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1.
Ultrasonography ; : 136-146, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969249

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#The aim of this study was to validate the postnatal urinary tract dilation (UTD) classification system by correlating it with the need for surgical intervention. @*Methods@#Young infants who underwent ultrasound (US) examinations for prenatal hydronephrosis were retrospectively identified. The kidney units (KUs; right, left, or bilateral) were graded from UTD P0 (very low risk) to P3 (high risk) based on seven US criteria from the UTD system. Surgery-free survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis clustered by patients was performed. Interobserver agreement was analyzed using the weighted kappa coefficient. @*Results@#In total, 504 KUs from 336 patients (mean age, 18.3±15.9 days; range, 1 to 94 days; males, n=276) were included, with a median follow-up of 24.2 months. Fifty-eight KUs underwent surgical intervention. Significant differences were observed among the Kaplan-Meier curves stratified into UTD groups (P<0.001). The presence of anterior-posterior renal pelvic diameter ≥15 mm (hazard ratio [HR], 8.602; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.558 to 43.065), peripheral calyceal dilation (HR, 8.190; 95% CI, 1.558 to 43.065), ureteral dilation (HR, 2.619; 95% CI, 1.274 to 5.380), parenchymal thickness abnormality (HR, 3.371; 95% CI, 1.574 to 7.223), bladder abnormality (HR, 12.209; 95% CI, 3.616 to 41.225) were significantly associated with the occurrence of surgery. The interobserver agreement was moderate to almost perfect agreement for US features (κ=0.564-0.898) and substantial for final UTD grades (κ=0.716). @*Conclusion@#The UTD classification system is reliable and appropriately stratifies the risk of surgical intervention.

2.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1151-1163, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1002400

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To develop a deep-learning-based bone age prediction model optimized for Korean children and adolescents and evaluate its feasibility by comparing it with a Greulich-Pyle-based deep-learning model. @*Materials and Methods@#A convolutional neural network was trained to predict age according to the bone development shown on a hand radiograph (bone age) using 21036 hand radiographs of Korean children and adolescents without known bone development-affecting diseases/conditions obtained between 1998 and 2019 (median age [interquartile range {IQR}], 9 [7–12] years; male:female, 11794:9242) and their chronological ages as labels (Korean model). We constructed 2 separate external datasets consisting of Korean children and adolescents with healthy bone development (Institution 1: n = 343;median age [IQR], 10 [4–15] years; male: female, 183:160; Institution 2: n = 321; median age [IQR], 9 [5–14] years; male:female, 164:157) to test the model performance. The mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE), and proportions of bone age predictions within 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of the reference age (chronological age) were compared between the Korean model and a commercial model (VUNO Med-BoneAge version 1.1; VUNO) trained with Greulich-Pyle-based age as the label (GP-based model). @*Results@#Compared with the GP-based model, the Korean model showed a lower RMSE (11.2 vs. 13.8 months; P = 0.004) and MAE (8.2 vs. 10.5 months; P = 0.002), a higher proportion of bone age predictions within 18 months of chronological age (88.3% vs. 82.2%; P = 0.031) for Institution 1, and a lower MAE (9.5 vs. 11.0 months; P = 0.022) and higher proportion of bone age predictions within 6 months (44.5% vs. 36.4%; P = 0.044) for Institution 2. @*Conclusion@#The Korean model trained using the chronological ages of Korean children and adolescents without known bone development-affecting diseases/conditions as labels performed better in bone age assessment than the GP-based model in the Korean pediatric population. Further validation is required to confirm its accuracy.

