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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913066

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the changes in the awareness rate of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge among medical professionals before and after training in Fangcheng County, a disease-elimination pilot area of Henan Province, so as to evaluate the effectiveness of the training. Methods Three townships in Fangcheng County were randomly selected as the study townships, including Dushu, Bowang and Yangji townships, while Erlangmiao, Yanglou and Xiaoshidian townships in the county were randomly selected as the control townships. The grassroots medical professionals in the study townships were given once training on T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge each year from 2016 to 2020, while those in the control townships were given no interventions. All village-level doctors and a part of township-level public health professionals were sampled from the study and control townships as intervention and control groups. The baseline and final assessments of the awareness of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge were performed using questionnaire survey in intervention and control groups in 2016 and 2020, and the awareness of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge was compared between the two groups. Results A total of 663 medical professionals were investigated in Fangcheng County from 2016 to 2020, including 474 participants in the intervention group and 189 participants in the control group. Results from the 2016 baseline survey showed that the awareness rate of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge was 28.83% (47/163) among grassroots medical professionals in Fangcheng County, and there were no significant differences in the awareness between the intervention (32.47%, 25/77) and control groups (25.58%, 22/86) (χ2 = 0.939, P > 0.05), between men (30.50%, 43/141) and women (18.18%, 4/22) (χ2 = 1.406, P > 0.05) or between village- (31.39%, 43/137) and township-level medical professionals (15.38%, 4/26) (χ2 = 2.727, P > 0.05), while significant differences were found in the awareness rate of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge among medical professionals in terms of education levels (χ2 = 8.190, P < 0.05) and duration of working experiences (χ2 = 12.617, P < 0.05), and the awareness rate of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge increased with education levels among medical professionals (χ2 = 6.768, P < 0.05). Only 5.52% (9/163) of the medical professionals had a history of diagnosis and therapy of T. solium taeniasis or cysticercosis, and only 1.23% (2/163) received training on T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge during the past 5 years. Results from the 2020 questionnaire survey showed a higher awareness rate of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge among medical professionals in the intervention group (93.55%, 116/124) than in the control group (46.60%, 48/103) (χ2 = 61.845, P < 0.05), and no significant differences were seen in the awareness rate of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge among medical professionals in terms of gender, level of medical professionals, duration of working experiences or history of diagnosis/therapy of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in the intervention group (χ2 = 1.089, 0.140, 0.081 and 0.453, all P values > 0.05), while there was a significant difference in the awareness rate among medical professionals with different education levels (χ2 = 36.338, P < 0.05). In addition, the awareness rate of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge significantly increased among medical professionals with various chracteristics in 2020 than in 2016. Conclusions In the low-prevalence areas of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis, long-term and persistent training may improve the awareness of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge among grassroots medical professionals, which facilitates the timely identification of T. solium taeniasis and cysticercosis and the establishment of a sensitive disease surveillance system.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920742

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of four anti-cysticercus IgG, IgG4 or IgM antibody test kits (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA) by different manufacturers, so as to provide insights into the epidemiological investigation and clinical detection of cysticercosis. Methods Forty serum samples from cerebral cysticercosis patients, 100 serum samples from healthy volunteers, 30 serum samples from paragonimiasis skrjabini patients, 17 serum samples from cystic echinococcosis and 19 serum samples from subcutaneous or cerebral sparganosis patients were collected and detected using anti-cysticercus IgG, IgG4 or IgM antibody test kits (brand A) and the anti-cysticercus IgG antibody test kit (brand B). The sensitivity, specificity and false negative rate of the four kits for detection of cysticercosis were estimated. Results The anti-cysticercus IgG, IgG4 or IgM antibody test kits (brand A) showed 95.00% (38/40), 87.50% (35/40), 7.50% (3/40) sensitivities and 98.00% (98/100), 100.00% (100/100) and 100.00% (100/100) for detection of cysticercosis, while the anti-cysticercus IgG antibody test kit (brand B) presented a 75.00% (30/40) sensitivity and 100.00% (100/100) specificity for detection of cysticercosis. The sensitivity for detection of cysticercosis was significantly higher by the anti-cysticercus IgG antibody test kit (brand A) than by the anti-cysticercus IgG antibody test kit (brand B) (χ2 = 6.28, P < 0.05); however, no significant difference was seen in the specificity by two kits (χ2 = 2.01, P > 0.05). The four ELISA kits showed overall false positive rates of 37.88% (25/66), 22.73% (15/66), 62.12% (41/66) and 15.15% (10/66) for detection of paragonimiasis, echinococcosis and sparganosis (χ2 = 37.61, P < 0.05), and the anti-cysticercus IgG antibody test kit (brand A) presented the highest overall false positive rate for detection of paragonimiasis, echinococcosis and sparganosis (χ2 = 7.56, P’ < 0.008), while a higher overall false positive rate was seen for detection of paragonimiasis, echinococcosis and sparganosis by the anti-cysticercus IgG antibody test kit (brand A) than by the anti-cysticercus IgG antibody test kit (brand B) (χ2 = 8.75, P’ < 0.008). The four ELISA kits showed false positive rates of 40.00% (12/30), 16.67% (5/30), 76.67% (23/30) and 13.33% (4/30) for detection of paragonimiasis (χ2 = 32.88, P < 0.05) and 21.05% (4/19), 26.32% (5/19), 73.68% (14/19) and 15.79% (3/19) for detection of sparganosis (χ2 = 19.97, P < 0.05), and the highest false positive rates were found by the anti-cysticercus IgM antibody test kit (brand A) for detection of paragonimiasis and sparganosis (all P’ < 0.008). However, the four ELISA kits showed comparable false positive rates of 52.94% (9/17), 29.41% (5/17), 23.53% (4/17) and 17.65% (3/17) for detection of echinococcosis (χ2 = 8.24, P > 0.05). In addition, the anti-cysticercus IgM anti-body test kit (brand A) showed false positive rates of 76.67% (23/30), 23.53% (4/17) and 73.68% (14/19) for detection of paragonimiasis, echinococcosis and sparganosis (χ2 = 14.537, P < 0.05), with the lowest false positive rate seen for detection of echinococcosis (χ2 = 14.537, P’ < 0.014), while no significant differences were seen in the false positive rate for detection of paragonimiasis, echinococcosis and sparganosis by other three ELISA kits (all P > 0.05). Conclusions The four anti-cysticercus IgG, IgG4 or IgM antibody test kits exhibit various efficiencies for serodiagnosis of cysticercosis. The anti-cysticercus IgG antibody test kit (brand A) has a high sensitivity for serodiagnosis of cysticercosis; however, it still needs to solve the problems of cross-reaction with other parasitic diseases and stability.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913064

