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1.
Journal of Clinical Hepatology ; (12): 2349-2352, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-829416

ABSTRACT

Excessive lipid deposition, liver injury, and insulin resistance are hallmarks in the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Liver X receptor (LXR) is a transcriptional regulator, and its two cell subtypes, LXRα and LXRβ, play a key role in regulating cholesterol metabolism, inducing anti-inflammation, and reducing insulin resistance. This article reviews the structure and function of LXR and its association with the pathogenesis of NAFLD, in order to provide new ideas and methods for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828449

ABSTRACT

Traditional Chinese medicine for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis has been widely used in clinical practice. However, due to the diversity of the composition of traditional Chinese medicine and the complexity of its interaction with human body, it is difficult to apply traditional quality control ingredients to characterize its overall efficacy. Systematic traditional Chinese medicine is an effective method for studying the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine, embodying the dialectical unity of holism and reductionism. Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma is a common traditional Chinese medicine for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis. In this study, we constructed a multi-dimensional network of "efficacy-pharmacological efficacy-targets-components" based on systematic traditional Chinese medicine, and discussed the discovery of the efficacy markers of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis. Firstly, based on the Chinese medicine efficacy-pharmacology database, the most relevant pharmacological actions(boundary) for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis(function) were obtained, and the target sets(structure) of the corresponding pharmacological action were obtained by the DrugBank database. Then, STRING database was used to construct protein-protein interaction network(relationship) of targets related to promoting blood circulation and removing stasis, and key targets(elements) in the network were selected by evaluating topological parameters of targets. Finally, the potential efficacy markers of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma were predicted by molecular docking based on the key targets of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis. The results demonstrated that salvianolic acid B, salvianolic acid A, tanshinone Ⅱ_A and tanshinone Ⅰ were the potential markers of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma on promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis. Salvianolic acid B, salvianolic acid A, tanshinone Ⅱ_A had been reported to have anti-platelet aggregation, anti-thrombotic, cardiovascular protection and some other pharmacological functions. Based on systematic traditional Chinese medicine, we have preliminarily predicted the efficacy markers of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma in promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis in this study, providing a research method for the discovery of efficacy markers and a reference for the overall quality control of traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Molecular Docking Simulation , Plant Roots , Rhizome , Salvia miltiorrhiza
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828448

ABSTRACT

Astragali Radix is the elixir for invigorating Qi, with the effects of invigorating Qi, promoting Yang and nourishing the body. With the deepening researches on the chemical constituents of Astragali Radix, it is used more extensively in clinical application. Based on systematic traditional Chinese medicine theory, in this paper, we characterized the effect of Astragali Radix on invigo-rating Qi from the molecular level, and explored the markers of Astragali Radix on invigorating Qi. Through TCMSP and ChEMBL databases, the active components-targets database of Astragali Radix was constructed to clarify the targets(elements) involved in Astragali Radix's Qi invigorating efficacy system. According to the relationship between the targets, the protein interaction network was constructed, and the network modules(structure) were divided according to the theoretic clustering algorithm molecular complex detection(MCODE), and the boundary of the Qi invigorating efficacy system was defined by the pharmacological function of Astragali Radix. The active components of Astragali Radix for invigorating Qi were characterized from the aspects of composition, target and efficacy. The results showed that eight key components of Astragali Radix, such as hederagenin, quercetin, calycosin, formononetin, jaranol, isorhamnetin, astragalosideⅢ, and 9,10-dimethoxypterocarpan-3-O-β-D-glucoside, could act on eight functional modules composed of 17 key targets, and participate in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway, regulation of lipid metabolic process, positive regulation of nitrogen compound metabolic process, positive regulation of programmed cell death, fatty acid metabolic process and other biological processes to produce pharmacological effects such as regulating immune function, strengthening heart, protecting myocardial cells, improving material metabolism, and antioxidation effects, thus playing the role of invigorating Qi. Based on the systematic Chinese medicine theory, this study explored the effective markers of Astragali Radix at the level of molecular network, which provided new ideas for the interpretation of the effective substance basis of systematic traditional Chinese medicine and the quality control of traditional Chinese medicine. In the future, it can focus on the compatibility research of these components, and then carry out more in-depth studies on the efficacy of Astragali Radix in invigorating Qi, and strengthen the development of the corresponding pharmacological mechanism and related preparations.


