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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879174

ABSTRACT

Chrysanthemi Indici Flos(CIF), the capitulum of Chrysanthemum indicum, is widely used in proprietary Chinese medicine and daily chemical products. At present, CIF is mainly produced from wild resources and rarely cultivated. This study aims to reveal the correlations between linarin content in CIF and climatic factors in different habitats, and provide a theoretical basis for suitable zoning and rational production of medicinal materials. The content of linarin in CIF was determined by HPLC. Grey relational analysis and Pearson correlation analysis were carried out for linarin content with climatic factors. The results showed that the content of linarin in CIF was significantly different among different habitats. The grey relational degrees of climatic factors with linarin content was in an order of average annual precipitation>annual average sunshine hours>annual average temperature>longitude>annual frost-free period>latitude>altitude. Longitude, annual average temperature and average annual precipitation had significantly positive correlations with the content of linarin in CIF, whereas latitude and altitude showed negative correlations with it. The annual frost-free period and annual average sunshine hours had no significant correlation with the content of linarin in CIF. The content of linarin in CIF varied significantly in different habitats. High longitude, low latitude, low altitude, high annual average temperature and high annual average precipitation could be used as indicators for the habitats of high-quality Ch. indicum. This study provides a reference for selecting suitable producing areas of Ch. indicum and establishing artificial cultivation system.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Chrysanthemum , Ecosystem , Glycosides
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879150

ABSTRACT

To explore the effect of light intensity in cultivating environment on the hepetoprotective activity of Sedum sarmentosum, S. sarmentosum were planted under five water treatments for 60 days, namely 100% full sunlight(G1), 77% full sunlight(G2), 60% full sunlight(G3), 38% full sunlight(G4), and 16% full sunlight(G5) and CCl_4 drug-induced liver injury model in vitro was used. Cell viability, cell cycle, and cell apoptosis were individually detected by MTT, PI single staining, and Annexin-V FITC/PI double staining assays. Additionally, ALT, AST and antioxidant index in supernatant were determined by colorimetry. And the relationship among the protective effects, chemical composition and antioxidant activity were also analyzed. The results showed that S. sarmentosum aqueous extract could significantly improve the HepG2 cell viability. Among the five S. sarmentosum groups, the cell viability of G1(100% full sunlight) treatment was the highest, and the cell apoptosis was the least. Meanwhile, the level of ALT, AST, and MDA in G1 was the lowest, but it achieved the highest level of SOD and GSH. Moderate light shading(60% full light) also improved the effect of protecting liver and reducing the enzyme. It was found that cell viability was positively correlated with ferricion reducing capacity. ALT activity was positively correlated with isorhamnetin content. Taken together, different light intensity had great influence on hepatoprotective effect of S. sarmentosum, which may be related to its antioxidant capacity. From the perspective of hepetoprotective activity, S. sarmentosum should be planted under full light.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , Hep G2 Cells , Humans , Liver , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Sedum , Water
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879041

ABSTRACT

Protein kinase C(PKC) is a kind of kinase which is widely involved in cell proliferation and development. PKC(Wp-PKC) in Whitmania pigra body belongs to classic PKC. In order to investigate the effect of Wp-PKC on the development of Wh. pigra germ cells, 17β-estradiol(17β-E2)(100 ng·mL~(-1)) and methyltestosterone(MT)(150 μg·L~(-1)), 150 μg·L~(-1)(MT)+0.5 mg·L~(-1) PKC, 0.5 mg·L~(-1) PKC inhibitor were added to Wh. pigra culture water, and no addition group(control group) was added, and the effects on the development of Wh. pigra germ cells and the expression of Wp-PKC were observed. The results showed that: Wp-PKC in male gonads was always higher than that in female gonads; MT promoted the development of male gonads in Wh. pigra, while the expression of Wp-PKC was significantly higher than that in the control; 17β-E2 promoted the development of female gonads in Wh. pigra and Wp-PKC expression significantly lower than that of the control; while the development of the female and male gonads in the PKC inhibitor group was inhibited, the expression of Wp-PKC was significantly lower than that of the control. In summary, Wp-PKC may promote the development of Wh. pigra, especially the development of male gonads.


