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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B ; (6): 1390-1405, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929372

ABSTRACT

Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) activity is correlated with worse outcomes of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. The heterodimer between CDK9 with cyclin T1 is essential for maintaining the active state of the kinase and targeting this protein-protein interaction (PPI) may offer promising avenues for selective CDK9 inhibition. Herein, we designed and generated a library of metal complexes bearing the 7-chloro-2-phenylquinoline CˆN ligand and tested their activity against the CDK9-cyclin T1 PPI. Complex 1 bound to CDK9 via an enthalpically-driven binding mode, leading to disruption of the CDK9-cyclin T1 interaction in vitro and in cellulo. Importantly, complex 1 showed promising anti-metastatic activity against TNBC allografts in mice and was comparably active compared to cisplatin. To our knowledge, 1 is the first CDK9-cyclin T1 PPI inhibitor with anti-metastatic activity against TNBC. Complex 1 could serve as a new platform for the future design of more efficacious kinase inhibitors against cancer, including TNBC.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929243

ABSTRACT

Pueraria thomsonii has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine. Isoflavonoids are the principle pharmacologically active components, which are primarily observed as glycosyl-conjugates and accumulate in P. thomsonii roots. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the glycosylation processes in (iso)flavonoid biosynthesis have not been thoroughly elucidated. In the current study, an O-glucosyltransferase (PtUGT8) was identified in the medicinal plant P. thomsonii from RNA-seq database. Biochemical assays of the recombinant PtUGT8 showed that it was able to glycosylate chalcone (isoliquiritigenin) at the 4-OH position and glycosylate isoflavones (daidzein, formononetin, and genistein) at the 7-OH or 4'-OH position, exhibiting no enzyme activity to flavonones (liquiritigenin and narigenin) in vitro. The identification of PtUGT8 may provide a useful enzyme catalyst for efficient biotransformation of isoflavones and other natural products for food or pharmacological applications.


Subject(s)
Cloning, Molecular , Genistein , Glucosyltransferases/metabolism , Isoflavones/pharmacology , Pueraria/chemistry
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928155

ABSTRACT

Illumina Xten was employed for shallow sequencing of Panax ginseng(ginseng) samples, MISA for screening of SSR loci, and Primer 3 for primer design. Polymorphic primers were screened from 180 primers. From the successfully amplified polymorphic primers, 15 primers which featured clear peak shape, good polymorphism, and ease of statistics were selected and used to evaluate the genetic diversity and germplasm resources of 36 ginseng accessions with different fruit colors from Jilin province. The results showed that red-fruit ginseng population had high genetic diversity with the average number of alleles(N_a) of 1.031 and haploid genetic diversity(h) of 0.172. The neighbor-joining cluster analysis demonstrated that the germplasms of red-fruit and yellow-fruit ginseng populations were obviously intermixed, and pick-fruit ginseng germplasms clustered into a single clade. The results of STRUCTURE analysis showed high proportion of single genotype in pick-fruit ginseng germplasm and abundant genotypes in red-fruit and yellow-fruit ginseng germplasms with obvious germplasm mixing. AMOVA revealed that genetic variation occurred mainly within populations(62.00%, P<0.001), and rarely among populations(39%, P<0.001), but homogenization was obvious among different populations. In summary, pink-fruit ginseng population may contain rare genotypes, which is the basis for breeding of high-quality high-yield, and multi-resistance varieties, genetic improvement of varieties, and sustainable development and utilization of ginseng germplasm resources.


Subject(s)
Fruit/genetics , Genetic Variation , Microsatellite Repeats , Panax/genetics , Plant Breeding
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928141

