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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879071

ABSTRACT

The chemical properties of characteristic components are significant to the manufacturing quality control of big brand traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, the Huangjing Zanyu Capsules were used as the research carrier to determine the content of five characteristic components including icraiin, emodin, schisandrin A, 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside, and osthole simultaneously by high-performance liquid chromatography(HPLC). The results showed that the chemical properties of five cha-racteristic components had a good linear relationship(r>0.999 9) within the quantitative range; the relative standard deviations(RSD) was 0.11%-2.0% and 0.25%-2.8% respectively for intra-day and inter-day precision; the RSD of repeatability was 1.8%-2.6%; the RSD of stability within 48 hours was 0.19%-2.8%, and the average recovery rate was 95.52%-100.1%, all meeting the requirements of pharmaceutical quantitative analysis. Additionally, the interval estimation method was used to directly reflect the distribution of samples with abnormal chemical properties of characteristic components, and the results showed ten samples were detected beyound the 95% control line of confidence level. Multivariate statistical process control(MSPC) method was used to monitor the abnormal samples of Huangjing Zanyu Capsules collectively, and the results showed that two samples were beyond the 95% control line of Hotelling's T~2 and three samples beyond the 95% control line of squared prediction error(SPE), indicating consistent quality control of Huangjing Zanyu Capsules. In conclusion, the proposed method is not only accurate and efficient but also a compensation for the traditional single-component quality control method, providing a scientific basis for the quality control in manufacturing process of Huangjing Zanyu Capsules. Furthermore, it could also serve as a reference method for the quality control in manufacturing big brand traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Capsules , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879068

ABSTRACT

Identification of critical quality attribute(CQA) is crucial in quality control of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills(TRNHQXP). In this study, 661 active components in TRNHQXP were selected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry(LC-MS) and network pharmacology based on reported data and TCMSP, BATMAN-TCM, and TCMID databases, as well as mass spectrometry data, and 1 413 targets of the active components were obtained through SwissTargetPrediction. The 152 potential targets obtained from the intersection of predicted targets with 456 stroke targets underwent functional enrichment analysis by Metascape. The 27 Chinese medicinals in TRNHQXP were divided into four sets according to efficacies. Thirty-seven key targets in the blood-activating and stasis-resolving set and 41 in the tonifying set were screened out. On the basis of these potential key targets, 137 potential key CQA of TRNHQXP for stroke were reversely predicted. This study revealed the possible mechanism of TRNHQXP in treating stroke and established a modular identification method for the potential CQA of big brand traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) based on efficacies and chemical properties. Consequently, the CQA of TRNHQXP were identified by this method, which has provided a reference for the following experimental studies of CQA.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879067

ABSTRACT

Texture sensory attributes are the key items in quality control of Chinese medicinal honeyed pills. The purpose of this study is to develop a quality control method for assessing the texture sensory attributes of Chinese medicinal honeyed pills based on real-world Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin pilular masses and finished products. First, parameters of texture profile analysis(TPA) were optimized through single factor and central composite design(CCD) experiments to establish a detection method for texture sensory attri-butes of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills. The results showed that the established detection method was stable and reliable, with the optimal parameters set up as follows: deformation percentage of 70%, detection speed at 30 mm·min~(-1), and interval time of 15 s. Furthermore, 540 data points yielded form six texture sensory attributes of pills from 30 batches were subjected to multivariate statistical process control(MSPC) with Hotelling T~2 and squared prediction error(SPE) control charts to establish the quality control method of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills. This study is expected to provide a reference for improving the quality control system of Chinese medicinal honeyed pills.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Quality Control
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879066