Subject(s)
Animals , Estradiol , Female , Gonads , Leeches , Male , Methyltestosterone , Ovary
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878959

ABSTRACT

Amana edulis is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant with low propagation coefficient. In recent years, the increasing demands of A. edulis lead to a shortage of its wild resources. In order to analyze the expression of related functional genes in A. edulis, the selection of suitable internal reference genes is crucial to improve the accuracy of experimental results. Eight genes(ACT, TUA, CYP, GAPDH, UBQ, UBI, EF1a, UBC)were chosen as candidate reference genes based on the RNA-Seq. Real-time fluorescence quantitative technique was used to detect the expression level of candidate internal reference genes in different organs(bulb, leaf, flo-wer) and stolons at different development stages of A. edulis. Then GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper softwares and RefFinder website were used for a comprehensive analysis of the expression stability of the candidate genes.The results showed that among the 8 candidate reference genes, the variation range of Ct value of UBC was the smallest, and the expression level was stable, which was suitable for an reference gene. GeNorm and NormFinder software analysis showed that UBC and UBI were the optimal reference genes. BestKeeper analysis showed that CYP and UBC expression were relatively stable. Comprehensive evaluation of RefFinder website showed that UBC and UBI were the most stable genes, and ACT displayed the lowest stability in all software evaluation, indicating UBC and UBI were suitable for reference genes. Additionally, the most stable UBC, UBI and the most unstable ACT were used as internal reference genes to detect the expression of GBSS gene in A. edulis, and expression pattern of GBSS gene was the same under the calibration of UBC and UBI. The expression data of GBSS gene confirmed that UBC and UBI genes were reliable for A. edulis qRT-PCR as internal reference genes. The results would benefit future studies on related gene expression of A. edulis.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Genes, Plant/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reference Standards
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878955

ABSTRACT

The study is aiming at investigating the application of entropy weight TOPSIS method in the comparison of the scavenging effect of DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical and the inhibition effect of xanthine oxidase(XOD) and lipoxygenase(LOX) of Chrysanthemum indicum. The DPPH, ABTS, salicylic acid and spectrophotometry were used to determine the scavenging effect of DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical and the inhibition effect of xanthine oxidase(XOD) and lipoxygenase(LOX) of Ch. indicum from 31 different areas in vitro. Take the half inhibition rate of as the evaluation index, two principal components were extracted by the principal component analysis, and their cumulative contribution rate reached at 92.4%. The different areas of Ch. indicum could be divided into Dabei Mountain and Qinling-Taihang Mountain by use principal component to analysis. The entropy weight TOPSIS method was used to objectively assign weights to five indexes, calculate the weight of each index and set up the best and worst scheme of the evaluation object, and the relative proximity(C_i) was used as the measure to construct the multi-index comprehensive evaluation model of Ch. indicum. And then sort with the relative proximity value. The results showed that the relative proximity was between 0.098 and 0.983 which represents there were significant differences in the scavenging effect of DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radical and the inhibition effect of xanthine oxidase(XOD) and lipoxygenase(LOX) between extracts of Ch. indicum from different areas. The Ch. indicum from Dabie Mountain area have a relatively high relative degree of measurement and high-quality ranking. Taken together, the quality of Ch. indicum.from the Dabie Mountain area is better. The index weight coefficient and the classification result of producing area are basically consistent with the result of principal component analysis. The results show that the TOPSIS method based on entropy weight method can be used to evaluate the comprehensive quality of Ch. indicum.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antioxidants , Chrysanthemum , Entropy , Plant Extracts
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878884