ABSTRACT

Objective To compare the changes of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) related to taeniasis and cysticercosis among primary school students before and after health education interventions in disease-elimination pilot areas of Henan Province, so as to evaluate the effectiveness of health education interventions. Methods A primary school was selected from each of Dushu, Bowang and Yangji townships, Fangcheng County, Henan Province from 2017 to 2019; then, 2 to 3 classes were randomly selected from grade 4 to 6 in each primary school, and finally, all students in these classes were enrolled as study subjects. A thematic health education lecture pertaining to taeniasis and cysticercosis was given once each year by means of “health education in class”. The KAP towards taeniasis and cysticercosis was investigated among primary school students using selffilled structured questionnaires, and the changes of awareness of taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge and percentage of healthy behaviors formation were compared in primary school students among years and following various frequencies of health education interventions. Results More than 10 thousand person-time primary school students received health education interventions during the period from 2017 to 2019, and a total of 1 223 person-time primary school students were investigated during the 3-year study period, including 633 person-time men and 590 person-time women and 88.55% of primary school students at ages of 10 to 12 years. The proportion of households raising pigs and using dry toiliets decreased from 5.30% (24/453) and 18.10% (82/453) in 2017 to 3.60% (13/361) and 11.08% (40/361) in 2019, respectively. The awareness rate of taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge increased significantly from 0.22% (1/453) in 2017 to 62.59% (256/409) in 2018 and 76.73% (277/361) in 2019 (χ2 = 567.60, P < 0.001), and the awareness rate was 85.25% (104/122) among primary school students attending the thematic special health education courses for successive three times. The awareness rates of taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge were 0.44% (1/225), 58.00% (116/200) and 71.63% (149/208) among male students and 0 (0/338), 66.99% (140/209) and 83.66% (128/153) among female students from 2017 to 2019, and there was a significant difference in the awareness of taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge between male and female students in 2019 (χ2 = 7.14, P = 0.01). On-site teaching by doctors was the students’ favorite way to receive health education interventions (70.07%, 857/1 223), followed by watching health education videos (58.63%, 717/1 223) and seeing parasite specimens (48.9%, 598/1 223). The proportion of students’ families who used cutting boards for raw and cooked food separately increased from 7.28% (33/453) in 2017 to 47.37% (171/361) in 2019, was 67.21% (82/122) among students attending the health education courses for successive three times. The proportion of students who frequently washed their hands before meals and after using toilet increased from 71.96% (324/453) in 2017 to 89.47% (319/361) in 2019 and was 95.90% (117/122) among students attending the health education courses for successive three times. In addition, the percentage of students washing hands frequently in families using dry toilets was significantly lower in those who did not use dry toilets (χ2 = 9.21, P = 0.002), and the proportion of students with a habit of eating raw or undercooked meat decreased significantly from 35.76% (162/453) in 2017 to 6.65% (24/361) in 2019 (χ2 = 69.11, P < 0.01). Conclusion The thematic health education activity of “health education in class” contributes greatly to the increase in the awareness of taeniasis and cysticercosis control knowledge and the rate of healthy behaviors formation among primary school students in diseaseelimination pilot areas of Henan Province.

4.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 1068-1073, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909978

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the risk factors of muscle necrosis in patients with acute compartment syndrome(ACS).Methods:A retrospective case-control study was conducted for clinical data of 111 ACS patients admitted to West China Hospital, Sichuan University from January 2010 to December 2020, including 84 males and 27 females; age 18-76 years [45(36, 55)years]. Muscle necrosis was presented in 35 patients(necrotic muscle group), but was not seen in 76 patients(non-necrotic muscle group). The univariate analysis was performed for the two groups in the demographic data(sex, age, ethnicity, body mass index, smoking history, chronic comorbidities), injury patterns [ mechianism of injury(low energy injury, high energy injury, crush injury, other injury), time from injury to treatment, first visit or not, combination with bone fracture or not, open injury or not, presence of tension blisters or not], medical treatment(number of debridements, fasciotomy or not)and laboratory indicators [hemoglobin(Hb), platelet count(PLT), white blood cell count(WBC), prothrombin time(PT), international normalized ratio(INR), partially activated prothrombin time(APTT), fibrinogen(FIB), D-Dimer(D-D), alanine aminotransferase(ALT), aspartate aminotransferase(AST), albumin(ALB), intravenous blood glucose(GLU), creatine kinase(CK), peak value of CK during hospitalization(natural logarithmic conversion, lnCK), serum sodium(NA), serum potassium(K), serum calcium(CA)]. Further multivariate logistic regression was performed to analyze the independent risk factors of muscle necrosis in ACS patients.Results:The univariate analysis showed that there were statistically significant differences between the two groups in the mechanism of injury, first visit or not, combination with bone fracture or not, number of debridements, Hb, PT, INR, D-D, AST, ALB, GLU, CK and lnCK( P<0.05), while not in the basic data, time from injury to treatment, open injury or not, presence of tension blisters or not, fasciotomy or not, PLT, WBC, APTT, FIB, ALT, NA, K and CA( P>0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that high energy injury( OR=5.143, 95% CI 1.216-21.758, P<0.05), crush injury( OR=22.313, 95% CI 2.625-189.635, P<0.05), other mechanism of injury( OR=9.019, 95% CI 1.036-78.554, P<0.05), first visit or not( OR=0.071, 95% CI 0.006-0.819, P<0.05), Hb( OR=0.979, 95% CI 0.961-0.998, P<0.05), GLU( OR=1.218, 95% CI 1.020-1.455, P<0.05)and lnCK( OR=1.805, 95% CI 1.235-2.639, P<0.05)were significantly related with muscle necrosis. Conclusion:The mechanism of injury, first visit or not, Hb, GLU and lnCK are the independent risk factors of muscle necrosis in patients with ACS.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909570