Subject(s)
Astragalus Plant , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Roots , Qi
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-824262

ABSTRACT

Objective To examine the reliability and validity of the Columbia suicide screen (CSS) in detecting suicide risk for junior middle school students.Methods Using convenient sampling,902 students of a junior middle school were tested with CSS and Beck depression inventory (BDI).Cronbach's alpha coefficient,parity split-half coefficient and test-retest reliability were examined after two weeks.Content validity was evaluated using specialist analysis and sensibility analysis.The BDI was used to explore the correlative validity.The convergent validity of CSS and another suicide risk screening method was examined.Results The proportion of students with suicide problem (suicide ideation or suicide attempts),suicide ideation within the previous year and suicide attempts in the past were 14.97% (135/902),14.19% (128/902)and 3.66% (33/902) respectively.The Cronbach's alpha coefficient and Parity split-half coefficient of CSS were 0.844 and 0.908,respectively.The test-retest reliability of CSS were screening of suicide ideation (ICC =0.897),screening of suicide attempts (ICC =0.798),screening of substance use (ICC =0.882),screening of suicide problem (ICC =0.881),and screening of suicide problem combine depression (ICC =0.829)(P<0.01).Sensibility analysis of CSS showed the cronbach α ranged from 0.834 to 0.845.Correlative validity between CSS and BDI were screening of suicide ideation (ρ =0.238,0.337,0.334,0.599),screening of suicide attempts (ρ =0.122,0.231,0.310,0.221),screening of depression (ρ =0.335,0.309,0.196,0.215),screening of suicide problem(ρ =0.240,0.328,0.321,0.590)and screening of suicide problem combine depression(ρ=0.212,0.324,0.320,0.474) (P<0.01).Convergent validity between CSS and another suicide risk screening method were screening of suicide ideation (ρ =0.468),screening of suicide attempts (ρ =0.349),screening of suicide problem (ρ =0.453),and screening of suicide problem combine depression(ρ=0.469)(P<0.01).Conclusion CSS has good internal consistency reliability,split-half reliability and content validity.Screening of suicide ideation,suicide attempts,suicide problem and suicide problem combine depression have good test-retest reliability,but the correlative validity and convergent validity are not satisfying.These four screening methods can only be used for preliminary screening suicide risk in junior middle school students.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-801386

ABSTRACT

Objective@#To examine the reliability and validity of the Columbia suicide screen (CSS) in detecting suicide risk for junior middle school students.@*Methods@#Using convenient sampling, 902 students of a junior middle school were tested with CSS and Beck depression inventory (BDI) .Cronbach's alpha coefficient, parity split-half coefficient and test-retest reliability were examined after two weeks.Content validity was evaluated using specialist analysis and sensibility analysis.The BDI was used to explore the correlative validity.The convergent validity of CSS and another suicide risk screening method was examined.@*Results@#The proportion of students with suicide problem (suicide ideation or suicide attempts), suicide ideation within the previous year and suicide attempts in the past were 14.97%(135/902), 14.19%(128/902)and 3.66%(33/902) respectively.The Cronbach's alpha coefficient and Parity split-half coefficient of CSS were 0.844 and 0.908, respectively.The test-retest reliability of CSS were screening of suicide ideation (ICC=0.897), screening of suicide attempts (ICC=0.798), screening of substance use (ICC=0.882), screening of suicide problem (ICC=0.881), and screening of suicide problem combine depression (ICC=0.829) (P<0.01). Sensibility analysis of CSS showed the cronbach α ranged from 0.834 to 0.845.Correlative validity between CSS and BDI were screening of suicide ideation(ρ=0.238, 0.337, 0.334, 0.599), screening of suicide attempts(ρ=0.122, 0.231, 0.310, 0.221), screening of depression(ρ=0.335, 0.309, 0.196, 0.215), screening of suicide problem(ρ=0.240, 0.328, 0.321, 0.590)and screening of suicide problem combine depression(ρ=0.212, 0.324, 0.320, 0.474)(P<0.01). Convergent validity between CSS and another suicide risk screening method were screening of suicide ideation(ρ=0.468), screening of suicide attempts(ρ=0.349), screening of suicide problem(ρ=0.453), and screening of suicide problem combine depression(ρ=0.469)(P<0.01).@*Conclusion@#CSS has good internal consistency reliability, split-half reliability and content validity.Screening of suicide ideation, suicide attempts, suicide problem and suicide problem combine depression have good test-retest reliability, but the correlative validity and convergent validity are not satisfying.These four screening methods can only be used for preliminary screening suicide risk in junior middle school students.