ABSTRACT

Black-bone silky fowl, sweet, pungent, and hot-natured, is one of the valuable domesticated birds with special economic value in China's genebank of poultry breed, which has a long history of medicinal and edible uses. It has the effects of tonifying liver and kidney, replenishing Qi and blood, nourishing yin, clearing heat, regulating menstruation, invigorating spleen, and securing essence. Therefore, it has remarkable efficacy of enhancing physical strength, tonifying blood, and treating diabetes and gynecological diseases. Various local black-bone silky fowl breeds have been generated due to the differences in environmental conditions, breed selection, and rearing conditions in different areas of China, which are mainly concentrated in Taihe, Wan'an, and Ji'an in Jiangxi province and Putian, Jinjiang, and Yongchun in Fujian province. The indigenous chicken breeds in China have different body sizes, appearance, coat colors, etc. The complex lineages lead to extremely unstable genetic traits. The diverse breeds similar in appearance result in the confusion in the market of silky fowl breeds. With the rapid development of molecular biological technology, the genetics of black-bone silky fowls has been intensively studied. This article reviews the research progress of the germplasm resources, genetic diversity, and breed identification of black-bone silky fowl in China at the morphology, chromosome, protein, and DNA levels. Further, it introduces the principles, application status, and limitations of DNA markers such as mitochondrial DNA, microsatellite markers, and SNPs. This review provides a theoretical basis for the mining of elite trait genes and the protection and utilization of local black-bone silky fowl germplasm resources in China.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chickens/genetics , DNA, Mitochondrial , Female , Genetic Variation , Microsatellite Repeats , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Silk/genetics
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928091

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effects of geniposide(GP) on the expression of prokineticin(PK2) and prokineticin receptor 1(PKR1) in db/db mice with diabetic nephropathy(DN), so as to explore how the PK2 signaling pathway participated in the pathological changes of DN and whether GP exerted the therapeutic effect through this signaling pathway. Male mice were randomly divided into four groups, namely db/m, db/db, db/db+GP, and db/m+GP groups, with five in each group. The mice in the db/db+GP and db/m+GP groups were gavaged with 150 mg·kg~(-1) GP for eight successive weeks. Afterwards, all the mice were sacrificed and the renal tissues were embedded. The morphological changes in glomerulus and renal tubules were observed by Masson and PAS staining. The expression levels of PK2, PKR1, and Wilm's Tumor Protein 1(WT_1) in podocytes were detected by immunohistochemistry, and the protein expression levels of PK2 and PKR1 in mouse kidney by Western blot. The morphological results showed serious glomerular and tubular fibrosis(Masson), high glomerular and tubular injury score(PAS), increased glomerular mesangial matrix, thickened basement membrane, exfoliated brush border of renal tubules, decreased WT_1 in glomerular podocytes, and massive loss of podocytes in the db/db group. After administration with GP, the glomerular and tubular fibrosis was alleviated, accompanied by improved glomerular basement membrane and renal tubule brush edge, and up-regulated WT_1. As revealed by further protein detection, in the db/db group, the expression levels of PK2 and PKR1 and p-Akt/Akt ratio declined, whereas the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 rose. Ho-wever, PKR2 and p-ERK/ERK ratio did not change significantly. After administration with GP, the PK2 and PKR1 expression was elevated, and p-Akt/Akt ratio was increased. There was no obvious change in PKR2, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, or p-ERK/ERK ratio. All these have demonstrated that GP improves the renal damage in DN mice, and PK2/PKR1 signaling pathway may be involved in such protection, which has provided reference for clinical treatment of DN with GP.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus , Diabetic Nephropathies/genetics , Iridoids , Kidney , Male , Mice , Signal Transduction
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928085

ABSTRACT

With the rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix unearthed from the tomb of Haihunhou in the Western Han Dynasty as the re-ference, the present study evaluated the quality of Rehmanniae Radix and investigated the processing technology of rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix to lay the foundation for the research on rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix products. With catalpol and rehmannioside D as the investigation indexes, the quality and grade of Rehmanniae Radix from different producing areas were evaluated with the methods in 2020 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. UPLC method was established for the determination of catalpol and rehmannioside D in the rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix. The effects of steaming time, the amount of supplementary rice, and steaming times in the rice-steamed processing on the quality of products were investigated by L_9(3~4) orthogonal test and multi-index comprehensive balance scoring method combined with the content of catalpol and rehmannioside D and appearance characteristics. At last, the stability of the processing technology was tested. The results showed that the optimal processing technology for rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix was as follows: Rehmanniae Radix and rice(200 g∶4 g) were steamed twice at atmospheric pressure, four hours each time. The mass fractions of catalpol and rehmannioside D were 0.184% and 0.335%, respectively, and the character score was 6.5. The processing conditions are reaso-nable, stable, and feasible. It can provide a basis for the restoration of the ancient rice-steamed processing technology and references for the development of rice-steamed Rehmanniae Radix products in the future.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Oryza , Plant Extracts , Rehmannia , Technology
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928036