ABSTRACT

Protein kinase C(PKC) is a type of protein kinase widely involved in cell proliferation and development, but the developmental mechanism in the gonads of androgynous animals is still unclear. In order to explore the role of protein kinase C in the development of Whitmania pigra germ cells, the Wh. pigra PKC(Wp-PKC) gene was cloned, bioinformatics analysis was conducted, and fluorescent quantitative PCR was used to analyze the expression of female and male gonads. The results showed that:(1)The cloned Wp-PKC had a full length of 2 580 bp, a relative molecular weight of 76 555.19, and contains an open reading frame encoding 670 amino acids, Wp-PKC was closely related to Danio rerio PKC-α and rat PKC-γ. The similarity of amino acid sequence was 55% and 58%.(2)The protein encoded by Wp-PKC had no signal peptide and was a hydrophilic protein. The secondary structure is mainly composed of random coils, α-helices, extended chains, folds and folds, with the largest proportion of random coils and α-helices. Wp-PKC protein does not contain a transmembrane domain. Multiple sequence alignment and domain prediction analysis show that Wp-PKC contains 4 conserved domains of classical protein kinase C.(3)Fluorescence quantitative results showed that the expression of Wp-PKC in Wh. pigra gonads was positively correlated with the development of germ cells, and the expression in male gonads was significantly higher than that in female gonads. In summary, Wp-PKC is a classic PKC, and Wp-PKC may promote the development of Wh. pigra, especially the development of male gonads, and provide references for further research on the developmental mechanisms of Wh. pigra.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cloning, Molecular , Female , Gonads , Leeches/genetics , Male , Ovary , Protein Kinase C/genetics , Rats
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828381

ABSTRACT

The current study was conducted to explore the effects of light intensity in cultivating environment on the cleaning away heat property of Viola yedoensis. In the present study, we established the acute inflammation model of ICR mice by injecting carrageenan. We compared the effects of V. yedoensis grown under different light intensities(100%, 80%, 50%, 35% and 5% of full sunlight) on mice body temperature, thermal radiation and the swelling degree of foot tissue before and after modeling observing by thermal infrared imaging technique and weighing method. The changes of energy metabolism related enzymes in liver were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). In addition, the effects of V. yedoensis grown under different light intensities on human lung cancer cell A549 proliferation were explored with MTT method. The results showed that the body temperature of all groups of mice in V. yedoensis group were significantly lower than that of the blank group, except 5% full sunlight group, and the body temperature declined in positive proportion to light intensity. V. yedoensis group could alleviate foot swelling, reduce SDH activity in liver tissue(especially 100% full sunlight group and 80% full sunlight group were significantly lower than model group), and the degree of alleviating and reducing was positively correlated with light intensity. There was no significant difference in the activity of Na~+-K~+-ATPase and Ca~(2+)-Mg~(2+)-ATPase in liver tissue among treatments. The contents of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, PGE_2 in foot tissue of mice in V. yedoensis groups were significantly lower than those in model group. Among them, the lowest levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, PGE_2 were found in 80% full sunlight group, and there was no significant difference in TNF-α among different groups. The effects of V. yedoensis aqueous extract on A549 cell line proliferation inhibition rate increased with the light intensities of V. yedoensis cultivating environment. And the effects of V. yedoensis grown under 100% of full sunlight showed significantly higher A549 cell line proliferation inhibition rate compared with other groups(P<0.05). In summary, the light intensity of V. yedoensis cultivating environment is positively correlated with the cleaning away heat property of V. yedoensis, which conforms to the "light-cold and heat property" hypothesis,The V. yedoensis should be planted under full light according.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hot Temperature , Inflammation , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Viola
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878855