6.
Chinese Mental Health Journal ; (12): 271-277, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-704013

ABSTRACT

Objective:To understand the status of supervision of mental health service industry in Shanghai, and to provide reference for further strengthening the construction of mental health service system in Shanghai. Methods: In Shanghai, 107 mental health service agencies (including psychiatric institutions, non-specialist medical institutions, non-specialist enterprise and public institutions, social institutions) were selected from Shanghai psychological service industry association. The survey was conducted with the Questionnaire on Current Situation of Mental Health Professional Service Agencies in Shanghai (agency survey), including the "relevant information of agency" and the "management of the agency in the field of mental health services"(whether the agency had supervision requirements on the mental health service personnel, whether the agency organized supervision, the source of supervisors and payment method), and the Questionnaire on Current Situation of Mental Health Service Professionals in Shanghai (professional survey), including "basic information on demography "and" psychological professional work" (the number of hours of supervision in 2015, the cost of supervision, and the form of supervision and payment method). These two parts of questionnaire were selected and analyzed. Results: Agency survey results showed that 80% of non-specialist enterprises had no supervision requirements for mental health service personnel, supervisor in non-specialist medical institutions were mainly from psychiatric institution (52.9%). The cost of supervision in most psychiatric institutions was paid by the agency (39.1%) and the cost of supervision in most public institutions was paid by professional (37%). The professional institutions under the jurisdiction of other departments within the unit required less supervision of the professional staff than the independent institutions (P < 0.001). Professional survey results showed that the number of supervision hours of mental health service professional in social institutions was more than that in the other three types of institutions (P <0.001), of which 47.9% chosen to pay the cost of supervision by themselves. The proportion of their own payment in social institutions was higher than that in the other three types of institutions (P <0.001). Conclusion:The social institutions in Shanghai have the best supervision of social institutions, followed by the supervision of the medical institutions. The supervision of non-medical enterprises and their personnel needs to be improved.

7.
Chinese Mental Health Journal ; (12): 95-100, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-703986

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the development status of mental health service of Shanghai mental health agencies,and to provide reference for further strengthening the standardized management of service agencies.Methods:In Shanghai,107 mental health service agencies (including psychiatric institutions,non-specialist medical institutions,non-specialist enterprise and public institutions,social institutions) were selected from Shanghai psychological service industry association.Each person in charge of these agencies was interviewed with an adapted 5 l-item questionnaire.A total of 89 valid questionnaires were collected.In this study,25 items of the questionnaire (belonging to the parts of agency information,mental health service situation and management of mental health service) were selected and analyzed.Results:All the surveyed agencies had been registered.The average age of these agencies for setting up mental health service was 8.9 years,and the average age of psychiatric institutions was the longest (18.6 years).Besides,psychiatric institutions attracted most of the clients (83.9%) in 2015.Among the professionals,only 32.5% were full time,74.0% were female,41.5% were between 31 and 40 years old and 63.8% were undergraduates.Psychiatrists,psychotherapists,counselors and psychometric person accounted for 78.0% of the professionals in these agencies.Only 52.3% of the agencies had full-time management personnel for mental health service.The most used method of assessing the quality of service and staff assessment was to obtain feedback from the client/family members (81.0%) and the assessment of the services (78.8%).Conclusion:The development of mental health service in Shanghai mental health agencies has been more normalized,but there is still a lack of full-time professionals.In addition,there is a lack of unified supervision and management mechanism for professionals.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-806327