ABSTRACT

This study steps through the future perspectives and gives the development suggestions of Chinese medicinal materials(CMM) industry by presenting the characteristics and open problems during the 13 th Five-Year Plan period. The development of CMM industry presents the following trends:(1)the development of Dao-di herbs speeds up with the increasing demand for high-quality CMM;(2)the mismatch between supply and demand is aggravating, which presses for supply-side structural reform;(3)ecological planting will become the core mode of production and bolster rural revitalization;(4)the demand for CMM with both medical and edible values keeps growing, and the antibiotic-free feed policy brings significant opportunities;(5)the "Internet Plus CMM" wave emerges, which promotes the construction of traceability system. Finally, we put forward the following suggestions for the sustainable development of CMM industry:(1)optimizing the layout for the production of Dao-di herbs according to local conditions;(2)strengthening the commercialization of the seeds and the breeding, multiplication, and extension of CMM to accelerate the realization of specialized seed production, mechanized seed processing, localized variety layout, and county-based unified seed supply;(3)ensuring the safety of pesticide use and accelerating the registration of special pesticides;(4)promoting both theoretical and practical research on ecological production of CMM;(5)publicizing the demonstration and popularization of CMM traceability system. Overall, significant progress has been achieved in the CMM industry during the 13 th Five-Year Plan period, and this industry is in a critical stage of high-quality development, facing both challenges and opportunities.


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/analysis , Industry , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Breeding
8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 525-532, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922932

ABSTRACT

In this study, nrDNA ITS sequences of Lycium cultivars were sequenced and used to test the existence of incomplete concerted evolution and pseudogenes. Together with 44 ITS sequences retrieved from GenBank, the pattern of base substitutions, GC content, 5.8S conserved motifs, the minimum free energy of secondary structures, nucleotide diversity and phylogenetic relationship of the samples were analyzed. While 83 of the 144 sequences were identified as pseudogenes, the results suggested a high degree of polymorphism and putative pseudogenes in Lycium, suggesting an incomplete concerted evolution of the ITS region. ITS polymorphism and pseudogene of Lycium were systematically tested for the first time. This research provides a references for ITS sequence to be used in the study of Lycium germplasm resources and DNA barcode identification.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907712

ABSTRACT

Objective: Systematic nodal dissection (SND) is an important component of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but modification of this procedure is rarely reported. In this paper, we reported a modified technique of systematic mediastinal lymph node dissection (MLND) of operable lung cancer by video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). Parallel upward dissection (the PUD technique) was named due to this modification and the efficacy of the PUD technique was evaluated as well.Methods: We summarized the tips of the PUD technique and its version was updated in surgical aspect. The design and procedure sequence of the PUD technique were introduced in detail as well as its pros and cons. A retrospective study was performed on 998 cases of locally advanced NSCLC which accepted the PUD procedure in Department of Thoracic Surgery, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, from 2012 to 2020. The perioperative mortality and the incidence of general and serious complications (such as recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, bronchopleural fistula) were analyzed. Results: All the 998 cases were operated successfully with the PUD technique and few post-operation complications were found. There was no perioperative mortality and severe complication such as recurrent laryngeal nerve injury and bronchopleural fistula. Conclusion:The PUD technique is safe and convenient and it can be a good supplement to the existing surgical techniques for locally advanced lung cancer.

10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 610-617, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873774

ABSTRACT

As a key gene in the regulation of long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis, 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS) plays an important role in the growth and development of Coix lacryma-jobi L. In this study, the KCS gene was cloned from cDNA of Coix lachryma-Jobi L. and bioinformatics analysis was performed. Results showed that the full length KCS gene was 1 548 bp encoding 515 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that the gene encoded a 58 608.12 Da protein with an isoelectric point of 9.20 containing two transmembrane helical structure domains and lacking a signal peptide, with a likely subcellular localization in main plastid membranes. The results of multiple sequence comparisons and evolutionary tree analysis revealed that KCS had three identical conserved sequences and was closely related to KCS from monocotyledons such as Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays, Setaria italica, Panicum miliaceum, Oryza brachyantha, Hordeum vulgare, Aegilops tauschii subsp. Tauschii. We speculated that the evolution of the gene was similar among these plants of the same family. In addition, gene expression analysis showed that the KCS gene was significantly different in Coix lacryma-jobi L. isolates having different lipid content. This work will facilitate further study of the regulatory mechanism of this enzyme in fatty acid synthesis.