3.
Cancer Research and Treatment ; : 253-258, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913845

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#In 2017, the Children’s Hepatic Tumors International Collaboration-Hepatoblastoma Stratification (CHIC-HS) system was introduced. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of CHIC-HS System for the prediction of event-free survival (EFS) in Korean pediatric patients with hepatoblastoma. @*Materials and Methods@#This two-center retrospective study included consecutive Korean pediatric patients with histopathologically confirmed hepatoblastoma from March 1988 through September 2019. We compared EFS among four risk groups according to the CHIC-HS system. Discriminatory ability of CHIC-HS system was also evaluated using optimism-corrected C-statistics. Factors associated with EFS were explored using multivariable Cox regression analysis. @*Results@#We included 129 patients (mean age, 2.6±3.3 years; female:male, 63:66). The 5-year EFS rates in the very low, low, intermediate, and high-risk groups, according to the CHIC-HS system were 90.0%, 82.8%, 73.5%, and 51.3%, respectively. The CHIC-HS system aligned significantly well with EFS outcomes (p=0.004). The optimism-corrected C index of CHIC-HS was 0.644 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.561 to 0.727). Age ≥ 8 (vs. age ≤ 2; hazard ratio [HR], 2.781; 95% CI, 1.187 to 6.512; p=0.018), PRE-Treatment EXTent of tumor (PRETEXT) stage IV (vs. PRETEXT I or II; HR, 2.774; 95% CI, 1.228 to 5.974; p=0.009), and presence of metastasis (HR, 2.886; 95% CI, 1.457 to 5.719; p=0.002), which are incorporated as the first three nodes in the CHIC-HS system, were independently associated with EFS. @*Conclusion@#The CHIC-HS system aligned significantly well with EFS outcomes in Korean pediatric patients with hepatoblastoma. Age group, PRETEXT stage, and presence of metastasis were independently associated with EFS.

4.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 355-369, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-926761

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the completeness of the reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in a general radiology journal using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 guidelines. @*Materials and Methods@#Twenty-four articles (systematic review and meta-analysis, n = 18; systematic review only, n = 6) published between August 2009 and September 2021 in the Korean Journal of Radiology were analyzed. Completeness of the reporting of main texts and abstracts were evaluated using the PRISMA 2020 statement. For each item in the statement, the proportion of studies that met the guidelines’ recommendation was calculated and items that were satisfied by fewer than 80% of the studies were identified. The review process was conducted by two independent reviewers. @*Results@#Of the 42 items (including sub-items) in the PRISMA 2020 statement for main text, 24 were satisfied by fewer than 80% of the included articles. The 24 items were grouped into eight domains: 1) assessment of the eligibility of potential articles, 2) assessment of the risk of bias, 3) synthesis of results, 4) additional analysis of study heterogeneity, 5) assessment of non-reporting bias, 6) assessment of the certainty of evidence, 7) provision of limitations of the study, and 8) additional information, such as protocol registration. Of the 12 items in the abstract checklists, eight were incorporated in fewer than 80% of the included publications. @*Conclusion@#Several items included in the PRISMA 2020 checklist were overlooked in systematic review and meta-analysis articles published in the Korean Journal of Radiology. Based on these results, we suggest a double-check list for improving the quality of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Authors and reviewers should familiarize themselves with the PRISMA 2020 statement and check whether the recommended items are fully satisfied prior to publication.

5.
Ultrasonography ; : 761-769, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969220

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study evaluated the accuracy of attenuation imaging (ATI) for the assessment of hepatic steatosis in pediatric patients, in comparison with the FibroScan vibration-controlled transient elastography controlled attenuation parameter (CAP). @*Methods@#Consecutive pediatric patients referred for evaluation of obesity who underwent both ATI and FibroScan between February 2020 and September 2021 were included. The correlation between attenuation coefficient (AC) and CAP values was assessed using the Spearman test. The AC cutoff value for discriminating hepatic steatosis corresponding to a CAP value of 241 dB/m was calculated. Multivariable linear regression analysis was performed to estimate the strength of the association between AC and CAP. The diagnostic accuracy of AC cutoffs was estimated using the imperfect gold-standard methodology based on a two-level Bayesian latent class model. @*Results@#Seventy patients (median age, 12.5 years; interquartile range, 11.0 to 14.0 years; male:female, 58:12) were included. AC and CAP showed a moderate-to-good correlation (ρ =0.646, P<0.001). Multivariable regression analysis affirmed the significant association between AC and CAP (P<0.001). The correlation was not evident in patients with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 (ρ=-0.202, P=0.551). Linear regression revealed that an AC cutoff of 0.66 dB/cm/MHz corresponded to a CAP of 241 dB/m (sensitivity, 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 0.98 and specificity, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.00). @*Conclusion@#ATI showed an acceptable correlation with CAP values in a pediatric population, especially in patients with a body mass index <30 kg/m2. An AC cutoff of 0.66 dB/cm/MHz, corresponding to a CAP of 241 dB/m, can accurately diagnose hepatic steatosis.