ABSTRACT

Objective@#Many physicians and patients still have concerns about the safety of breastfeeding in mothers infected with hepatitis B virus; we evaluate the safety of the newborn and the women with HBeAg positive and high viral load, who received nucleoside analogues to block maternal to child transmisssion and selected postpartum breastfeeding after drug discontinuance.@*Methods@#This prospective, observational study enrolled 60 HBeAg positive patients and HBV-DNA >2*10E+ 5 IU/ml, all patients started antiviral treatment for blocking maternal to child transmission at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy. All the newborns received the active-passive immunization therapy with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and HBVac. After the delivery, patients with normal liver function discontinued the antiviral drug and selected breastfeeding voluntarily. The safety of breastfeeding were compared with patients selected artificial feedings, they were followed up for 7 months. Primary measurements were the proportion of mothers with abormal liver function after stopping the drug and the level of newborn’s anti-HBs at 6 months of age; secondary measurements were the positive rate of neonatal HBsAg and the HBV-DNA value of the patients at 6 weeks postpartum.@*Results@#From December 1, 2015 to May 1, 2017, 415 patients were enrolled in Beijing You’an Hospital Affiliated to the Capital Medical University and all these patients were born following full-term single-child pregnancy. After the delivery and drug withdrawal, there was no significant difference in the incidence of ALT elevation between the breast fed group and the artificially fed group: 29 /220 versus 30/195, (χ2=0.411, P=0.521). Patients continued to take the antiviral medicines between the breast feeding group and the artificial feeding group: 15 /220 versus 20/195, (χ2=1.487, P=0.223), there were no significant differences between them (P> 0.05). At the month 7, there were no significant difference between the breast fed group and the artificially fed group (747.62±374.08 mlU/ml versus 709.76±374.32 mlU/ml, t-value: 0.309, P-value>0.05). At birth, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was detected in 15/220 and 20/195 of newborns in the breast feeding and artificially fed groups, respectively. At month 7, an intention-to-treat analysis indicated 0/220 of HBsAg infants from the breast fed versus 0/195 in the artificially fed group (P>0.05) and no significant difference was found in the rate of positive HBsAg between the two groups. In the breast fed group, the mean HBV DNA at baseline was significantly higher than that of the artificially fed group: (1.17±1.82) E+ 8 IU/ml versus (1.12±0.39)E+ 8 IU/ml, and the difference was statistically significant.@*Conclusions@#We have not found the relationship between the rate of neonatal infection and the increase of maternal abnormal liver function in HBeAg positive and high viral load patients, who chose breastfeeding after drug discontinuance.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-709689

ABSTRACT

Objective To determine the median effective concentration(EC50)of sevoflurane in?hibiting responses to laryngeal mask airway(LMA)removal in pediatric patients under comprehensive clin?ical conditions. Methods Twenty?six pediatric patients of both sexes, aged 1-5 yr, with body mass index of 15-20 kg∕m2, of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical statusⅠ, scheduled for elective minor surgery, were enrolled in this study. Anesthesia was induced by inhaling 8% sevoflurane and injecting dezocine 0.1 mg∕kg. The LMA painted with Teracainum Plasmagel was inserted. Anesthesia was maintained by sevoflurane inhalation and target?controlled infusion of remifentanil. Remifentanil infusion was stopped at 5 min before the end of surgery. At the end of surgery, the end?tidal concentration of sevoflurane was main?tained at the target concentration for at least 10 min and then the laryngeal mask airway was removed. The end?tidal concentration of sevoflurane was determined by using Dixon′s up?and?down sequential method. The end?tidal concentration of sevoflurane was set at 0.8% in the first pediatric patient. Each time the concen?tration of sevoflurane increased∕decreased by 0.1% in the next pediatric patient according to patient′s re?sponses to LMA removal. Results The EC50of sevoflurane inhibiting responses to LMA removal was 0.59%, and the 95% confidence interval was 0.55%-0.63% in pediatric patients under comprehensive clinical conditions. Conclusion The EC50of sevoflurane inhibiting responses to LMA removal is 0.59% in pediatric patients under comprehensive clinical conditions.

10.
Chinese Journal of Anesthesiology ; (12): 1487-1489, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-745638

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effect of pregnancy on gastric emptying of fluid using ultrasound.Methods Thirty parturients who were at full term,aged 20-40 yr,of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Ⅰ or Ⅱ,were divided into 2 groups (n=15 each) according to the liquid ingested:clear water group (N group) and carbohydrate beverage group (S group).Parturients underwent food fasting ≥8 h and water fasting≥2 h.Parturients ingested clear water 200 ml in N group and carbohydrate beverage 200 ml in S group.The antral cross-sectional area (CSA) was measured in the semi-sitting position using bedside ultrasonography in the fasting state (T0),immediately after ingesting liquids (T1),and at 30,60 and 120 min after the end of ingesting liquids (T2-4).Gastric emptying was defined as the antral CSA measured less than or equal to the antral CSA at T0.Results The rate of gastric emptying was all 100% at T4 between two groups.Compared with group N,the rate of gastric emptying was significantly decreased at T3 in group S (P<0.05).Conclusion Gastric emptying of fluid is achieved within 2 h after ingesting clean water or carbohydrate beverage in parturients who are at full term,and gastric emptying is delayed after ingesting carbohydrate beverage compared with that after ingesting clean water.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-615405