ABSTRACT

Light energy is an important factor affecting plant growth. The hypothesis of "light-cold and heat property" holds that the original plants of traditional Chinese medicines(TCM) with cold property can obtain more energy to maintain growth in high light intensity environment, whereas the original plants of TCM with heat property prefer weak light environment. The current experiment investigated the effects of different light intensities on primary metabolites levels, energy levels, cell apoptosis, and leaves ultrastructure of Viola yedoensis, the original plants of TCM Violae Herba with cold property. There were five treatment groups of V. yedoensis, which was planted under Li1(8 500 lx),Li2(7 250 lx),Li3(6 000 lx),Li4(4 750 lx),Li5(3 500 lx)LEDs light intensity conditions, respectively. After harvest, primary metabolites levels, contents of ATP, ADP, AMP, activities of ATP synthesis and hydrolysis related enzyme, as well as cell apoptosis activation degree were measured, and transmission electron microscopy technique was used to observe leaves ultrastructure. The results showed that the total sugar, total protein, contents of ATP, ADP and AMP, activities of NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome C reductase, ATP synthase and ATP hydrolase were positively correlated with light intensities(P<0.05). The crude fat content, activities of SDH and CCO enzyme showed a trend of increasing first and then decreasing, the highest value were found in Li2 group and Li3 group respectively(P<0.05). The vitality of caspase-3 and caspase-9 was negatively correlated with light intensities(P<0.05). The structure of chloroplast and mitochondria were normal and intact in Li1-Li3 groups, and the damage degree of Li4 and Li5 groups increased with the decrease of light intensities. The analysis of results indicated that the structure of chloroplast and mitochondria of V. yedoensis is normal under the light intensity of 6 000-8 500 lx, which can obtain more energy to maintain its growth and metabolism. When the light intensity is lower than 4 750 lx, the chloroplast morphology and mitochondrial membrane are damaged, affecting the metabolism of material and energy. There was no significant difference in energy charge of V. yedoensis in the light intensity range of 3 500~8 500 lx. The effect of light intensity on energy metabolism of V. yedoensis accords with the hypothesis of "light-cold and heat property".


Subject(s)
Chloroplasts , Energy Metabolism , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Leaves , Viola
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773195

ABSTRACT

Three Chrysanthemum-chalcone-isomerase genes( CmCHI) were successfully cloned by PCR from the database of Chrysanthemum transcriptome and named CmCHI1,CmCHI2 and CmCHI3,respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the base numbers of CmCHI1-3 open reading frame were 708,633 and 681 bp,encoding 235,210 and 226 amino acids,respectively. Three fusion proteins of about 30 kDa were successfully induced by prokaryotic expression technology,and the corresponding recombinant fusion proteins were isolated and purified by Ni-NTA resin column. Clustering analysis showed that the 3 CmCHI were homologous with Compositae plants,and CmCHI1 and CmCHI3 belonged to type Ⅰ CHI. CmCHI2 belongs to type Ⅳ CHI. Using β-actin as an internal reference gene,RT-qPCR was used to detect and analyze the expression of CmCHI1-3 genes in Hangju. The results showed that the expression levels of CmCHI1 and CmCHI3 were higher,while the expression levels of CmCHI2 were lower. It was concluded that CmCHI1 and CmCHI3 were the main chalcone isomerase genes involved in the synthesis of flavonoids in Hangju,and CmCHI2 was a helper gene. Flooding treatment significantly promoted the expression of CmCHI1 and CmCHI3 genes,but had no regulatory effect on CmCHI2. The above results provided a basis for further study of the molecular regulation mechanism of CHI gene in the metabolism of flavonoids in Hangju,which laid a foundation for improving the content of flavonoids in Hangju and finally improving the medicinal quality of Hangju.