11.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 3285-3299, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906851

ABSTRACT

Plant natural products (PNPs) are important sources of innovative drugs. They are mainly obtained by isolation or extraction from plants. Low content and with structural analogues in plants result in high production cost, which restricts the research and application of PNPs. While biopathway construction by synthetic biology provides an alternative for production of PNPs. By biosynthetic pathway analysis of PNPs and reconstructing the biopathway in microorganisms, we can produce PNPs in cell factories efficiently. Recently, several predominantly international reports about biosynthesis of PNPs and its synthetic biology production, triggered the researches of PNPs. Abundant traditional Chinese medicine resources and profound cultural heritage of Chinese medicine make biosynthesis pathway analysis of PNPs to be a research hotspot. And some of the studies have achieved significant progress. Here, recent progress in the biosynthesis of plant natural products and its synthetic biology was reviewed. In particular, the application of new methods and technologies in recent years were summarized and discussed. This will provide reference for the biopathway construction of plant natural products.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906444

ABSTRACT

The historical evolution, fermentation technology and key links of Sojae Semen Praeparatum (SSP) were sorted out by consulting ancient books and modern literature, and the influencing factors and control methods of quality were analyzed and summarized in order to provide reference for the quality control of SSP. After analysis, it was found that in the fermentation process of SSP, fermentation strains, miscellaneous bacteria, temperature and humidity were all important factors affecting the quality of SSP. The condition control of "post fermentation" process has been paid more attention to in the past dynasties. In addition, the delicious SSP recognized in ancient times should be made from mold fermentation, and the breeding and application of fermented mold may be the key point to solve the quality problem of SSP. Therefore, based on the evaluation indexes of SSP in the past dynasties, it is of great significance to study and optimize the technological conditions such as strain, temperature and humidity in depth to improve the quality of SSP.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906401

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the contents of adenosine, gastrodin, <italic>p</italic>-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, <italic>p</italic>-hydroxybenzaldehyde, parisinin B and parisinin A in Chijian (the aerial part of <italic>Gastrodia elata</italic>) and Gastrodiae Rhizoma, and compare their effects on immune function and intestinal microflora, evaluating whether it is necessary to study and develop Chijian. Method:The contents of these six constituents were determined by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), the mobile phase was 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A)-acetonitrile (B) for gradient elution (0-4 min, 0.5%B; 4-5 min, 0.5%-2%B; 5-10 min, 2%-15%B; 10-12 min, 15%-20%B; 12-15 min, 20%-95%B; 15-17 min, 95%B; 17-17.5 min, 95%-0.5%B; 17.5-20 min, 0.5%B), the flow rate was 0.5 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>, the detection wavelength was 270 nm. The difference of pharmacological activity of water extracts of Chijian and Gastrodiae Rhizoma was compared, the clearance index, corrected clearance index and peripheral blood were measured in mice model with low immune function induced by cyclophosphamide, B lymphocyte proliferation was determined by lymphocyte transformation test <italic>in vitro</italic>, intestinal microflora was analyzed by 16S rDNA technology and bioinformatics was conducted. Result:The total contents of these six components in powder and ethanol extract of Chijian were higher than that of Gastrodiae Rhizoma, but the total contents of these six components in their water extract were similar, and the total contents of gastrodin and <italic>p</italic>-hydroxybenzyl alcohol met the requirements of the 2020 edition of <italic>Chinese Pharmacopoeia</italic>. Compared with the blank group, the clearance index of immunocompromised mice was significantly increased in the middle-dose (10 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) group of Chijian water extract, middle- and low-dose (10, 5 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) groups of Gastrodiae Rhizoma water extract (<italic>P</italic><0.05), the levels of erythrocyte and hematocrit in peripheral blood were significantly increased in the high-dose (20 g·kg<sup>-1</sup>) groups of water extracts of Chijian and Gastrodiae Rhizoma (<italic>P</italic><0.05, <italic>P</italic><0.01), water extract of Gastrodiae Rhizoma with concentration of 400 g·L<sup>-1</sup> and the water extract of Chijian with the concentration of 100 g·L<sup>-1</sup> could promote the proliferation of B lymphocytes induced by lipopolysaccharide. Studies on intestinal microflora showed that compared with the blank group, at the phylum level, the water extracts of Chijian and Gastrodiae Rhizoma increased the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and decreased the relative abundance of Firmicutes, at the genus level, they increased the relative abundance of <italic>Prevotellaceae</italic>_UCG-001 and <italic>Ruminococcaceae</italic>_UCG-005, and decreased the relative abundance of <italic>Anaerotruncus</italic>, unclassified_<italic>f</italic>_<italic>Erysipelotrichaceae</italic> and<italic> Candidatus</italic>_<italic>Stoquefichus</italic>.<italic> </italic>These intestinal bacteria were related to the immune system, cell proliferation, and metabolism regulation. Conclusion:The total contents of 6 components in the powder, the ethanol and the water extracts of Chijian are higher than or close to those of the corresponding samples of Gastrodiae Rhizoma, the pharmacological activity of Chijian water extract is similar to that of Gastrodiae Rhizoma water extract, indicating that Chijian is worthy of further research and development.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906365