ABSTRACT

Fine particles,less than 2.5 micrometer in diameter (PM2.5),are the main components of inhalable particles.Because of their relatively small size and large surface area,PM2.5 can absorb and retain chemicals,bacteria,viruses and other toxic substances,penetrate deeply into the respiratory tract and easily reach the alveolar ducts,exerting adverse effects on the lungs.PM2.5 can also be absorbed into the bloodstream through alveolar capillaries,causing serious damage to human health.The biological effects produced by PM2.5 are frequently attributed to the oxidative stress induced by intracellular reactive oxygen species alterations and abnormal release of inflammatory mediators closely involved in the development of lung diseases.This review discusses the research advances in relationships between PM2.5 exposure and inflammatory responses and oxidative stress based on experimental researches,in vivo and in vitro studies.Recent epidemiologic investigations have shown associations between increased incidence of respiratory diseases and lung cancer from exposure to low levels of various forms of respirable fibers and particulate matter.In vivo experiments have disclosed the association between PM2.5 exposure and the exacerbation of asthma,bronchitis,chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,and other lung damages.Cell damage mechanisms mainly include alterations of cell signaling pathways,DNA damage,immune injury,autophagy and apoptosis.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-612654

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the genetic characteristics and the evolution of the influenza A (H3N2) virus strains circulating in Jiangsu province between 2013 and 2014.Methods This study analyzed thirty-one representative strains of influenza A (H3N2) virus, which were isolated in different regions of Jiangsu province and during different time periods from 2013 to 2014.Results Genetic distances in nucleic acid and amino acid between a strain used for vaccine production (A/Texas/50/2012) and the 31 strains were 0.010 5 and 0.012 4.Similarities between them in nucleic acid and amino acid sequences were 97.9%-99.6% and 97.2%-99.3%.Phylogenetic analysis showed that the hemagglutinin (HA) genes of the 31 strains were divided into three different groups.Three strains isolated in 2013 and three strains isolated in 2014 belonged to Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, while the others belonged to Group 3.Three positive selection sites (237, 366 and 367) in HA protein were observed by REL model.Compared with the strain used for vaccine production, the 31 strains were characterized by amino acid substitutions (N128A/T and P198S/A) in HA protein and all of the mutations located in B-cell epitopes.The total number of mutation sites reached 24.Compared with the A/Texas/50/2012 strain, seven strains presented the glycosylation site 126NWT, and three strains showed disappeared glycosylation sites of 45NSS and 144NNS.Evaluation of vaccine efficacy for A(H3N2) virus strains showed that the vaccine efficacy was not very well.Conclusion The HA gene of A(H3N2) virus had undergone a greater variation and the vaccine efficacy was not very well in Jiangsu province during 2013 to 2014, which made the influenza A(H3N2) virus become the circulating strain.

13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-250336

ABSTRACT

Anxiety, depression, and even suicidal ideation are becoming the most common mental health problems affecting Chinese college students. The present study investigated the prevalence of mental health problems and their predictors in a sample of 1048 Chinese college freshmen from Shanghai. We used following brief screening instruments to measure symptoms of anxiety and depression, as well as self-control and suicidal ideation: the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7), a mental health and mental health knowledge questionnaire (MK), a mental disease-related attitude questionnaire (MA), questionnaires about the knowledge of psychological services and utilities, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Suicide module, the Self-Rated Health Measurement Scale (SFHMS), the Self-Esteem Scale (SES), the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCQ), and the Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10). Over half of the students suffered from at least one mental health problem. Approximately 65.55% of freshmen had depression, and 46.85% had anxiety. Minority status, low family income, and religious belief were significantly associated with current mental health problems. These findings indicate that mental disorders are highly prevalent among the freshman student population. The prevalence of such mental disorders was greater than that of the general population, and the majority of students with mental health problems require treatment.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anxiety , Epidemiology , China , Epidemiology , Depression , Epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Young Adult
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286551

