ± 24 mg/dl; p < 0.05), siendo más pronunciada en aquellos no diabéticos con déficit neurológico moderado a grave al ingreso (116 ± 23 vs. 130 ± 23 mg/dl; p < 0.01). Los pacientes que ingresaron con déficit neurológico moderado a grave tuvieron mejor evolución al alta y a 30 días bajo tratamiento moderado (variación de NIHSS: alta 2.1 ± 2.6 vs. 3.4 ± 3; 30 días: 3.2 ± 3 vs. 4.8 ± 3; p < 0.01). La duración de la internación fue menor con tratamiento moderado (6 ± 5 vs. 9 ± 5 días; p < 0.05). No hubo diferencias significativas en la incidencia de hipoglucemias. En conclusión, el control moderado de la glucemia en pacientes con ACVi se asoció con mejor evolución neurológica en aquellos que ingresaban con déficit neurológico moderado a grave (escala de NIH = 4), y una hospitalización más corta, sin un aumento sustancial de episodios de hipoglucemia.


Hyperglycemia following an ischemic stroke has been associated with poor clinical outcome. We retrospectively assessed the effect of moderately controlled plasma glucose (correction from 135mg/dl) compared to conservative treatment (correction from 200 mg/dl), as regards neurological evolution, duration of hospitalization, at discharge and at 30 days post-discharge, also complications associated with the treatment in patients admitted to the intensive care unit. We studied 208 patients, 103 (24% diabetics) with moderate therapy and 105 (23% diabetics) with conservative treatment. The average blood glucose during hospitalization tended to be lower with the moderate treatment with no statistic significance (129 ± 30 vs. 138 ± 31 mg/dl; p = 0.06). The difference was significant in non-diabetics (119 ± 24 vs. 128 ± 24 mg/dl; p < 0.05), being even more pronounced in those non-diabetics with moderate to severe neurological deficit on admission (116 ± 23 vs. 130±23 mg/dl; p < 0.01). Patients admitted with moderate to severe neurological deficit and treated with moderate regime had a better outcome at discharge and at 30 days (NIHSS variation: high 2.1 ± 2.6 vs. 3.4 ± 3; 30 days: 3.2 ± 3 vs. 4.8 ± 3; p < 0.01). The duration of hospitalization was lower in the moderate treatment group (5.7 vs. 9.2 days, p < 0.05), with no significant difference showing in the incidence of hypoglycemia in either group. In conclusion, moderate control of blood glucose in ACVi patients relates to an improved neurological outcome in those admitted with moderate to severe neurological deficits (NIH scale = 4), with a reduced hospital stay, and no substantial increase of hypoglycemia episodes.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Insulin/therapeutic use , Stroke/drug therapy , Acute Disease , Clinical Protocols , Diabetes Complications/drug therapy , Hospitalization , Hyperglycemia/etiology , Injections, Subcutaneous , Insulin/administration & dosage , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/complications , Treatment Outcome
6.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 73(4): 331-334, jul.-ago. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-694789

ABSTRACT

La mortalidad global por accidente cerebrovascular (ACV) ha disminuido en las últimas tres décadas, probablemente debido a un mejor control de los factores de riesgo vascular. La mortalidad hospitalaria por ACV ha sido tradicionalmente estimada entre 6 y 14% en la mayoría de las series comunicadas. Sin embargo, los datos de ensayos clínicos recientes sugieren que esta cifra sería sustancialmente menor. Se revisaron datos de pacientes internados con diagnóstico de ACV del Banco de Datos de Stroke de FLENI y los registros institucionales de mortalidad entre los años 2000 y 2010. Los subtipos de ACV isquémicos se clasificaron según criterios TOAST y los ACV hemorrágicos en hematomas intrapanquimatosos, hemorragias subaracnoideas aneurismáticas, malformaciones arteriovenosas y otros hematomas intraparenquimatosos. Se analizaron 1514 pacientes, 1079 (71%) con ACV isquémico (grandes vasos 39%, cardioembólicos 27%, lacunares 9%, etiología indeterminada 14%, otras etiologías 11%) y 435 (29%) con ACV hemorrágico (intraparenquimatosos 27%, hemorragia subaracnoidea 30%, malformaciones arteriovenosas 25% y otros hematomas espontáneos 18%). Se registraron 38 muertes intrahospitalarias (17 ACV isquémicos y 21 ACV hemorrágicos), representando una mortalidad global del 2.5% (1.7% en ACV isquémicos y 4.8% en ACV hemorrágicos). No se registraron muertes asociadas al uso de fibrinolíticos endovenosos. La mortalidad intrahospitalaria en pacientes con ACV isquémico y hemorrágico en nuestro centro fue baja. El manejo en un centro dedicado a las enfermedades neurológicas y el enfoque multidisciplinario por personal médico y no médico entrenado en el cuidado de la enfermedad cerebrovascular podrían explicar, al menos en parte, estos resultados.