Subject(s)
Chrysanthemum , Genetics , Cloning, Molecular , Intramolecular Lyases , Genetics , Plant Proteins , Genetics
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777514

ABSTRACT

To provide theoretical basis for the formation of Chrysanthemum indicum resource and quality,the differences in biology,ecology,yield and quality of Ch. indicum population in the wild tending,the cultivated and the wild were analyzed and compared in this study. The results showed that in the aspect of biology,there was no significant difference between the condition of wild tending and cultivated Ch. indicum at the height of plant,both were significantly higher than wild Ch. indicum. In the aspect of ecology,in the condition of wild tending is less likely to occur water logging than cultivated Ch. indicum. In the condition of wild tending is less likely to occur plant diseases and insect pests than Ch. indicum in the condition of wild. In the aspect of production,the average output of the sample of the condition of wild tending was significantly higher than that the condition of artificial cultivation and wild quadrat. There was no significant difference between the three kinds of condition on the traits of capitulum dichasium,the content of buddleoside of the wild tending Ch. indicum was significantly higher than that of 0. 80% required by the Chinese Pharmacopoeia( 2015 edition). Therefore,the artificial supplement and the appropriate artificial management of wild tending is a mode of production to increase the population density of Ch. indicum and obtain high quality and high yield medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Chrysanthemum , Water
11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777513

ABSTRACT

The Cd stress of Chrysanthemum indicum was treated by different concentrations of Cd Cl2 solution in the culture substrate. The content of Cd in different parts of Ch. indicum and the content of buddleoside and the total flavonoids in Ch. indicum were determined. The absorption characteristics of Cd elements in Ch. indicum were analyzed. And the influence of Cd elements on the quality of the herbs. The results showed that the application of soil Cd in the range of 0-100 mg·kg~(-1) had no significant effect on the biomass of Ch. indicum,and the root-shoot ratio showed a decreasing-increasing-decreasing trend. The content of Cd in different parts of Ch. indicum was significantly different,and the content of aboveground part was higher than that of underground part. The enrichment factors of Cd elements in different parts of Ch. indicum are different. The enrichment coefficient of aboveground parts is larger than that of underground parts. The whole parts and plants show an increase first and then decrease,and the overall enrichment factor is greater than1. The transfer coefficient of the aerial part/underground part of Ch. indicum showed a decreasing-increasing-decreasing-increasing trend with the increase of the amount of Cd applied in the soil,and the transfer coefficient was higher than 1. The contents of buddleoside and total flavonoids in Ch. indicum after Cd stress treatment were lower than the control,and the overall performance was lower and then increased,but it was still significantly lower than the control,indicating that Cd pollution directly led to the decrease of chemical quality of Ch. indicum.


Subject(s)
Cadmium , Chrysanthemum , Flavonoids , Soil , Soil Pollutants
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777512

ABSTRACT

This experiment studied the expression pattern of key gene CO in the photoperiod of Chrysanthemum indicum. The CDS sequence of the Ch. indicum CO gene was cloned by RT-PCR. The open reading frame was 1 380 bp in length and encoded 459 amino acids. The bioinformatics analysis results showed that the Ch. indicum CO had higher homology with Ch. lavandulifolium and Artemisia annua,and the CO was more conservative in the same family. The molecular weight of the predicted protein encode by CO is 52. 04 k Da,the p I is 4. 81,the α-helix structure accounted for 17. 65%,the random coil accounted for 76. 69%,the extension chain accounted for 5. 66%,there are no β-fold and signal peptide. The experimental results showed that short-day treatment could increase the expression level of CO gene in Ch. indicum and induce its flowering. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the relative expression of CO gene in different tissues and different treatment periods of Ch. indicum was significantly different. In this paper,we studied the effect of short-day treatment on the expression of key genes in the flowering cycle of Ch. indicum,providing a basis for photoperiod regulation and harvesting period of Ch.indicum.