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) (rs12984523, rs16999593, and rs2228612) and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) in Chinese Han population.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>This case-control study consisted of 188 cases (case group) and 300 controls (control group) in the same working position, who were matched for age and gender. The cases had a binaural average high-frequency hearing threshold not less than 40 dB, and the controls had a binaural average high-frequency hearing threshold less than 40 dB. The genotypes at the three SNPs were determined by TaqMan probe.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>TT genotype at DNMT1 rs2228612 is a risk factor for NIHL (adjusted OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.14-2.52).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The study of Chinese Han population suggested that DNMT1 rs2228612 is associated with susceptibility to NIHL.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Asians , Genetics , Auditory Threshold , Case-Control Studies , DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase 1 , DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferases , Genetics , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Haplotypes , Hearing Loss, Noise-Induced , Genetics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Noise, Occupational , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Risk Factors
15.
Chinese Journal of Immunology ; (12): 1074-1077, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-454856

ABSTRACT

To explore a sensitive , stable and handleable method for evaluating phagocytosis of mouse peritoneal macrophages by flow cytometry , and get a set of optimized solutions.Methods: The peritoneal macrophages obtained from ICR mice were divided into two part.One part was used directly ,and another part was 1∶1 diluted.Three fluorescent microsphere concentrations were used (5×106/well,1×107/well and 1.5×107/well).Incubation time were respective 1 h,1.5 h and 2 h.The adherent cells were digested by enzyme or cell scraper.The percentage of phagocytic cells ( PP) and the phagocytic index ( PI) were determined by flow cy-tometry.To verify and confirm the reliability of experiment conditions , effect of JKS on phagocytosis of mouse macrophages were evaluated with flow cytometric assays and chicken red blood-cell method.Results:The higher concentration of fluorescent microspheres meant PP and PI were higher.When cell concentration was 1×105-2×105 ml-1 ,incubation time was 1.5 h,concentration of fluorescent microspheres was 1.5 ×107/well,the PP and PI were the highest (89.87%,1.54).When incubation time was 2 h,the PP and PI declined(57.71%,1.51).Effect of cell concentration on the PP and PI were negatively correlated with fluorescent microspheres .After adherent macrophages were digested by trypsin+EDTA,the PP and PI were 44.51%,0.68.The PP and PI were 37.92%,0.57 after di-gestion by EDTA.The results were lower than using cell scraper.The PP(1 485 mg/kg group) of JKS were higher than control group that were evaluated with flow cytometric assays and chicken red blood-cell method.The difference was statistically significant ( P<0.05 ).Conclusion: These are the optimized solutions for the experiment such as the concentration of peritoneal macrophaes is (1-2)×105,the incubation time is 1 h and the concentration of fluorescent microspheres is 1×107/well.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-308904

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the children with hearing loss from the age 0 to 6, and discuss the found age, found way and audiological characteristics.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>General information of found age and found way of 265 children, were investigated with self-made questionnaire and routine audiological evaluations, and then made statistical analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The average (x +/- s) found age for the children with hearing loss was (23.21 +/- 10.02) months, and the first average coming age was (28.01 +/- 13.41) months. The found age of girls [(27.11 +/- 13.13) months] was 6.1 months later than the boys' [(21.03 +/- 12.32) months] and the countryside children [(28.27 +/- 11.09) months] later than the city's [(19.52 +/- 13.05) months] 8.65 months in the average found age. The found age of children who were found with speech disability was later than others. As the hearing loss degree of children went milder, the found age might later.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The popularization of knowledge in preventing from hearing loss must be strengthened. It is also necessary to popularize newborn hearing screening and early intervention while to enhance the parents' consciousness.</p>


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hearing Loss , Diagnosis , Hearing Tests , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mass Screening , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-566604

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the clinical presentation and the effects on both mothers and fetuses with HELLP syndrome induced hyregtensive disorder complicating pregrancy and to investigate the effective methods for diagnosis and treatment. Methods 15 cases of HELLP syndroms were retrospectively analyzed on material and perinatal outcomes. Results In 15case of women with HELLP syndrome, all of them presented antepartum HELLP. Mean gestational age at delivery was 34 weeks. Severe maternal complications included placental abruption,DIC ,postpartum hemorrhage,fetal distress, et al. All of them underwent cesaresn section and required transfusions with blood or blood products. 1 case of perinatal death was related to placental abruption. Conclusion HELLP syndrome is a severe obstetric complication. Better prognosis may be achiveved by early diagnosis, synthetic therapy and optimal termination of pregnancy.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-346575