ABSTRACT

For the field detection problems of critical quality attribute(CQA) of moisture content in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) manufacturing process, big brand TCM Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills were used as the carrier, to establish a moisture content NIR field detection model with or without cellophane in real world production with use of near infrared(NIR) spectroscopy combined with stoichiometry. With the moisture content determined by drying method as reference value, the partial least square method(PLS) was used to analyze the correlation between the spectrum and the moisture reference value. Then the spectral pretreatment methods were screened and optimized to further improve the accuracy and stability of the model. The results showed that the best quantitative model was developed by the spectral data pretreatment of standard normal variate(SNV) with the latent variable factor number of 2 and 7 of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills with or without cellophane samples. The prediction coefficient of determination(R_(pre)~2) and standard deviation of prediction(RMSEP) of the model with cellophane samples were 0.765 7 and 0.157 2%; R_(pre)~2 and RMSEP of the model without cellophane samples were 0.772 2 and 0.207 8%. The NIR quantitative models of moisture content of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills with and without cellophane both showed good predictive performance to realize the rapid, accurate and non-destructive quantitative analysis of moisture content in such pills, and provide a method for the field quality control of the critical chemical attributes of moisture in the manufacturing of big brand TCM.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Least-Squares Analysis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879065

ABSTRACT

The spatial distribution uniformity of valuable medicines is the critical quality attribute in the process control of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills. With the real world sample of the mixed end-point powder of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills as the research object, hyperspectral imaging technology was used to collect a total of 32 400 data points with a size of 180 pix×180 pix. Spectral angle matching(SAM), classical least squares and mixed tuned matched filtering(MTMF) were used to identify the spatial distribution of rare medicines. MTMF model showed higher identification accuracy, therefore the spatial distribution of the blended intermediates was identified based on the MTMF model. The histogram method was also used to evaluate the spatial distribution uniformity of rare medicines. The results showed that the standard deviation was 4.78, 6.5, 3.48, 1.96, and 3.00 respectively for artificial bezoar, artificial musk, Borneol, Antelope horn and Buffalo horn; the variance was 22.8, 42.3, 12.1, 3.82, and 9.00, and the skewness was 1.26, 1.71, 0.06,-0.86, and 1.04, respectively. The final results showed that the most even blending was achieved in concentrated powder of Borneol, Antelope horn and Buffalo horn, followed by artificial bezoar, and last artificial musk. A visualization method was established for quality attributes of distribution uniformity in blending process of Tongren Niuhuang Qingxin Pills. It could provide evidences of quality control methods in the mixing process of big brand traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Powders , Quality Control
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828683

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the incidence of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and the management on the treatment and follow-up of this disease in Jiangsu Province, China.@*METHODS@#The neonates with severe hyperbilirubinemia who were admitted to 13 hospitals in Jiangsu Province from January to December, 2018, were enrolled as subjects. A retrospective analysis was performed on their mediacal data and follow-up data.@*RESULTS@#In 2018, 740 neonates with severe hyperbilirubinemia were reported from the 13 hospitals in Jiangsu Province, accounting for 2.70% (740/27 386) of the total number of neonates admitted to the department of neonatology. Among these neonates, 620 (83.8%) had severe hyperbilirubinemia, 106 (14.3%) had extremely severe hyperbilirubinemia, and 14 (1.9%) had hazardous hyperbilirubinemia. Four neonates (0.5%) were diagnosed with acute bilirubin encephalopathy. A total of 484 neonates (65.4%) were readmitted due to severe hyperbilirubinemia after discharge from the delivery institution, with a median age of 7 days, among whom 214 (44.2%) were followed up for jaundice at the outpatient service before readmission, with a median age of 6 days at the first time of outpatient examination. During hospitalization, 211 neonates (28.5%) underwent cranial MRI examinations, among whom 85 (40.3%) had high T1WI signal in the bilateral basal ganglia and the globus pallidus; 238 neonates (32.2%) underwent brainstem auditory evoked potential examinations, among whom 14 (5.9%) passed only at one side and 7 (2.9%) failed at both sides. The 17 neonates with acute bilirubin encephalopathy or hazardous hyperbilirubinemia were followed up. Except one neonate was lost to follow-up, and there were no abnormal neurological symptoms in the other neonates.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Neonates with severe hyperbilirubinemia account for a relatively high proportion of the total number of neonates in the department of neonatology. Jaundice monitoring and management after discharge from delivery institutions need to be strengthened. For neonates with severe hyperbilirubinemia, relevant examinations should be carried out more comprehensively during hospitalization and these neonates should be followed up comprehensively and systematically after discharge.