ABSTRACT

Objective:The chemical constituents in guarana (<italic>Paullinia cupana</italic> dried seeds) were systematically analyzed to provide a basis for further research, development and utilization of this plant. Method:The contents of crude protein, crude fat, crude polysaccharide and crude fiber in guarana were determined according to national standards and related documents, and the chemical constituents of guarana was qualitatively analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), ACQUITY UPLC-HSS-T3 column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm) was used with 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A)-0.1% formic acid acetonitrile solution (B) as mobile phase for gradient elution (0-5 min, 2%-10%B; 5-6 min, 10%-20%B; 6-9 min, 20%-30%B; 9-9.5 min, 30%-35%B; 9.5-10.5 min, 35%-45%B; 10.5~13 min, 45%-55%B; 13-15 min, 55%-80%B; 15-19 min, 80%-98%B; 19-20 min, 98%B; 20-20.3 min, 98%-2%B; 20.3-23 min, 2%B), the electrospray ionization (ESI) was used for detection in positive and negative ion modes, the scanning range was <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 50-1 500, and the structure was identified according to the relative molecular weight and fragment information combined with database matching and comparison of reference substances. Result:The contents crude protein, crude fat, crude polysaccharide and crude fiber in guarana were (0.63±0.03)%, (2.73±0.09)%, (3.23±0.12)% and (8.89±0.59)%, respectively. A total of 42 chemical constituents in guarana were identified by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, including 3 methylxanthines, 2 nucleosides, 1 amino acid, 3 organic acids, 33 flavonoids, 3 (<italic>L</italic>-tryptophan, epigallocatechin gallate, daidzein) of which were first discovered in guarana. Conclusion:Guarana is rich in nutrients and has good potential to be developed as a functional food. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technique provides a simple, rapid and accurate method for the identification of chemical constituents in guarana. Methylxanthines and proanthocyanidins are the main chemical constituents of guarana, which is meaningful for quality evaluation and material basis of guarana.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906062