Subject(s)
Chrysanthemum , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777511

ABSTRACT

DNA barcode technology was used to establish a rapid identification method of Chrysanthemum indicum based on ITS2 sequences. The total DNA was extracted from 22 collected samples,and the ITS2 sequence was amplified by PCR and sequenced,and the information of ITS2 sequence was obtained. Another 14 items of the same family or the same genus were downloaded from Gen Bank.We aligned all 36 sequences,calculated the intraspecific and interspecific distances,and constructed Neighbor Joining( NJ) phylogenetic tree,using MEGA 7. 0. The difference of the secondary structure between the ITS2 sequences was compared. The results showed that the genetic distance of Ch. indicum and Ch. morifolium was overlapped,but the maximum intraspecific distance was far less than the minimum interspecific distance between and among Ch. indicum and other species,with an obvious barcoding gap. The NJ tree showed that Ch. indicum and Ch. morifolium shared a clade,and most of Ch. morifolium with some Ch. indicum were shared a subclade,while Inula lineariifolia,Sinosenecio oldhamianus and Senecio scandens belonged to one clade separately. ITS2 secondary structures for I. lineariifolia,S. oldhamianus and S. scandens were significantly different enough to identify completely but Ch. indicum and Ch. morifolium shared two secondary structures of A and B. It was proved that Ch. indicum was one of the evolutionary sources of Ch.morifolium. Therefore ITS2 sequence as DNA barcode can identify Ch. indicum and its adulterants accurately and quickly. The study provides an important basis for Ch. indicum for the identification of germplasm resources and the safety of clinical medication.


Subject(s)
Chrysanthemum , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Plant , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Phylogeny , Quality Control
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777510

ABSTRACT

DNA barcode technology was used to establish a rapid identification method of Chrysanthemum indicum and Ch. morifolium based on psbA-trn H,mat K and trn L sequences. The total DNA was extracted from 21 samples collected,and the psbA-trn H,mat K,trn L sequences were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The information of these sequences were obtained. We aligned all 63 sequences,calculated the intraspecific and interspecific distances,analysed the SNPs distribution of psbA-trn H+mat K+trn L combination sequences and constructed the Neighbor-joining( NJ) Tree,using MEGA 7. 0. The results showed that the genetic distances of Ch. indicum,Ch. indicum( Juhuanao)and Ch. morifolium were overlapped. The SNPs analysis of psbA-trn H+mat K+trn L combination sequences showed that there were 19 nucleotide polymorphism loci( SNPs) and nine parsim-informative sites in the combination sequences. In addition,Ch. indicum showed more obvious sequence polymorphism than those of Ch. indicum( Juhuanao) and Ch. morifolium. The psbA-trn H sequences showed obvious length variation.The NJ Tree showed that Ch. morifolium numbered C2-C5 were clustered into a single subbranch with a bootstrap value of 62%,and Ch.morifolium could be distinguished from Ch. indicum and Ch. indicum( Juhuanao). Moreover,Ch. indicum numbered Z9 and Z10 collected from Gansu province were singly clustered into one branch with a bootstrap value of 77%. It was also found that the changes of psbA-trn H and trn L sequences information of Ch. indicum samples from the northwest were obviously related to the geography and environment. Moreover,Ch.indicum and Ch. indicum( Juhuanao) had obvious differentiation,were also regarded as the evolutionary sources of Ch. morifolium. Therefore,psbA-trn H+mat K+trn L combination sequences as DNA barcode can identify Ch. indicum and Ch. morifolium accurately and rapidly,which provides an important basis for germplasm resources identification and species identification.


Subject(s)
Chrysanthemum , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , DNA, Plant , Phylogeny , Trees
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774581