Subject(s)
Bilirubin , China , Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem , Humans , Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal , Infant, Newborn , Retrospective Studies
7.
Journal of Medical Postgraduates ; (12): 307-311, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818424

ABSTRACT

Pancreatic cancer is one of the cancers with poor prognosis at present, which has high resistance to various anti-tumor drugs as a result of the interaction among pancreatic cancer cells, cancer stem cells, and the tumor microenvironment. P2X7 receptors are extracellular adenosine triphosphate(ATP)-gated nonselective cation channels, which have many biological functions including being involved in cell signal transduction and cytokine secretion, mediate cell survival and growth. Studies have shown that P2X7 receptor is highly expressed in pancreatic cancer and promotes the proliferation, migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells by supporting proliferation of pancreatic stellate cells and regulating the expressed of the MMP2/MMP9 protein. The paper reviews the recent research advances of P2X7 receptor in pancreatic cancer.

8.
Journal of Forensic Medicine ; (6): 625-630,634, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742807

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the curative effects of various infusion volumes on liver-related metabolic mechanism in the treatment of hemorrhagic shock.Methods A severe hemorrhagic shock rabbit model was established in 30 rabbits.The rabbits were randomly divided into three groups:non-infusion group (A), conventional infusion group (B), and excessive infusion group (C) (n=10 in each group).Taking group B as the control, groups A and C were observed for the damage of non-infusion and excessive infusion, respectively.The outcomes in the three groups and their relations with liver tissue metabolism changes were analyzed with gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS).Results The mortality in groups A, B, and C group were 80%, 0%, and 70%, respectively.The liver tissue metabolic profile in group B showed statistically significant difference compared with that in groups A and B.In group C, the levels of 21 metabolites were lower than those in group B, and the levels of8 metabolites were lower than those in group A.The relative contents of various metabolites were correlated with infusion volumes, and the succinic acid content was associated with death events (P<0.05).Conclusion The conventional infusion has significant curative effect on hemorrhagic shock.The metabolites of liver tissues with excessive infusion are generally decompensated and have longer survival time than those in non-infusion group, which may caused by the excessive infusion-induced blood volume increase after hemorrhagic shock.Tissue fluid dilution is an important cause of death.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-701206

ABSTRACT

AIM:To explore the protective effect of morinda officinalis oligosaccharides monomer HexB on hy -poxia/reoxygenation(H/R)-induced injury in human umbilical vein endothelia cells(HUVECs).METHODS:HUVECs were treated with HexB,4-phenylbutyric acid(4-PBA)and thapsigargin(TG),respectively.The cells were divided into control group,HexB group,H/R group,HexB+H/R group,4-PBA+H/R group,TG group and HexB+TG group.The cell viability was measured by CCK-8 assay.The apoptotic rate was detected by flow cytometry.Western blot was used to determine the protein levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress(ERS)related molecules chaperone protein glucose-regulated protein 78(GRP78),C/EBP homologous protein(CHOP),apoptosis-related protein caspase-12 and phosphorylated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase(p-JNK).RESULTS: The viability of HUVECs was reduced in H/R group and TG group(P<0.05),increased in HexB+H/R,4-PBA+H/R and HexB+TG group(P<0.05).The apoptotic rate,the protein levels of GRP78,CHOP,caspase-12 and p-JNK were increased in H/R group and TG group(P<0.05),weakened in the HexB+H/R group(P<0.05),4-PBA+H/R group and HexB+TG group(P<0.05).No significant change in the apoptotic rate,cell viability,protein levels of GRP78, CHOP, caspase-12, p-JNK between HexB +H/R group and 4-PBA+H/R group was observed.CONCLUSION:HexB attenuates HUVECs injury caused by H/R through suppressing ERS and ap-optosis.The possible mechanism may be involved in the apoptotic pathways related to GRP 78,CHOP,caspase-12 and p-JNK.