ABSTRACT

Objective:To compare the chemical constituents of Puerariae Flos from three different varieties of <italic>Pueraria montana</italic> var. <italic>lobata</italic>, <italic>P. montana</italic> var. <italic>thomsonii</italic> and <italic>P</italic>. <italic>montana</italic> var<italic>. montana</italic>. Method:Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) was used with the mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (A)-acetonitrile (B) for gradient elution (0-20 min, 10%-30%B; 20-30 min, 30%-55%B; 30-35 min, 55%-95%B; 35-37 min, 95%B; 37-40 min, 95%-10%B), the flow rate was 0.25 mL·min<sup>-1</sup>. Electrospray ionization (ESI) was used to scan and collect MS data in positive and negative ion modes with scanning range of <italic>m</italic>/<italic>z</italic> 50-1 500. The chemical components from different sources of Puerariae Flos were identified in combination with the chemical composition database and literature information. After the obtained data were normalized by MarkerView<sup>TM</sup> 1.2.1, they were imported into SICMA-P 14.1 software for principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to select the main differentiated components among the three different varieties. Result:A total of 35 compounds were identified from three different varieties of Puerariae Flos, including 22 isoflavones, 6 flavonoids and 7 saponins. The flowers of <italic>P</italic>. <italic>lobata</italic>, <italic>P. montana</italic> var. <italic>thomsonii</italic> and <italic>P</italic>. <italic>montana</italic> var<italic>. montana</italic> contained 32, 35, 33 compounds, respectively. And 18 differential compounds were screened under the positive and negative ion modes, including kakkalide, tectoridin, 6″-<italic>O</italic>-xylosyl-tectoridin, 4'-methyltectorigenin-7-glucoside, glycitin, 6″-<italic>O</italic>-xylosyl-glycitin, irisolidone, kaikasaponin Ⅲ, 6″-<italic>O</italic>-malonylglycitin, kakkalidone, tectorigenin, rutin, soyasaponin BB, vitexin, biochanin A, genistin, kakkatin, azukisaponin Ⅱ. Conclusion:This research is the first to systematically study the chemical constituents of the flower of <italic>P</italic>. <italic>montana</italic> var<italic>. montana</italic>, although the flower of <italic>P</italic>. <italic>montana</italic> var<italic>. montana</italic> is used as adulterants, it has high contents of tectoridin and 6″-<italic>O</italic>-xylosyl-tectoridin, which has great potential for development. The efficacy components such as kakkalide and tectoridin in Puerariae Flos from the three sources of varieties are obviously different, and it is necessary to carefully consider the application of these three varieties as Puerariae Flos.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905914

ABSTRACT

Literature research on ancient books of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important carrier for inheriting the academic achievements and thoughts of TCM, and a key step for continuing the Chinese civilization and realizing the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Based on this, the paper puts forward the purpose of sorting out TCM ancient books:to explore the treasure of traditional culture, reveal its significance, carry forward its spirit, learn from its experiences, so as to make a contribution to the development of TCM. And this paper expounds several major problems in the literature research, that is, paying attention to the phenomenon of "stubborn bass", avoiding the trend of "latecomers turning inferior", attaching importance to the hidden trouble of "making comments on behalf of the ancients". Then, this paper discusses the methodology of carrying out accurate research and revealing the true nature and true value of scholarship with the idea of confucian orthodoxy, the rules of not forgetting the original intention and the scientific method. Taking the materia medica archaeology as an example, the author shared the practical exploration of how to crack the historical code with scientific and technological means, so as to provide useful reference for the literature research on TCM ancient books.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905858

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the underlying mechanism of volatile oil from Sishenwan in treating chronic ulcerative colitis through the Toll-like receptor (TLR)/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) signaling pathway. Method:The BALB/c mice were randomly divided into a normal group (normal), a model group [dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)], a Sishenwan volatile oil group, an Ershen pill volatile oil group, a Wuweizi powder volatile oil group, and a mesalazine control group. The chronic ulcerative colitis model was induced by DSS in mice. Seven days after intragastric administration, the efficacy was evaluated based on the body weight, colon weight, colon weight index, colon length, and pathological damage score under colonoscopy. The levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-21, and interferon-<italic>γ </italic>(IFN-<italic>γ</italic>) in the supernatant of colon tissues were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot was used to detect the expression levels of proteins related to the TLR/MyD88 signaling pathway in the colon mucosa of mice, including TLR2, MyD88, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1), IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4), IRAK1, tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), transforming growth factor-<italic>β</italic>-activated kinase 1 binding protein 1 (TAB1), TAB2, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6 (MKK6), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB). Result:Compared with the normal group, the model group showed decreased colon length, increased colon weight, colon weight index, and pathological damage score under colonoscopy, decreased IL-10 level in the colon tissues, increased IL-4, IL-17A, IL-21, and IFN-<italic>γ</italic> levels (<italic>P<</italic>0.05, <italic>P<</italic>0.01), and up-regulated protein expression of TLR2, MyD88, Rac1, IRAK4, IRAK1, TRAF6, TAB1, TAB2, MKK6, p38MAPK, and CREB (<italic>P<</italic>0.01). Compared with the model group, the Sishenwan volatile oil group showed increased colon length, reduced colon weight, colon weight index, and pathological damage score under colonoscopy, elevated IL-10 level in the colon tissues, decreased IL-4, IL-17A, IL-21, and IFN-<italic>γ</italic> levels (<italic>P<</italic>0.05, <italic>P<</italic>0.01),and down-regulated protein expression of TLR2, MyD88, Rac1, IRAK4, IRAK1, TRAF6, TAB1, TAB2, MKK6, p38MAPK, and CREB (<italic>P<</italic>0.05, <italic>P<</italic>0.01). Conclusion:The volatile oil from Sishenwan can effectively improve the inflammatory response of chronic ulcerative colitis, which may be achieved by regulating the TLR/MyD88 signaling pathway.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921788