Overall mortality due to stroke has decreased in the last three decades probable due to a better control of vascular risk factors. In-hospital mortality of stroke patients has been estimated to be between 6 and 14% in most of the series reported. However, data from recent clinical trials suggest that these figures may be substantially lower. Data from FLENI Stroke Data Bank and institutional mortality records between 2000 and 2010 were reviewed. Ischemic stroke subtypes were classified according to TOAST criteria and hemorrhagic stroke subtypes were classified as intraparenchymal hematoma, aneurismatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, arterio-venous malformation, and other intraparenchymal hematomas. A total of 1514 patients were studied. Of these, 1079 (71%) were ischemic strokes,39% large vessels, 27% cardioembolic, 9% lacunar, 14% unknown etiology, and 11% others etiologies. There were 435 (29%) hemorrhagic strokes, 27% intraparenchymal hematomas, 30% aneurismatic subarachnoid hemorrhage, 25% arterio-venous malformation, and 18% other intraparenchymal hematomas. Moreover, 38 in-hospital deaths were recorded (17 ischemic strokes and 21 hemorrhagic strokes), accounting for 2.5% overall mortality (1.7% in ischemic strokes and 4.8% in hemorrhagic strokes). No deaths occurred associated with the use of intravenous fibrinolytics occurred. In our Centre in-hospital mortality in patients with stroke was low. Management of these patients in a Centre dedicated to neurological diseases along with a multidisciplinary approach from medical and non-medical staff trained in the care of cerebrovascular diseases could, at least in part, account for these results.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Hospital Mortality , Stroke/mortality , Argentina , Chi-Square Distribution , Hospitals, Special/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Stroke/complications , Time Factors
7.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 71(5): 449-453, oct. 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-633895

ABSTRACT

La endarterectomía carotídea (EC) en adición al mejor tratamiento médico mostró reducción del riesgo de eventos cerebrovasculares en pacientes sintomáticos y asintomáticos con estenosis moderada-grave del vaso en ensayos clínicos en centros académicos con cirujanos altamente seleccionados. Las principales guías internacionales recomiendan que el procedimiento se realice en centros con morbi-mortalidad auditada menor al 6% para pacientes sintomáticos y 3% para asintomáticos. Evaluamos la morbi-mortalidad peri-procedimiento en nuestro centro. Esta fue definida como la presencia de accidente cerebrovascular, infarto de miocardio y/o muerte dentro de los 30 días de la cirugía. Se indicó el procedimiento en pacientes sintomáticos con estenosis > 50%. En pacientes asintomáticos o sintomáticos con estenosis ≤ 50% se decidió el tratamiento sobre una base caso por caso. Todos los pacientes fueron examinados por un neurólogo y un cardiólogo antes y después de la EC. Se utilizó en forma rutinaria monitoreo intraoperatorio con Doppler transcraneano en los pacientes con adecuada ventana ultrasónica. Se evaluaron 306 endarterectomías carotídeas. No se registraron muertes. La morbilidad perioperatoria fue de 2.6% tanto para individuos sintomáticos como asintomáticos. Estos índices se compararon favorablemente con informes de otros centros de Latinoamérica y Europa. En conclusión, este informe muestra que la EC puede realizarse en la práctica clínica cotidiana con morbi-mortalidad peri-procedimiento dentro de los niveles recomendados por las guías internacionales.


Clinical trials in academic centers with high selected surgeons have demonstrated the effectiveness of carotid endarterectomy (CE) in addition to best medical treatment in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with moderate to severe stenosis. International guidelines recommend that the procedure should be done in centers with morbidity and mortality rates of less than 6% for symptomatic and 3% for asymptomatic patients. We evaluated the morbidity and mortality of CE in our institution. This was defined by the presence of stroke, myocardial infarction and/or death within 30 days of surgery. Surgery was indicated in symptomatic patients with stenosis greater than 50%. For asymptomatic or symptomatic patients with stenosis ≤ 50% treatment was decided on a case-by-case basis. All patients were examined by a neurologist with and a cardiologist before and after the procedure. Intraoperative monitoring with transcranial Doppler was routinely used in patients with adequate ultrasonic window. We evaluated 306 procedures. No deaths occurred. Perioperative morbidity was 2.6% for both, symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. These numbers compared favorably with those reported by other centers in Latin America and Europe. In conclusion, CE can be performed in routine clinical practice with morbidity and mortality results within those recommended by international guidelines.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Carotid Stenosis/surgery , Endarterectomy, Carotid/mortality , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Argentina/epidemiology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Cerebral Infarction/mortality , Cerebral Infarction/surgery , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Morbidity , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Stroke/etiology , Treatment Outcome
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