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE Cisplatin is a formidable chemotherapy agent widely applying in antineoplastic treatments, but its side effects often limit the clinical usage. Metabolic disorders are one of the side effects induced by cisplatin, which closely relate to the onset of chemotherapy-induced anorexia (CIA) in cancer patients but lacks effective controls. Liujunzi decoction (LJZD) is a traditional Chinese formula that has a promising effect in treating CIA. However, whether LJZD ameliorates CIA through adjusting cisplatin-induced metabolic disorders remain unknow. The present study evalu?ated the mechanism of cisplatin-induced metabolic disorders, and the effect of LJZD in ameliorating these disturbances. METHODS 42 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (180-220 g) were randomly divided into 3 groups:normal control group (distilled water+saline), model group (distilled water+cisplatin), LJZD group (4.8 g·kg-1 Liujunzi decoction ingredients+cisplatin). Intragastrical administered each drug twice a day (7:00-19:00) since day 0 for 4 d, animals were intraperito?neal injected with cisplatin 6 mg·kg-11 h after administration while normal control groups were injected with same volume of saline. On day 3, each group was anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium 45 mg · kg-1 (ip), and blood samples were collected from aorta abdominalis. Then the samples were analyzed using an LC-ESI-MS/MS system. Significantly regu?lated metabolites between groups were determined by VIP≥1 and absolute Log2FC (fold change)≥1. Identified metabo?lites were mapped to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database using Metaboanalyst 5.0 (https://www.metaboanalyst.ca/). RESULTS A total of 133, 77 and 32 differential metabolites were filtrated in control vs model, control vs LJZD and model vs LJZD groups respectively. Comparing to control, the levels of hexadecanoic acid (Log2FC=6.3153), linoleic acid (Log2FC=5.3478), and 8, 11-icosadienoic acid (Log2FC=5.2342) significantly increased, and the levels of N-acetyl-L-tyrosine (Log2FC = -2.6283), cinnamic acid (Log2FC = -2.3381), N-acetylphenylalanine (Log2FC = -2.2501) significantly decreased in model group. The KEGG pathway enrichments of these metabolites indi?cated that, cisplatin-induced metabolic disorders by disturbing metabolism pathways such as linoleic acid metabolism, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, and phenylalanine metabolism, which suggested that the onset of CIA was partly associated with the metabolic disorders of linoleic acid, unsaturated fatty acids, and phenylalanine. Compared to control, treatment of LJZD significantly increased the levels of 4-hydroxytryptamine (Log2FC =12.0186), hexadecanoic acid (Log2FC = 5.7412), linoleic acid (Log2FC = 5.1877) and significantly decreased the levels of N-acetylmethionine (Log2FC=-1.7317), 2-aminoethanesulfinic acid (Log2FC=-1.6578), N-acetyl-L-tyrosine (Log2FC=-1.5355). And com?paring to the model group, 4-hydroxytryptamine (Log2FC = 12.0186), 7, 12-diketocholic acid (Log2FC = 2.0998), N-acetylneuraminic acid (Log2FC = 2.0560) markedly increased, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylpentane-1 (Log2FC = -1.9202), 5-dioic acid (Log2FC = -1.7166), N-isovaleroylglycine, hexanoyl glycine (Log2FC = -1.4958) markedly decreased in LJZD group. It was worth noting that, there were 23 differential metabolites filtrated both in control vs model and model vs LJZD groups, which were the key metabolites of LJZD in treating CIA. Among these 23 common metabolites, there were 16 metabolites excluding the control vs LJZD group, that was, LJZD had no effect in normal rats while being able to ameliorated cisplatin-induced metabolic disorders by regulating these 16 metabolites. Cisplatin-induced downregula?tion of 11 metabolites such as hydrocinnamic acid, (±)12(13)epoxy-9Z-octadecenoic acid, cinnamic acid were upregulated after LJZD treatment, and cisplatin-induced upregulation of imidazoleacetic acid, 2'-deoxycytidine-5'-monophosphate and other 5 metabolites were downregulated by LJZD. The KEGG pathway analysis indicated that the linoleic acid metabolism, histidine metabolism, and pyrimidine metabolism were the most enriched metabolic pathway. Thus, cisplatin-induced metabolic disturbances mainly by disturbing linoleic acid metabolism, histidine metabolism, and pyrimidine metabolism, and LJZD interacted with these metabolic pathways to reduce metabolic disorders and thus ameliorated CIA. CONCLUSION Cisplatin-induced anorexia was closely related to the metabolic disorders of linoleic acid metabo?lism, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, and phenylalanine metabolism. The mechanism of LJZD in ameliorating CIA was in concerned with the metabolic adjustments, relating to the regulation of linoleic acid metabolism, histidine metabolism, and pyrimidine metabolism.