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyse the male reproductive toxicity of carbaryl.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Thirty-one male carbaryl exposure workers and 46 male administrators in the office in a pesticide factory were selected as the exposure group and internal control group respectively, and 22 male administrators in a center for disease control and prevention were served as the external control group. In order to evaluate the exposure levels, the concentrations of carbaryl, methyl isocyanate, ammonia and phenol in the ambient air of the work place in these three groups were monitored simultaneously for three consecutive days. Moreover, three workers in the exposure group and the external control group were selected to evaluate the amount of carbaryl of individual and dermal contamination for three consecutive days. After the semen were collected according to the standard method, the workers'semen qualities were analysed with WHO method, the sperm morphology and the sperm motility were evaluated using micro-cell slide spectrum technology and computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) respectively.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In the exposure group, the concentrations of carbaryl and phenol (52.41 mg/m(3) and 0.08 mg/m(3) respectively) were significantly higher than those in the internal and external control group (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Furthermore, in the carbaryl exposure area the geometric mean concentration of carbaryl with the individual sampling was 7.38 mg/m(3), and the geometric mean of dermal contamination detected in the carbaryl exposure area was 862.47 mg/m(2). Carbaryl was not found in the external control area (P < 0.01). The seminal volume [(2.39 +/- 1.44) ml] and the sperm motility [(1.77 +/- 0.61) grade] were significantly lower than those in the external control group (P < 0.05), and sperm motion parameters such as linearity (LIN, 39.89% +/- 6.00%), straightness (STR, 71.51% +/- 11.22%), straight line velocity [VSL, (26.29 +/- 7.84) microm/s] and beat cross frequency [BCF, (3.99 +/- 1.55) Hz] were lower than those in the internal and external control group (P < 0.05), while the abnormal rates of viscidity, sperm motility and total aberration rate were higher than those in the external control group (P < 0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Occupational exposure to carbaryl production can affect the workers'sperm and semen quality to certain extent.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , Carbaryl , Humans , Insecticides , Male , Occupational Exposure , Semen , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa , Congenital Abnormalities
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-329592

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>This study was designed to examine the in vitro effects of fenvalerate on steroid production and steroidogenic enzymes mRNA expression level in rat granulosa cells.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Using primary cultured rat granulosa cells (rGCs) as model, fenvalerate of various concentrations (0, 1, 5, 25, 125, 625 micromol/L) was added to the medium for 24 h. In some cases, optimal concentrations of 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (25 micromol/L), Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, 2 mg/L), or 8-Bromo-cAMP (1 mmol/L) were provided. Concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol(E2) and progesterone (P4) in the medium from the same culture wells were measured by RIA and the steroidogenic enzyme mRNA level was quantified by semi-quantitative RT-PCR.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Fenvalerate decreased both P4 and E2 production in a dose-dependent manner while it could significantly stimulate rGCs proliferation. This inhibition was stronger in the presence of FSH. Furthermore, it could not be reversed by 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol or 8-Bromo-cAMP. RT-PCR revealed that fenvalerate had no significant effect on 3 beta-HSD, but could increase the P450scc mRNA level. In addition, 17 beta-HSD mRNA level was dramatically reduced with the increase of fenvalerate dose after 24 h treatment.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Fenvalerate inhibits both P4 and E2 production in rGCs. These results support the view that fenvalerate is considered as a kind of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. The mechanism of its disruption may involve the effects on steroidogenesis signaling cascades and/or steroidogenic enzyme's activity.</p>


Subject(s)
3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases , Metabolism , 8-Bromo Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate , Pharmacology , Animals , Base Sequence , Cells, Cultured , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Estradiol , Metabolism , Female , Follicle Stimulating Hormone , Pharmacology , Granulosa Cells , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Hydroxycholesterols , Pharmacology , Nitriles , Pharmacology , Progesterone , Metabolism , Pyrethrins , Pharmacology , RNA, Messenger , Metabolism , Rats , Steroids , Metabolism
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-583227

ABSTRACT

Object: To compare validity of CISA and WAIS-RC in a special group, violent adolescents with low intelligence.Method:Thirty-eight adolescents with violent delinquency were screened out by CRT (combined Raven test) with IQ lower than 85. CISA (Chinese intelligence scale for adult) and WAIS-RC (Wechsler adult intelligence scale-revised Chinese version) were applied to them in different sequence.Result:CISA IQ and WAIS-RC IQ were very close to each other. The adolescents were in borderline intelligence with more impairment in verbal IQ than in performance IQ.Conclusion:CISA and WAIS-RC have same validity in identifying intelligent impairment of violent adolescents.

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