6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 683-691, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939385

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#To evaluate the applicability of Greulich-Pyle (GP) standards to bone age (BA) assessment in healthy Korean children using manual and deep learning-based methods. @*Materials and Methods@#We collected 485 hand radiographs of healthy children aged 2–17 years (262 boys) between 2008 and 2017. Based on GP method, BA was assessed manually by two radiologists and automatically by two deep learning-based BA assessment (DLBAA), which estimated GP-assigned (original model) and optimal (modified model) BAs. Estimated BA was compared to chronological age (CA) using intraclass correlation (ICC), Bland-Altman analysis, linear regression, mean absolute error, and root mean square error. The proportion of children showing a difference >12 months between the estimated BA and CA was calculated. @*Results@#CA and all estimated BA showed excellent agreement (ICC ≥0.978, p12 months in 44.3%, 44.5%, 39.2%, and 36.1% for radiologist 1, radiologist 2, original, and modified DLBAA models, respectively. @*Conclusion@#Contemporary healthy Korean children showed different rates of skeletal development than GP standard-BA, and systemic bias should be considered when determining children’s skeletal maturation.

7.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1875-1885, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918211

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Central nervous system involvement in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been increasingly reported. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the incidence of radiologically demonstrated neurologic complications and detailed neuroimaging findings associated with COVID-19. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE databases was performed up to September 17, 2020, and studies evaluating neuroimaging findings of COVID-19 using brain CT or MRI were included. Several cohort-based outcomes, including the proportion of patients with abnormal neuroimaging findings related to COVID-19 were evaluated. The proportion of patients showing specific neuroimaging findings was also assessed. Subgroup analyses were also conducted focusing on critically ill COVID-19 patients and results from studies that used MRI as the only imaging modality. @*Results@#A total of 1394 COVID-19 patients who underwent neuroimaging from 17 studies were included; among them, 3.4% of the patients demonstrated COVID-19-related neuroimaging findings. Olfactory bulb abnormalities were the most commonly observed (23.1%). The predominant cerebral neuroimaging finding was white matter abnormality (17.6%), followed by acute/subacute ischemic infarction (16.0%), and encephalopathy (13.0%). Significantly more critically ill patients had COVID-19-related neuroimaging findings than other patients (9.1% vs. 1.6%; p = 0.029). The type of imaging modality used did not significantly affect the proportion of COVID-19-related neuroimaging findings. @*Conclusion@#Abnormal neuroimaging findings were occasionally observed in COVID-19 patients. Olfactory bulb abnormalities were the most commonly observed finding. Critically ill patients showed abnormal neuroimaging findings more frequently than the other patient groups. White matter abnormalities, ischemic infarctions, and encephalopathies were the common cerebral neuroimaging findings.

8.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 1822-1833, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-918202

ABSTRACT

This is a narrative review of various treatment modalities for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), with a focus on recent updates in radiological treatments, as well as novel treatment concepts related to immune checkpoint inhibitors and combination therapies with locoregional treatments. Interventional radiologists have made efforts toward developing alternative and/or combination treatments for first-line systemic treatment of patients with advanced HCC. Locoregional treatments with or without systemic therapy may be considered in the selected patients. Various treatment modalities for advanced HCC are emerging, and several randomized controlled trials, including those of combination treatments with immunotherapy, are ongoing.