6.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 1105-1109, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-909461

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the value of monitor carotid velocity time integral (VTI) and corrected flow time (FTc) by bedside ultrasound before and after passive leg raising (PLR) in predicting fluid responsiveness in critically ill patients.Methods:A prospective observational study was conducted. Fifty patients with critical illness admitted to the First People's Hospital of Fuyang Hangzhou from January 2020 to March 2021 were enrolled. The clinical data including the gender, age, body mass index (BMI), acute physiology and chronic health evaluationⅡ(APACHEⅡ) score, and the duration of mechanical ventilation were recorded. The changes of carotid VTI and FTc were measured by bedside ultrasound, and the values of heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), stroke volume index (SVI), and intrathoracic blood volume index (ITBVI) were measured by pulse indicated continuous cardiac output (PiCCO) monitor before and after PLR in all patients. According to the changes of SVI before and after PLR, the patients were divided into fluid responsiveness positive group with the change rate of SVI≥15% and fluid responsiveness negative group with the change rate of SVI < 15%. The differences in the values of VTI, FTc, CVP, and ITBVI obtained before and after PLR (ΔVTI, ΔFTc, ΔCVP and ΔITBVI) were calculated and then compared between the two groups. The predictive values of these indicators on fluid responsiveness in critically ill patients were analyzed by receiver operator characteristic curve (ROC curve), and their relationship with the difference in SVI (ΔSVI) obtained before and after PLR was evaluated by Pearson correlation analysis.Results:Fifty patients were all enrolled in this study, in which 27 patients were fluid response and 23 patients were fluid nonresponse. Basic clinical data were not different between the two groups. The values of ΔVTI, ΔFTc, ΔCVP, and ΔITBVI in fluid response were all significantly higher than those in fluid nonresponse [ΔVTI (cm): 2.07±1.16 vs. 0.67±0.86, ΔFTc (ms): 4.00±6.10 vs. 0.01±2.26, ΔCVP (cmH 2O, 1 cmH 2O = 0.098 kPa): 1.67±1.14 vs. 1.00±1.17, ΔITBVI (mL/m 2): 98±69 vs. 48±70, all P < 0.05]. ROC curve analysis showed that ΔVTI, ΔFTc, ΔCVP and ΔITBVI were all positive for predicting fluid responsiveness, their area under ROC curve (AUC) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were 0.870 (0.769-0.972), 0.694 (0.547-0.841), 0.684 (0.535-0.832) and 0.709 (0.564-0.855), respectively. When using ΔVTI 0.92 cm, ΔFTc 1.45 ms, ΔCVP 1.50 cmH 2O and ΔITBVI 44.50 mL/m 2 as the threshold values, the sensitivities were 96.3%, 63.0%, 44.4% and 81.5%, and the specificities were 65.2%, 78.3%, 82.6% and 56.5%, respectively, in which the predictive value of ΔVTI was the largest. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that ΔVTI, ΔFTc, ΔCVP, and ΔITBVI were positively associated with ΔSVI ( r values were 0.971, 0.334, 0.440, 0.650, P values were 0.000, 0.018, 0.001, 0.000, respectively). Conclusion:Carotid ΔVTI and ΔFTc monitored by bedside ultrasound before and after PLR could be as effective as conventional indicators in predicting fluid responsiveness in critically ill patients, and the predictive value of ΔVTI was better than others.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906284

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the effect of chemical compound of aconitum alkaloid on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response of RAW264.7 macrophages and investigate its mechanism. Method:The chemical compounds of Aconitum Kusnezoffii Reichb were collected from TCMSP database with consideration of oral bioavailability (OB)≥30% and drug-likeness (DL)≥0.18. The potential targets of each chemical component were predicted with use of Pubchem database and Swiss Target Prediction database. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) targets were collected from GeneCards database and selected by intersection screening. Gene ontology (GO) classification enrichment and Pathway enrichment analysis were carried out with use of DAVID database. Cytoscape was used to construct "Chemical Compound-Potential Targets-Pathway-Disease" network. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed by using STRING database and Cytoscape software. RAW264.7 macrophages were stimulated by LPS to establish macrophage inflammation model <italic>in vitro</italic>. Western blot was used to detect the effects of chemical compounds on the expression of tumor necrosis factor-<italic>α</italic> (TNF-<italic>α</italic>) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in RAW264.7 cells induced by LPS, as well as on the expression of JAK kinase and nuclear transcription factor- kappa B (NF-<italic>κ</italic>B) signal pathway. Result:A total of 27 chemical compounds were obtained by searching TCMSP database and consulting literature (OB≥30%, DL≥0.18). 12 chemical compounds were obtained after screening. 177 potential targets were obtained after database prediction and screening, and 97 targets were obtained as potential targets for the treatment of RA after intersection between 177 potential targets and 4 329 RA targets. A total of 32 biological processes (BP), 5 cellular components (CC), and 12 molecular functions (MF) were enriched by DAVID database. The construction of network topology map showed that different chemical compounds can act on the same target and the same chemical compound can also act on different targets in the treatment of RA. Aconitum alkaloid can be connected with the same pathway through different targets or with different pathways through the same target, indicating that different targets may have synergistic effect, which fully reflected the complex multi-compound, multi-targets and multi-pathways mechanism. Different concentrations of LPS in stimulation (0-200 μg·L<sup>-1</sup>) can significantly up-regulate the expression of COX-2 protein in RAW264.7 macrophages (<italic>P</italic><0.05), indicating that the inflammatory model was successful. Compared with the normal group, the expression of TNF-<italic>α</italic> and COX-2 protein in the inflammatory model of RAW264.7 cells increased significantly(<italic>P</italic><0.05), while the expression of TNF-<italic>α</italic> and COX-2 protein in bulleyaconitine A(BLA), songorine, yunaconitine and karacoline groups decreased in varying degrees compared with the model group (<italic>P</italic><0.05). Compared with the normal group, the expression of IRAK4, NF-<italic>κ</italic>B, JAK1 and STAT3 in the inflammatory model of RAW264.7 cells were significantly increased (<italic>P</italic><0.05), while such levels in BulleyaconitineA, songorine, yunaconitine and Karacoline groups were significantly lower than those in the model group(<italic>P</italic><0.05). Conclusion:Based on systematic pharmacology and <italic>in vitro</italic> experiments, the related targets and signal pathways were analyzed to provide new insights into the pathogenesis of RA, reveal the molecular mechanism of aconitum alkaloid in the treatment of RA, and provide new ideas for the application of Mongolian medicine in modern medicine.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905070