10.
Journal of Medical Postgraduates ; (12): 516-520, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-700865

ABSTRACT

Objective Blood pressure variability (BPV) is an independent risk factor for the death of patients with maintenance hemodialysis (MHD).There is no study on the influencing factors of BPV at home in HD patients in China.The article aimed to investigate MHD patients'BPV at home and related influencing factors in order to provide theoretical basis for reducing home BPV (HBPV) clinically. Methods We chose 103 patients who were treated with MHD in the Renal Medicine Room of Nephrology Department in three upper first -class hospitals including Jiangsu Provincial People 's Hospital, the First Affiliated Hospital of Suzhou University and the Affiliated Hospi -tal of Jiangsu University from March 2017 to October 2017.We col-lected their 7 days'blood pressure monitoring at home and blood pressure before dialysis, average value and standard deviation in sys -tolic blood pressure monitoring at home, and took the coefficient of variation of systolic blood pressure as the expression of HBPV .The patients were divided into high BPV group (BPV≥5.8%) and low BPV group (BPV<5.8%) according to the average BPV.At the same time, we recorded indexes such as sex , age, dialysis age, primary disease, BMI, inter-dialytic weight gain (IDWG), left ven-tricular mass index(LVMI) and analyzed relative influencing factors by multiple linear regression . Results The age, IDWG and LV-MI were positive independent influencing factors of HBPV (R 2 =0.467,F=10.945,P<0.001).According to standardized regression co-efficient, the contribution of each variable to HBPV was as follows : PIBWG >Age>LVMI. Conclusion In clinical nursing, we should actively control the IDWG of patients , encourage patients to monitor their blood pressure at home , and increase their awareness of the importance of home BPV.Meanwhile, HBPV is an important index for predicting left ventricular hypertrophy and can be used as an objective tool to improve patients 'self-management ability.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690129

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the growth and development of very low birth weight (VLBW)/extremely low birth weight (ELBW) preterm infants within the corrected age of 6 months and the effect of different feeding patterns on growth and development.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 109 VLBW/ELBW preterm infants who were discharged from January 2016 to April 2017 and who had completed regular follow-up were enrolled, and their growth and development within the corrected age of 6 months were monitored. The Z-score method was used to evaluate physical indices and analyze the effect of different feeding patterns (breastfeeding group: breast milk + human milk fortifier; mixed feeding group: breast milk + preterm formula milk; artificial feeding: preterm formula milk) on growth and development.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>The peaks of weight-for-age Z-score, height-for-age Z-score, weight-for-height Z-score, and BMI-for-age Z-score occurred within the corrected age of 3 months, and the peak of head circumference-for-age Z-score occurred at the corrected age of 5 months. Growth deviation of the infants often occurred within the corrected age of 1-3 months. At the corrected age of 3 months, the breastfeeding group had significantly better body weight, height and head circumference growth than the mixed feeding group and/or the artificial feeding group (P<0.05). At the corrected age of 6 months, the breastfeeding group had significantly better head circumference and body length growth than the mixed feeding group and/or the artificial feeding group (P<0.05).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Growth deviation of VLBW/ELBW preterm infants often occurs within the corrected age of 1-3 months, suggesting that early individualized follow-up and nutritional guidance should be strengthened to reduce growth deviation. Maternal breastfeeding with the addition of human milk fortifier is the best feeding pattern for VLBW/ELBW preterm infants.</p>


Subject(s)
Body Height , Feeding Behavior , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight , Metabolism , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Metabolism , Male
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689624