9.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 584-595, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-894705

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy has shown activity against melanoma brain metastases. Recently, promising results have also been reported for ICI combination therapy and ICI combined with radiotherapy. We aimed to evaluate radiologic response and adverse event rates of these therapeutic options by a systematic review and meta-analysis. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic literature search of Ovid-MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed up to October 12, 2019 and included studies evaluating the intracranial objective response rates (ORRs) and/or disease control rates (DCRs) of ICI with or without radiotherapy for treating melanoma brain metastases. We also evaluated safety-associated outcomes. @*Results@#Eleven studies with 14 cohorts (3 with ICI combination therapy; 5 with ICI combined with radiotherapy; 6 with ICI monotherapy) were included. ICI combination therapy {pooled ORR, 53% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44–61%); DCR, 57% (95% CI, 49–66%)} and ICI combined with radiotherapy (pooled ORR, 42% [95% CI, 31–54%]; DCR, 85% [95% CI, 63–95%]) showed higher local efficacy compared to ICI monotherapy (pooled ORR, 15% [95% CI, 11–20%]; DCR, 26% [95% CI, 21– 32%]). The grade 3 or 4 adverse event rate was significantly higher with ICI combination therapy (60%; 95% CI, 52–67%) compared to ICI monotherapy (11%; 95% CI, 8–17%) and ICI combined with radiotherapy (4%; 95% CI, 1–19%). Grade 3 or 4 central nervous system (CNS)-related adverse event rates were not different (9% in ICI combination therapy; 8% in ICI combined with radiotherapy; 5% in ICI monotherapy). @*Conclusion@#ICI combination therapy or ICI combined with radiotherapy showed better local efficacy than ICI monotherapy for treating melanoma brain metastasis. The grade 3 or 4 adverse event rate was highest with ICI combination therapy, and the CNS-related grade 3 or 4 event rate was similar. Prospective trials will be necessary to compare the efficacy of ICI combination therapy and ICI combined with radiotherapy.

10.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 584-595, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-902409

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy has shown activity against melanoma brain metastases. Recently, promising results have also been reported for ICI combination therapy and ICI combined with radiotherapy. We aimed to evaluate radiologic response and adverse event rates of these therapeutic options by a systematic review and meta-analysis. @*Materials and Methods@#A systematic literature search of Ovid-MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed up to October 12, 2019 and included studies evaluating the intracranial objective response rates (ORRs) and/or disease control rates (DCRs) of ICI with or without radiotherapy for treating melanoma brain metastases. We also evaluated safety-associated outcomes. @*Results@#Eleven studies with 14 cohorts (3 with ICI combination therapy; 5 with ICI combined with radiotherapy; 6 with ICI monotherapy) were included. ICI combination therapy {pooled ORR, 53% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44–61%); DCR, 57% (95% CI, 49–66%)} and ICI combined with radiotherapy (pooled ORR, 42% [95% CI, 31–54%]; DCR, 85% [95% CI, 63–95%]) showed higher local efficacy compared to ICI monotherapy (pooled ORR, 15% [95% CI, 11–20%]; DCR, 26% [95% CI, 21– 32%]). The grade 3 or 4 adverse event rate was significantly higher with ICI combination therapy (60%; 95% CI, 52–67%) compared to ICI monotherapy (11%; 95% CI, 8–17%) and ICI combined with radiotherapy (4%; 95% CI, 1–19%). Grade 3 or 4 central nervous system (CNS)-related adverse event rates were not different (9% in ICI combination therapy; 8% in ICI combined with radiotherapy; 5% in ICI monotherapy). @*Conclusion@#ICI combination therapy or ICI combined with radiotherapy showed better local efficacy than ICI monotherapy for treating melanoma brain metastasis. The grade 3 or 4 adverse event rate was highest with ICI combination therapy, and the CNS-related grade 3 or 4 event rate was similar. Prospective trials will be necessary to compare the efficacy of ICI combination therapy and ICI combined with radiotherapy.