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the effect of forsythiaside A on gastrointestinal motility disorder induced by chemotherapy in mice, and explore the mechanism of forsythiaside A regulating gastrointestinal motility. Method:The 60 KM mice were randomly divided into normal group, model group, metoclopramide group (5 mg·kg-1) and forsythiaside A low, medium and high-dose groups (30, 60, 120 mg·kg-1), 10 for each group, which include half male and half female. The above dose was given once a day for 4 consecutive days, which the intragastric volume was 10 mL·kg-1. One hour after 1rd day administration, equal volume of saline was intraperitoneally injected to the normal group, 2 mg·kg-1 cisplatin was intraperitoneally injected to the other groups with daily for 4 consecutive days. Observing the effects of forsythiaside A on gastric emptying and small intestinal propulsion on mice models, serum gastrin (GAS) and somatostatin (SS), motilin (MTL), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) levels were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and total nitric oxide synthase (tNOS) in gastric antrum and ileum were detected by ELISA. The expression of AChE and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in gastric antrum and ileum were detected by Western blot. Result:Compared with normal group, the gastric retention rate and small intestinal propulsion rate of the model group were significantly increased (P<0.01), serum levels of MTL, GAS, SS and VIP, the AChE activity in the homogenate of ileum in the model group were significantly reduced (P<0.05,P<0.01), while the tNOS activities in gastric antrum and ileum were significantly increased (P<0.05,P<0.01). Protein expression of AChE in gastric antrum and ileum were significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the expression level of iNOS protein was significantly increased in the model group (P<0.05). Compared with model group, different doses of forsythiaside A can reduce the gastric residual rate and small intestinal propulsion rate of mice to varying degrees. Meanwhile forsythiaside A can increase the serum levels of MTL, GAS, SS, and VIP, and the AChE activity and protein expression levels in gastric antrum and ileum tissues were also increased, while tNOS activity and iNOS protein expression were decreased in gastric antrum and ileum (P<0.05,P<0.01). Conclusion:Forsythiaside A can significantly ameliorate the delayed gastric emptying and small intestine hyperfunction induced by cisplatin in mice. Its mechanism to ameliorate gastrointestinal dysfunction caused by chemotherapy is related to the regulation of gastrointestinal AChE and NOS activity in gastric antrum and ileum and the regulation of gastrointestinal hormone levels.

9.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 787-792, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922158

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To evaluate the safety and clinical efficiency of holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) in the treatment of small-volume BPH (SBPH) complicated by severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS).@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data on 82 cases of SBPH with severe LUTS treated by HoLEP from January 2017 to December 2018. The patients were aged (65.5 ± 7.6) years, with a mean prostate volume of <40 ml, a total IPSS of 24.8 ± 4.6, a QOL score of 5.2 ± 0.8, the maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax) of (7.6 ± 3.7) ml/s, and a mean PSA level of (1.8 ± 1.4) μg/L.@*RESULTS@#All the operations were successfully completed, the mean operation time averaging (30.2 ± 5.0) min, enucleation time (26.7 ± 5.6) min and comminution time (3.5 ± 1.1) min, and the enucleated tissue weighing (20.3 ± 4.9) g. After surgery, the bladders were irrigated for (3.5 ± 1.9) h, with (3.0 ± 1.7) L of rinse solution, and catheterization lasted (24.8 ± 9.7) h. Histopathology revealed moderate or severe lymphocytic infiltration in 69 cases (84.1%). At 6 months after operation, significant improvement was observed in the IPSS, QOL, Qmax and PSA level compared with the baseline (P < 0.05). To date, no urethral stricture-related reoperation was ever necessitated.@*CONCLUSIONS@#HoLEP is safe and effective for the treatment of SBPH complicated by severe LUTS and can be employed after adequate preoperative evaluation of the patient.《.


Subject(s)
Humans , Lasers, Solid-State , Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms/surgery , Male , Prostate/surgery , Prostatic Hyperplasia/surgery , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies
10.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2931-2943, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921261