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the incidence and mortality rates of preterm infants and the main causes of death.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The basic information of preterm infants was collected from their medical records and admission/discharge records to analyze the incidence and mortality rates of preterm infants and the causes of their death.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>There were 76 812 neonates born in the Xuzhou Maternal and Child Health Hospital from January 2006 to December 2016, among whom 5 585 (7.27%) were preterm infants. The incidence rate of preterm infants tended to increase over these years (P<0.001). The overall mortality rate was 5.01% (280/5 585), and the mortality rate tended to decrease over these years (P<0.001). The mortality rate increased with the reductions in birth weight and gestational age (P<0.001). The top four causes of death in preterm infants were respiratory distress syndrome (44.3%), severe asphyxia (12.9%), neonatal malformation (4.3%), and pulmonary hemorrhage (2.9%) respectively. With the increase in birth weight, there were significant reductions in the constituent ratios of death due to respiratory distress syndrome and severe asphyxia (P<0.001).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The incidence rate of preterm infants tended to increase and their mortality rate tended to decrease from 2006 to 2016. The mortality rate of preterm infants is associated with gestational age and birth weight. Respiratory distress syndrome and severe asphyxia are the main causes of death in preterm infants.</p>


Subject(s)
Birth Weight , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant Mortality , Infant, Premature , Male , Time Factors
13.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 12-18, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-331688

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ketamine, imipramine, and ketamine plus imipramine on chronic depression-like behaviors of Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats and underlying mechanism. Six-week-old Wistar rats were used as normal control. WKY rats, depression model animal, were injected intraperitoneally with ketamine (1 week, replaced with saline in 2(nd) week), imipramine (2 weeks), or ketamine in combination with imipramine. The depression-like behaviors were assessed by sucrose preference and forced swimming tests. Protein expressions of β form of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II (βCaMKII) and membrane fraction of glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) were measured in corresponding brain tissue with Western blot. The results showed that, compared with Wistar rats, WKY rats exhibited decreased sucrose preference and extended immobility time. Ketamine alone did not affect depression-like behaviors of WKY, whereas imipramine or its combination with ketamine could significantly decrease the immobility time. Compared with Wistar rats, WKY rats showed up-regulated levels of βCaMKII and membrane GluR1 protein expressions in habenula, and down-regulated level of membrane GluR1 protein expressions in the prefrontal cortex. Imipramine or its combination with ketamine could reverse these changes of protein expressions in WKY rats. There was no difference in reversing effect between imipramine and its combination with ketamine. Ketamine alone did not affect the βCaMKII and membrane GluR1 protein expressions in the habenula, but increased membrane GluR1 protein expression in the prefrontal cortex of WKY rats. These results suggest 2-week imipramine treatment significantly improves depressive behavior in WKY rats; however, the addition of ketamine in the first week fails to enhance the effect of imipramine. The underlying mechanisms of imipramine's anti-depressive effect may be associated with the down-regulation of βCaMKII and membrane GluR1 in the habenula, as well as the up-regulation of membrane GluR1 in the prefrontal cortex.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain , Depression , Depressive Disorder , Disease Models, Animal , Down-Regulation , Imipramine , Ketamine , Male , Rats , Rats, Inbred WKY , Swimming , Up-Regulation
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-267197