11.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 213-224, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-875263

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Clinical outcomes of patients who undergo transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for single small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are not consistent, and may differ based on certain imaging findings. This retrospective study was aimed at determining the efficacy of pre-TACE CT or MR imaging findings in predicting survival outcomes in patients with small HCC upon being treated with TACE. Besides, the study proposed to build a risk prediction model for these patients. @*Materials and Methods@#Altogether, 750 patients with functionally good hepatic reserve who received TACE as the first-line treatment for single small HCC between 2004 and 2014 were included in the study. These patients were randomly assigned into training (n = 525) and validation (n = 225) sets. @*Results@#According to the results of a multivariable Cox analysis, three pre-TACE imaging findings (tumor margin, tumor location, enhancement pattern) and two clinical factors (age, serum albumin level) were selected and scored to create predictive models for overall, local tumor progression (LTP)-free, and progression-free survival in the training set. The median overall survival time in the validation set were 137.5 months, 76.1 months, and 44.0 months for low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves of the predictive models for overall, LTP-free, and progression-free survival applied to the validation cohort showed acceptable areas under the curve values (0.734, 0.802, and 0.775 for overall survival; 0.738, 0.789, and 0.791 for LTP-free survival; and 0.671, 0.733, and 0.694 for progression-free survival at 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively). @*Conclusion@#Pre-TACE CT or MR imaging findings could predict survival outcomes in patients with small HCC upon treatment with TACE. Our predictive models including three imaging predictors could be helpful in prognostication, identification, and selection of suitable candidates for TACE in patients with single small HCC.

12.
Korean Journal of Radiology ; : 385-398, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-741426

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and efficacy of radioembolization with that of sorafenib for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched for studies reporting outcomes in patients with HCC and PVTT treated with radioembolization or sorafenib. Meta-analyses of cumulative overall survival (OS) and Kaplan-Meier survival rates according to the time to progression (TTP) and incidence of adverse events (AEs) were performed. Subgroup analyses were conducted on 1-year OS data. RESULTS: Seventeen studies were identified (four involving radioembolization, 10 involving sorafenib, and three comparing both). Pooled OS rates were higher in the radioembolization group, notably at 6 months {76% (95% confidence interval [CI], 64–85%) vs. 54% (95% CI, 45–62%)} and 1 year (47% [95% CI, 38–57%] vs. 24% [95% CI, 18–30%]); TTP was also longer with radioembolization. In patients undergoing radioembolization, the proportion of patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status 0 (p < 0.0001), Child-Pugh A (p < 0.0001), extrahepatic metastasis (p = 0.0012), and a history of cancer treatment (p = 0.0048) was identified as a significant source of heterogeneity for the 1-year OS. Radioembolization was associated with a lower incidence of grade 3/4 AEs than sorafenib (9% [95% CI, 3–27%] vs. 28% [95% CI, 17–43%]). CONCLUSION: Compared with sorafenib, radioembolization is a safer and more effective treatment for HCC with PVTT and is associated with prolonged survival, delayed tumor progression, and fewer grade 3/4 AEs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Incidence , Neoplasm Metastasis , Population Characteristics , Portal Vein , Survival Rate , Thrombosis
13.
Journal of Korean Medical Science ; : 1062-1071, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-224180

ABSTRACT

Esophageal stents have been used to palliate patients with dysphagia caused by esophageal cancer. Early rigid plastic prostheses have been associated with a high risk of complications. However, with the development of self-expanding stents, it has developed into a widely accepted method for treating malignant esophageal strictures and esophagorespiratory fistulas (ERFs). The present review covers various aspects of self-expanding metallic stent placement for palliating esophageal cancer, including its types, placement procedures, indications, contraindications, complications, and some of innovations that will become available in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Constriction, Pathologic , Deglutition Disorders , Esophageal Neoplasms , Esophageal Stenosis , Fistula , Methods , Plastics , Prostheses and Implants , Stents
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