ABSTRACT

The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are increasing worldwide and seriously threaten human life and health. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a metabolic regulator, regulates glucose and lipid metabolism and may exert beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In recent years, FGF21 has been found to act directly on the cardiovascular system and may be used as an early biomarker of CVDs. The present review highlights the recent progress in understanding the relationship between FGF21 and CVDs including coronary heart disease, myocardial ischemia, cardiomyopathy, and heart failure and also explores the related mechanism of the cardioprotective effect of FGF21. FGF21 plays an important role in the prediction, treatment, and improvement of prognosis in CVDs. This cardioprotective effect of FGF21 may be achieved by preventing endothelial dysfunction and lipid accumulating, inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis and regulating the associated oxidative stress, inflammation and autophagy. In conclusion, FGF21 is a promising target for the treatment of CVDs, however, its clinical application requires further clarification of the precise role of FGF21 in CVDs.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Fibroblast Growth Factors , Humans , Lipid Metabolism , Oxidative Stress
11.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 2333-2339, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#A deep learning model (DLM) that enables non-invasive hypokalemia screening from an electrocardiogram (ECG) may improve the detection of this life-threatening condition. This study aimed to develop and evaluate the performance of a DLM for the detection of hypokalemia from the ECGs of emergency patients.@*METHODS@#We used a total of 9908 ECG data from emergency patients who were admitted at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiangxi, China, from September 2017 to October 2020. The DLM was trained using 12 ECG leads (lead I, II, III, aVR, aVL, aVF, and V1-6) to detect patients with serum potassium concentrations <3.5 mmol/L and was validated using retrospective data from the Jiangling branch of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University. The blood draw was completed within 10 min before and after the ECG examination, and there was no new or ongoing infusion during this period.@*RESULTS@#We used 6904 ECGs and 1726 ECGs as development and internal validation data sets, respectively. In addition, 1278 ECGs from the Jiangling branch of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University were used as external validation data sets. Using 12 ECG leads (leads I, II, III, aVR, aVL, aVF, and V1-6), the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the DLM was 0.80 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.77-0.82) for the internal validation data set. Using an optimal operating point yielded a sensitivity of 71.4% and a specificity of 77.1%. Using the same 12 ECG leads, the external validation data set resulted in an AUC for the DLM of 0.77 (95% CI: 0.75-0.79). Using an optimal operating point yielded a sensitivity of 70.0% and a specificity of 69.1%.@*CONCLUSIONS@#In this study, using 12 ECG leads, a DLM detected hypokalemia in emergency patients with an AUC of 0.77 to 0.80. Artificial intelligence could be used to analyze an ECG to quickly screen for hypokalemia.


Subject(s)
Artificial Intelligence , Deep Learning , Electrocardiography , Humans , Hypokalemia/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-919368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Osteoporosis is a systemic bone disease characterized by decreased bone density and deterioration of bone microstructure, leading to an increased probability of fragility fractures. Once segmental bone defect occurs, it is easy to cause delayed union and nonunion. @*METHODS@#The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave (ESW) and teriparatideloaded hydrogel (T-Gel) combined strategy on the cell activity and differentiation of osteoporosis derived bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (OP-BMSCs) in vitro and bone regeneration in osteoporotic segmental bone defects in vivo. @*RESULTS@#In vitro, the strategy of combining ESW and T-Gel significantly enhanced OP-BMSCs proliferation, survival, migration, and osteogenic differentiation by up-regulating the alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization, and expression of runt-related transcription factor-2, type I collagen, osteocalcin, and osteopontin. In the segmental bone defect models of osteoporotic rabbits, MicroCT evaluation and histological observation demonstrated this ESW-combined with T-Gel injection significantly induced bone healing by enhancing the osteogenic activity of the local microenvironment in osteoporotic defects. @*CONCLUSION@#In conclusion, ESW-combined with T-Gel injection could regulate the poor osteogenic microenvironment in osteoporotic defects and show potential for enhancing fragility fractures healing.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904622

ABSTRACT

Objective To establish a nucleic acid assay for detection of Paragonimus skrjabini based on the recombinase-aided isothermal amplification (RAA) technique, and to preliminarily evaluate its detection efficiency. Methods The metacercariae of P. skrjabini, P. westermani and Euparagonimus cenocopiosus were isolated from crabs, and genomic DNA was extracted for molecular characterization. The cytochrome coxidase 1 (cox1) gene sequence of P. skrjabini was selected as the target gene fragment, and the primers and probes were designed, screened and synthesized for RAA assay. The genomic DNA of P. skrjabini metacercariae from Jiyuan City and Yiyang County of Luoyang City, Henan Province were used as templates for verification of the fluorescent RAA assay. The fluorescent RAA assay was performed to detect different concentrations of plasmids containing target gene fragment and P. skrjabini metacercariae genomic DNA to determine the sensitivity. Fluorescent RAA assay was performed with recombinant plasmids containing P. skrjabini cox1 gene sequences at different concentrations and P. skrjabini genomic DNA as templates to evaluate its sensitivity, and the genomic DNA of P. westermani, E. cenocopiosus, Clonorchis sinensis and Schistosoma japonicum was detected with fluorescent RAA assay to evaluate its specificity. Results P. skrjabini, P. westermani and E. cenocopiosus metacercariae were isolated from crabs, respectively. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis confirmed their homology with the genes sequences of standard Paragonimus strains in GenBank. A fluorescent RAA assay was successfully established for nucleic acid detection of P. skrjabini, and the genomic DNA of P. skrjabini metacercariae from Jiyuan City and Yiyang County of Luoyang City, Henan Province was amplified using the fluorescent RAA assay within 5 min, while the negative control was not amplified. If the recombinant plasmid containing P. skrjabini cox1 gene sequences was used as templates, the fluorescent RAA assay showed the lowest detection limit of 10 copies/μL, and positive amplification was observed within 5 min. If genomic DNA was used as templates, the fluorescent RAA assay showed the lowest detection limit of 10 pg/μL, and all positive amplifications were found within 5 to 10 min. In addition, the fluorescent RAA assay was tested negative for P. westermani, E. cenocopiosus, C. sinensis and S. japonicum. Conclusions A rapid, sensitive and specific fluorescent RAA assay is successfully established for nucleic acid detection of P. skrjabini, which has potential values in rapid field detection and species identification in freshwater crabs in areas endemic for P. skrjabini.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882034