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the effects of acupuncture on Chinese medicine syndromes of vascular dementia (VaD).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Sixty-three VaD patients were divided into three groups. Those willing to be randomized were randomly assigned to receive either acupuncture (random acupuncture group, 24 cases) or rehabilitation training (guided rehabilitation group, 24 cases) for 6 weeks. Those unwilling to be randomized also received acupuncture for 6 weeks (non-random acupuncture group, 19 cases). Patient syndromes and their severity were evaluated before treatment (baseline), at the end of treatment, and at 4-week follow-up after the completion of treatment using a CM scoring system (scale of differentiation of syndromes of vascular dementia, SDSVD). The SDSVD scores of the random and non-random acupuncture groups, and of all patients who received acupuncture (combined acupuncture group, 43 cases), were compared with those in the guided rehabilitation group.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>In the random, non-random, and combined acupuncture groups, SDSVD scores were significantly reduced at the end of treatment and at follow-up than at baseline. In the guided rehabilitation group, SDSVD scores were similar to baseline scores at the end of treatment and at follow-up. However, there were no significant differences in SDSVD scores among the three groups or between the combined acupuncture group and the guided rehabilitation group at any time points. In the non-random and combined acupuncture groups, SDSVD scores were significantly reduced at the end of treatment than at baseline in patients with hyperactivity of Liver (Gan)-yang or phlegm obstruction of the orifices.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Acupuncture reduced the severity of VaD. The improvement was the greatest in patients undergoing their treatment of choice. Treatments in this study were more effective for excess syndromes, such as Liver-yang hyperactivity or phlegm obstruction of the orifices than deficiency syndromes, such as Kidney (Shen)-essence deficiency.</p>


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Dementia, Vascular , Therapeutics , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional
15.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 667-674, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-255988

ABSTRACT

The present study is aimed to investigated the firing activity of pyramidal neurons and interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in rats with bilateral intraventricular injection of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) by using in vivo extracellular recording. The results showed that the injection of 5,7-DHT reduced the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) levels in the mPFC and dorsal raphe nucleus in the rats. The firing rate of mPFC pyramidal neurons in rats with 5,7-DHT injection was significantly higher than that of normal rats, and the firing pattern of these neurons also changed significantly towards a more burst-firing, while the injection decreased the firing rate of mPFC interneurons and changed the firing pattern of the interneurons towards a more irregular. These results indicate that the lesions of the serotonergic neurons lead to the changes in the firing activity of mPFC pyramidal neurons and interneurons, suggesting that serotonergic system plays an important role in the regulation of the neuronal activity in the mPFC.


Subject(s)
5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine , Pharmacology , Action Potentials , Animals , Dorsal Raphe Nucleus , Cell Biology , Injections, Intraventricular , Interneurons , Prefrontal Cortex , Cell Biology , Pyramidal Cells , Rats , Serotonin , Metabolism
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350633

ABSTRACT

Quality survey of different species of Clematidis Radix et Rhizoma was made by determining the content of hederagenin and oleanolic acid from Clematidis Radix et Rhizoma. The result showed that only a few samples of Clematis chinensis met the quality standard for Clematidis Radix et Rhizoma in Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 Edition.


Subject(s)
Clematis , Chemistry , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Reference Standards , Oleanolic Acid , Chemistry , Rhizome , Chemistry
17.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1517-1521, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350478

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>Following the increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) notification (infection) rates via sexual transmission and increased abuse of new synthetic drugs instead of heroin in China, a study on HIV infections and risk factors among synthetic drugs and heroin users in Beijing was conducted to provide a cue for further development of targets and strategies of HIV/AIDS control and prevention for different drug populations.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A total of 428 subjects including 224 heroin users and 204 new synthetic drug users was recruited from communities in Beijing by convenience sampling. A χ(2) test was used to compare HIV and syphilis infections between the two subpopulations. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate factors related to HIV, syphilis infections and abuse of synthetic drugs.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Unbalanced distributions of demographics were detected between the two subpopulations. Compared with heroin users, most users of synthetic drugs were migrants, single and of younger age (age ≤ 30 years). Ten HIV infections and twenty-four syphilis infections were confirmed among 428 subjects. No significant difference in HIV infection was found between the two subpopulations (crude odds ratio (OR) = 0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.07 - 15.80 and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.26, 95%CI: 0.09 - 18.28) while four times as many syphilis infections were identified among users of synthetics drugs (AOR = 3.92, 95%CI: 1.06 - 14.56). HIV and syphilis infections appeared to work synergistically. The migrants who were of Han ethnicity, single and who had stayed in Beijing for more than six months were more likely to abuse synthetics drugs.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>The new synthetic drug users and heroin users are different subpopulations. We optimistically speculate that HIV has not yet been introduced into the former in Beijing, but considering higher syphilis infections in synthetic drug users and the role of syphilis in HIV infection, synthetic drug users, as a possible and important driver of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Beijing, should be paid more attention in HIV prevention and control strategies.</p>