ABSTRACT

The study is aimed to investigate the effects of light intensities on growth,photosynthetic physiology,antioxidant systems and chemical composition of Viola yedoensis and provide cultivation references for V.yedoensis.Five groups of V.yedoensis were planted under five light intensities conditions,namely 100%,80%,50%,35%,5%of full sunlight,and then morphological index,growth,chlorophyll fluorescence parameters,photosynthetic parameters and antioxidant enzyme system indexes were measured during harvest.The results showed that there was no significant difference in the biomass of V.yedoensis among 35% -100%full sunlight,but the biomass of those were significantly higher than that in the 5%full sunlight treatment(P<0.05).The net photosynthetic rate,transpiration rate,stomatal conductance,intercellular CO_2 concentration and water use efficiency increased firstly and then decreased with the decrease of light intensity;F_m,F_v/F_mand Yield in 5% full sunlight treatment were significantly lower than those in the other four groups(P<0.05).The structure of chloroplast was normal under light intensity ranged from 50%to 100% full sunlight.The lamellar concentration of chloroplast matrix decreased and the starch granules decreased in 35% full sunlight treatment,and the margin of lamellar layer of chloroplast and substrate were blurred,and the starch granules were small and the number of starch granules decreased significantly under 5% full sunlight.MDA content in 5%full sunlight treatment was significantly higher than those in the other four groups(P<0.05).The total coumarin content and total flavonoid content decreased with the decrease of light intensity.In summary,the light in-tensity range suitable for the growth of V.yedoensis is wide(ranging from 35% to 100% full sunlight).The content of flavonoids and coumarins is positively correlated with light intensity.


Subject(s)
Biomass , Chlorophyll , Chloroplasts , Photosynthesis , Plant Leaves , Sunlight , Viola
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773727

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to explores the effects of short-term addition of 17β-E2 on the growth,gonad development and internal quality of overwintering Whitmania pigra. Before overwintering,0. 0,1. 0,10. 0,25. 0,50. 0,100. 0 μg·L~(-1) of 17β-E2 were added to the aquaculture water for 6 weeks and then hibernated for 60 days. The changes of growth performance,gonad index,morphological structure of spermary( ovary),endogenous steroid hormones level and internal quality were measured. The results showed that the body weight,weight gain rate,specific growth rate,female gonad index,oocyte development and endogenous estrogen level of the leech increased first and then decreased with the increase of the concentration of exogenous 17β-E2,which were higher than those of the control group. The body weight,weight gain rate and specific growth rate of the leech at the concentration of 25 μg·L~(-1)17β-E2 were significantly higher than those of the other groups( P<0. 05),oocyte development and endogenous estrogen levels were significantly higher than those of other groups at the concentration of 50 μg·L~(-1)( P<0. 05). When the concentration of exogenous 17β-E2 was higher than 50 μg·L~(-1),the levels of male gonad index,spermatocyte development,endogenous androgen and progesterone were significantly inhibited( P< 0. 05). There was no significant difference in endogenous corticosteroid levels among the groups. In conclusion,short-term addition of exogenous 17β-E2 of 10-25 μg·L~(-1) could promote the growth of overwintering leeches,oocyte development and antithrombin activity without inhibiting the development of male gonads.


Subject(s)
Androgens , Animals , Estradiol , Pharmacology , Estrogens , Female , Gonads , Hibernation , Leeches , Male , Progesterone
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773726

ABSTRACT

Inula japonica was used as the research object, "3414" fertilization experiment were conducted to study the effects of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium formula fertilizer on the growth and chemical composition content of I. japonica. The characteristics of fertilizer requirement were preliminarily revealed and the study provided fertilization guidance for artificial cultivation of I. japonica. The results showed that different nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium formula fertilizers had significant effects on plant morphology,physiological and biochemical indexes,dry matter accumulation and chemical composition content. The growth indexes and chemical components of I. japonica showed an upward trend with the increase of fertilization amount,especially the nitrogen fertilizer was the most significant. The indicators were analyzed by membership function. After comprehensive evaluation,the optimal nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium formula fertilization level was N3 P2 K2,namely high level nitrogen fertilizer,medium level phosphorus fertilizer and potassium fertilizer. I. japonica is a high fertilizer demand plant,and the rational fertilization scheme is " applying nitrogen fertilizer again and applying phosphorus and potassium fertilizer properly".