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the prevalence and influencing factors of intestinal protozoan infections among rural children in Henan Province. Methods A total of 104 survey sites were sampled from 35 counties (cities) in Henan Province using the stratified cluster sampling method to investigate the prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among rural children from 2014 to 2015. The trophozoites and cysts of intestinal protozoa were identified using the iodine staining method and the physiological saline direct smear method (one detection for one stool sample). The prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections was compared among rural children with different characteristics, and the factors affecting intestinal protozoan infections among rural children were identified. Results The overall prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections was 0.60% (40/6 771) among rural children in Henan Province from 2014 to 2015. There were 7 species of intestinal protozoa identified, and there was no species-specific prevalence (χ2 = 37.732, P = 0.000). No significant differences were found in prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among rural children in terms of gender (χ2 = 1.793, P = 0.181), age (χ2 = 1.443, P = 0.486), occupation (χ2 = 0.219, P = 0.896) or ecological region (χ2 = 1.700, P = 0.637). In addition, terrain (χ2 = 2.311, P = 0.510), economic level (χ2 = 4.322, P = 0.229), source of drinking water (χ2 = 0.731, P = 0.393), eating raw vegetables (χ2 = 1.134, P = 0.287) and deworming (χ2 = 1.089, P = 0.297) had no remarkable effects on the prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among rural children in Henan Province; however, the prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections varied significantly among rural children living in regions with different coverage of non-harmless toilets (χ2 = 10.050, P = 0.018). Conclusion The prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections is low among rural children in Henan Province.

15.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 107-114, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881981

ABSTRACT

Complex noise with impulse or impact property is common in workplace, and its damage on the auditory system is greater than that of steady-state noise. At present, the noise exposure measurement and evaluation indicators widely used in the world mainly include the equivalent continuous sound level and the cumulative noise exposure, both are based on the equal energy hypothesis(EEH). EEH only considered the damage of noise energy on the auditory system, but ignored the effect of temporal characteristics of noise, and underestimated the degree of hearing loss associated with complex noise. This paper first introduced the limitations of current noise exposure assessment standards at home and abroad, then introduced the definition of temporal kurtosis and the calculation method of its related energy indexes(such as cumulative noise exposure and equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure level), and further summarized the effectiveness of temporal kurtosis as an auxiliary parameter of noise energy in assessing the risk of hearing loss caused by complex noise, providing a rationale to supplement the existing noise assessment standards.

16.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 226-231, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881014

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the early interventions of traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) on the conversion time of nucleic acid in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and find possible underlying mechanisms of action.@*METHODS@#A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 300 confirmed COVID-19 patients who were treated with TCM, at a designated hospital in China. The patients were categorized into three groups: TCM1, TCM2 and TCM3, who respectively received TCM interventions within 7, 8-14, and greater than 15 days of hospitalization. Different indicators such as the conversion time of pharyngeal swab nucleic acid, the conversion time of fecal nucleic acid, length of hospital stay, and inflammatory markers (leukocyte count, and lymphocyte count and percentage) were analyzed to observe the impact of early TCM interventions on these groups.@*RESULTS@#The median conversion times of pharyngeal swab nucleic acid in the three groups were 5.5, 7 and 16 d (P < 0.001), with TCM1 and TCM2 being statistically different from TCM3 (P < 0.01). TCM1 (P < 0.05) and TCM3 (P < 0.01) were statistically different from TCM2. The median conversion times of fecal nucleic acid in the three groups were 7, 9 and 17 d (P < 0.001). Conversion times of fecal nucleic acid in TCM1 were statistically different from TCM3 and TCM2 (P < 0.01). The median lengths of hospital stay in the three groups were 13, 16 and 21 d (P < 0.001). TCM1 and TCM2 were statistically different from TCM3 (P < 0.01); TCM1 and TCM3 were statistically different from TCM2 (P < 0.01). Both leucocyte and lymphocyte counts increased gradually with an increase in the length of hospital stay in TCM1 group patients, with a statistically significant difference observed at each time point in the group (P < 0.001). Statistically significant differences in lymphocyte count and percentage in TCM2 (P < 0.001), and in leucocyte count (P = 0.043) and lymphocyte count (P = 0.038) in TCM3 were observed. The comparison among the three groups showed a statistically significant difference in lymphocyte percentage on the third day of admission (P = 0.044).@*CONCLUSION@#In this study, it was observed that in COVID-19 patients treated with a combination of Chinese and Western medicines, TCM intervention earlier in the hospital stay correlated with faster conversion time of pharyngeal swab and fecal nucleic acid, as well as shorter length of hospital stay, thus helping promote faster recovery of the patient. The underlying mechanism of action may be related to improving inflammation in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880988

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#Traditional Chinese medicine plays a significant role in the treatment of the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Tanreqing Capsule (TRQC) was used in the treatment of COVID-19 patients in the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. This study aimed to investigate the clinical efficacy of TRQC in the treatment of COVID-19.@*METHODS@#A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 82 patients who had laboratory-confirmed mild and moderate COVID-19; patients were treated with TRQC in one designated hospital. The treatment and control groups consisted of 25 and 57 cases, respectively. The treatment group was given TRQC orally three times a day, three pills each time, in addition to conventional Western medicine treatments which were also administered to the control group. The clinical efficacy indicators, such as the negative conversion time of pharyngeal swab nucleic acid, the negative conversion time of fecal nucleic acid, the duration of negative conversion of pharyngeal-fecal nucleic acid, and the improvement in the level of immune indicators such as T-cell subsets (CD3, CD4 and CD45) were monitored.@*RESULTS@#COVID-19 patients in the treatment group, compared to the control group, had a shorter negative conversion time of fecal nucleic acid (4 vs. 9 days, P = 0.047) and a shorter interval of negative conversion of pharyngeal-fecal nucleic acid (0 vs. 2 days, P = 0.042). The level of CD3@*CONCLUSION@#Significant reductions in the negative conversion time of fecal nucleic acid and the duration of negative conversion of pharyngeal-fecal nucleic acid were identified in the treatment group as compared to the control group, illustrating the potential therapeutic benefits of using TRQC as a complement to conventional medicine in patients with mild and moderate COVID-19. The underlying mechanism may be related to the improved levels of the immune indicator CD3