Subject(s)
Adult , China , Epidemiology , Drug Users , Female , HIV Infections , Epidemiology , Heroin Dependence , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Substance-Related Disorders , Syphilis , Epidemiology
18.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 64-68, 2008.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-249457

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the neuropsychological characteristics of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Neuropsychological tests, including visual working memory, Stroop test, digits inverse reciting, vocabulary fluency, Wisconsin card sort test (WCST), and Temporal discounting were used to evaluate the capacity of response inhibition, phonological working memory, visual working memory executive function and delayed satisfying capacity of subjects.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>1. The ADHD children spent longer time [ADHD-I (84(20), ADHD-C: 98 (31), normal: 70 (28)] to accomplish color naming and made more errors [ADHD-I: 3 (3), ADHD-C: 6 (19), normal: 2 (5)] than the normal control when the color was inconsistent with the word meaning in Stroop test (P < 0.01). 2. The scores of digits reciting [ADHD-I: 3 (3), ADHD-C: 3 (4), normal 4 (4)] inverse was lower in ADHD than in normal control (P < 0.01). 3. The representation of ADHD was poorer than normal control in visual working memory [ADHD-I: 21 (3), ADHD-C: 20 (5), Normal: 20 (3)], and in delayed visual memory [ADHD-I: 19 (5), ADHD-C: 19 (5), Normal: 20 (5)] (P < 0.01). 4. The scores of vocabulary fluency [ADHD-I: 1 (1), ADHD-C: 2 (1), normal: 0 (0)] was lower in ADHD than in normal control (P < 0.01). 5. In WCST, the ADHD children made more errors [ADHD-I :15 (17), ADHD-C: 15 (15), normal: 13 (13)] and less classification [ADHD-I: 5 (4), ADHD-C: 5 (4), normal: 5 (3)] than normal control (P < 0.01). 6. In Temporal discounting, the ADHD children showed significantly more impairments than normal control did (P < 0.01). 7. There was significant difference between the two subtype groups on some tests (P < 0.01).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Obvious cognitive impairments were found in children with ADHD, involving poor response inhibition, impaired working memory, dysfunction of planning and set-shifting, and there was no significant difference between the two subtype groups.</p>


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Classification , Allergy and Immunology , Psychology , Child , Cognition Disorders , Psychology , Humans , Memory , Memory Disorders , Allergy and Immunology , Psychology , Memory, Short-Term , Physiology , Neuropsychological Tests
19.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 868-871, 2007.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-322907

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the status and influencing factors on anxiety sensitivity among middle school students in Chongqing.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>58 classes from 12 schools were randomly selected in four administrative districts of Chongqing city. A total number of 2700 students was included for final analysis including 48.5% from junior high school and 51.5% from senior high school students with 49.2% boys and 50.8% girls. The Chinese version of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revision, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List (ASLEC) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>(1) There was no significant difference between grade groups (P = 0.49). (2) The level of girl's anxiety sensitivity was always higher than boy's (P < 0.001). (3) Data from multiple linear regression showed that the influential factors to the degree of anxiety sensitivity were: state of anxiety, trait anxiety, life events, sex, stress from learning, etc (standard coefficients of regression were 0.258, 0.163, 0.112, 0.093, 0.124, -0.096, 0.096).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The major influential factors of anxiety sensitivity would include: sex, stress from learning, life events, interpersonal relationship, state of anxiety and trait anxiety.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Anxiety , Psychology , Child , Female , Humans , Linear Models , Male , Psychometrics , Stress, Psychological , Students , Psychology
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