Subject(s)
Fertilizers , Inula , Chemistry , Nitrogen , Chemistry , Phosphorus , Chemistry , Potassium , Chemistry
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690708

ABSTRACT

The effects of four kinds of different plant populations on the morphology, the dry matter accumulation, active ingredient content and antioxidant activty in vitro of Salvia miltiorrhiza were analyzed by setting up four kinds of mixed planting groups, such as S. miltiorrhiza and Cassia obtusifolia, Capsicum annuum, Perilla frutescens and Zea mays. And through the root isolation treatment, we preliminarily explored the formation mechanism of the four kinds of matching plants of the yield and quality of S. miltiorrhiza, and chose the matching plants suitable for the establishment of the compound population with S. miltiorrhiza,and provided the basis for constructing high efficiency compound planting pattern of S. miltiorrhiza. The results showed that there were significant differences in plant morphology, dry matter accumulation of root, active ingredient content and antioxidant activty in vitro of S. miltiorrhiza in different compound population mixed. The growth and yield of S. miltiorrhiza were unfavorable to the combination planting of Cassia obtusifolia, Z. mays and Salvia miltiorrhiza.The compound planting of P. frutescens and S. miltiorrhiza significantly promoted the growth of S. miltiorrhiza, but significantly reduced the quality of S. miltiorrhiza.The yield and quality of S. miltiorrhiza were significantly improved by the combination of C. annuum and S. miltiorrhiza. Therefore, among the four plants of C. obtusifolia, C. annuum, P. frutescens, and Z. mays, the P. frutescens of Solanaceae is the best matching species for the construction of compound planting group with S. miltiorrhiza.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690678

ABSTRACT

The current study was conducted to explore the relationship between property of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and the light conditions of their original plant in habitats and advance a "light-cold and heat property" hypothesis under the guidance of theory of TCM. In the present study, we selected 127 common Chinese herbs. Association rules mining method was used to find out the association relationship between the cold-heat properties of different TCM and the habitats of their original plant, while using statistical methods to analyze the correlation between light condition and cold-heat property of TCM based on the description of the habitats in the Flora of China and investigation. The results showed that the habitats associated to TCM with cold property are in the order of grassland>curb>hillside>wasteland>gully>farmland>riverside. The habitats that associated to TCM with heat property are: undergrowth>shrub>gully>jungle. For 68 TCMs with cold property, 81.2% of their original plants are light-demanding, 8.7% are shade-demanding, and 8.7% of them showed no obvious light preference. For 59 TCMs with heat property, 62.7% of their original plants are shade-demanding, 20.3% are shade-demanding, and 17.0% of them showed no obvious light preference. Meanwhile, Chi-square test showed that there was a significant difference between the cold-heat property and light preference (<0.01). In summary, there is a significant correlation between the light preference of TCM original plants and their cold-heat properties. In order to ensure the pharmacological effect of TCM, the relationship between the light conditions and the properties of TCM should be considered in the cultivation of medicinal plants for TCM.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-690537

ABSTRACT

To study the effects of ingestion on antithrombin activities in different tissues of Whitmania pigra, the salivary glands, ingluvies, intestine and muscle of adult leeches were weighted on the 1st d, 3rd d, 5th d, 7th d and 11th d after feeding, respectively, and meanwhile antithrombin activity was measured by antithrombin titration method. The results showed that the antithrombin activity of salivary glands in different stages was significantly higher than that in other tissues (<0.05). The activity of antithrombin in muscle tissue increased initially and then decreased with the prolongation of the time after feeding, and the peak was observed on the 5th day after feeding (<0.05). The activity of antithrombin in the salivary glands, gluvies and intestine were found the highest on the 1st day after feeding(<0.05), and then gradually decreased with the prolongation of the time of stopping the diet. The total amount of antithrombin activity on the 5th day was increased by 49.5%, 73.5%, 69.1% and 126.0% comparing with the 1st, 3rd, 7th and 11th day after feeding, respectively (<0.05). In summary, both the feeding behavior and the food can induce the secretion of anticoagulant substances in the salivary glands and the digestive tract. The total amount of antithrombin activity was the highest on the 5th day after feeding and the 5th day after feeding was suggested as harvesting time.

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