Subject(s)
Adult , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , Capsules , DNA, Viral/analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Feces/virology , Female , Humans , Length of Stay , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878995

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Songling Xuemaikang Capsules combined with conventional Western medicine in the treatment of essential hypertension. PubMed, VIP, CNKI, Wanfang and other databases were retrieved from the establishment of the database to February 2020 for clinical randomized controlled trial(RCT) about Songling Xuemaikang Capsules combined with conventional Western medicine in the treatment of essential hypertension. The literatures were screened out according to the inclusion criteria, and RevMan 5.3 software was used for Meta-analysis. A total of 3 100 patients in 27 RCTs were enrolled. According to Meta-analysis, Songling Xuemaikang Capsules combined with conventional Western medicine could effectively reduce systolic blood pressure(MD=-7.88,95%CI[-9.68,-6.08],P<0.000 01) and diastolic blood pressure(MD=-7.85, 95%CI[-9.07,-6.62], P<0.000 01), triglyceride(MD=-0.46, 95%CI[-0.66,-0.26], P<0.000 01) and total cholesterol(MD=-0.92, 95%CI[-1.49,-0.35], P=0.001), but increase HDL cholesterol(MD=0.51, 95%CI[0.28, 0.73], P<0.000 01), with a better effect than the Western medicine group alone. The results of LDL-C analysis showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups(MD=-0.91, 95%CI[-1.82, 0.01], P=0.05). The subgroup analysis suggested that reduced systolic blood pressure may be related to the use of ARB. There was a close correlation between CCB drugs and the decrease of diastolic blood pressure. In addition, there was no significant difference in the compliance and the incidence of adverse reactions. Clinical application of Songling Xuemaikang Capsules combined with Western medicine in the treatment of patients with essential hypertension has clear efficacy and certain safety. More clinical randomized controlled trials are needed for verification in the future.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Capsules , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Essential Hypertension/drug therapy , Humans
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878933

ABSTRACT

CNKI, PubMed and other databases were retrieved to extract eligible randomized controlled trial(RCT) about modified Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction(MXZD) combined with Western medicine(trial group) versus Western medicine alone(control group) in the treatment of leiomyoma. Therefore, a total of 25 RCTs were included, involving 2 328 patients. Bias risk evaluation tool in Cochrane Handbook 5.1.0 was used for evaluating the quality of these RCTs. Meta-analysis was performed for the reported indicators, including total efficiency, serum hormone level [progesterone(P), luteinizing hormone(LH), estradiol(E_2), follicle stimulating hormone(FSH)], uterine size, fibroids size and adverse reactions by using Stata 14.0 software. Meta-analysis showed that the total efficiency(RR=1.21,95%CI[1.17,1.25],P<0.05) of trial group was better than that of control group. Serum hormone level(WMD_P=-3.86,95%CI[-4.31,-3.41],P<0.05; WMD_(LH)=-3.64,95%CI[-4.47,-2.82],P<0.05; WMD_(E_2)=-39.99,95%CI[-53.45,-26.52],P<0.05; WMD_(FSH)=-3.79,95%CI[-4.86,-2.72],P<0.05), uterine size(WMD=-50.02,95%CI[-55.98,-44.06],P<0.05), fibroids size(WMD=-15.79,95%CI[-18.11,-13.46],P<0.05) and adverse reactions(RR=0.65,95%CI[0.48,0.88],P<0.05) of trial group were all lower than those of control group, with statistical significances. Trial sequential analysis(TSA) was performed by using TSA 0.9 software, and showed a reliable therapeutic effect of the experimental group. In short, our study indicated that modified Xuefu Zhuyu Decoction combined with Western medicine had a better therapeutic effect on leiomyoma than Western medicine alone, but more high-quality studies are needed to verify this conclusion in the future.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Leiomyoma/drug therapy , Medicine
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878885

ABSTRACT

In this study, Fick's first law and partition equilibrium were used to represent the internal and external mass transfer processes of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma at the macroscopic level, and a mass transfer model was established. The specific surface area was integrated into the mass transfer resistance, which effectively avoided the irregular shape of medicinal materials and expanded the application scope of the model. Meanwhile, the mass transfer model was further combined with the kinetic model of salvia-nolic acid degradation to establish the extraction kinetic models of salvianolic acid B, lithospermic acid and Danshensu. The model was applied to study the extraction process of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma. According to the sensitivity analysis results, the relative error of the model prediction was within 5% near the maximum extraction rate(320 min), and the prediction performance of the model was good. According to the investigation results of different process parameters, stirring could significantly accelerate the mass transfer rate of salvianolic acid B, while the mass transfer resistance and degradation rate constant were not affected by solvent-to-solid ratio. The linear relationship between the reciprocal of temperature and the logarithm of mass transfer resistance was good(R~2=0.996), indicating that the temperature and mass transfer resistance conformed to Arrhenius formula. In addition, we also found that the concentration changes of lithospermic acid and Danshensu were weakly affected by mass transferwhen the extraction temperature was higher than 358 K. This study has provided the basis for the process optimization and quality control of traditional Chinese medicine extraction.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Kinetics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Rhizome , Salvia miltiorrhiza
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