ABSTRACT

Lancang-Mekong Cooperation is a new type of subregional cooperation mechanism initiated and built by China and other five countries of the Lancang-Mekong subregion, namely Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Countries in the Lancang-Mekong subregion are geographically and culturally connected, and they have nurtured their unique traditional medicine. By combing the history of traditional medicine exchanges between China and other Lancang-Mekong countries and their progress of modern research, this paper summarized the challenges and opportunities of traditional medicine cooperation in the Lancang-Mekong subregion. It has been found that many regional cooperation mechanisms coexist for a long time in the Lancang-Mekong subregion and the medicinal resources are abundant. However, the degree of their development and utilization varies, and modern scientific research is insufficient. Lancang-Mekong Cooperation has provided a strong support for integrating the advantageous resources in Lancang-Mekong subregion countries and making progress together. Focusing on the development and protection of medicinal resources, this paper puts forward a new path of cooperation in the intellectual property rights and characteristic seed resource protection, the compilation of universal herbal pharmacopoeia in various countries, the research and development of public health products, and the construction of traditional herbal industry bases, thus enabling the traditional medicine to better protect the public health and building a human health community.


Subject(s)
China , Humans , Materia Medica , Medicine, Traditional , Rivers , Thailand
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921698

ABSTRACT

Schisandra sphenanthera is dioecious and only the fruits of female plants can be used as medicine and food. It is of great significance for the cultivation and production of S. sphenanthera to explore the differences between male and female plants at the non-flowering stage and develop the identification markers at non-flowering or seedling stage. In this study, the transcriptome of male and female leaves of S. sphenanthera at the non-flowering stage was sequenced by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology and analyzed based on bioinformatics. A total of 236 682 transcripts were assembled by Trinity software and 171 588 were chosen as unigenes. Finally, 1 525 differentially expressed genes(DEGs) were identified, with 458 up-regulated and 1 067 down-regulated in female lea-ves. The down-regulated genes mainly involve photosynthesis, photosynthesis-antenna protein, carbon fixation in photosynthetic or-ganisms, and other pathways. Real-time quantitative PCR(qPCR) identified two genes between male and female leaves and one of them was a HVA22-like gene related to floral organ development and abscisic acid(ABA). Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was applied to determine the content of ABA, auxin, gibberellin, and zeatin riboside(ZR) in leaves of S. sphenanthera. The results showed that the content of ABA and ZR in male leaves was significantly higher than that in female leaves. The involvement of down-regulated genes in female leaves in the photosynthesis pathway and the significant differences in the content of endogenous hormones between male and female leaves lay a scientific basis for analyzing the factors affecting sex differentiation of S. sphenanthera.


Subject(s)
Abscisic Acid , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Plant Leaves/genetics , RNA-Seq , Schisandra , Transcriptome
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921356

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Early triage of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is pivotal in managing the disease. However, studies on the clinical risk score system of the risk factors for the development of severe disease are limited. Hence, we conducted a clinical risk score system for severe illness, which might optimize appropriate treatment strategies.@*Methods@#We conducted a retrospective, single-center study at the JinYinTan Hospital from January 24, 2020 to March 31, 2020. We evaluated the demographic, clinical, and laboratory data and performed a 10-fold cross-validation to split the data into a training set and validation set. We then screened the prognostic factors for severe illness using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and logistic regression, and finally conducted a risk score to estimate the probability of severe illness in the training set. Data from the validation set were used to validate the score.@*Results@#A total of 295 patients were included. From 49 potential risk factors, 3 variables were measured as the risk score: neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio ( @*Conclusion@#This report may help define the potential of developing severe illness in patients with COVID-19 at an early stage, which might be related to the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, albumin, and chest computed tomography abnormalities.


Subject(s)
Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nomograms , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index
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