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1.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 6294-6306, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1008828

ABSTRACT

Excessive and persistent inflammatory responses are a potential pathological condition that can lead to diseases of various systems, including nervous, respiratory, digestive, circulatory, and endocrine systems. Cannabinoid type 2 receptor(CB2R) belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor family and is widely distributed in immune cells, peripheral tissues, and the central nervous system. It plays a role in inflammatory responses under various pathological conditions. The down-regulation of CB2R activity is an important marker of inflammation and and CB2R modulators have been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects. This study explored the relationship between CB2R and inflammatory responses, delved into its regulatory mechanisms in inflammatory diseases, and summarized the research progress on CB2R modulators from plants other than cannabis, including plant extracts and monomeric compounds, in exerting anti-inflammatory effects. The aim is to provide new insights into the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases.


Subject(s)
Cannabinoid Receptor Modulators/pharmacology , Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists/pharmacology , Receptors, Cannabinoid , Cannabinoids/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology
2.
Chinese Pharmacological Bulletin ; (12): 1346-1353, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1013756

ABSTRACT

Aim To investigate the protective effect of orcinol glucoside on dexamethasone(DEX)-induced osteoblast injury and its mechanism. Methods Primary osteoblasts were extracted from calvaria of neonatal mice and cultured in medium with DEX(1 μmol•L

3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1727-1737, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879086

ABSTRACT

Methotrexate(MTX) is a commonly used antimetabolite, which can be used in the treatment of a variety of diseases. However, hepatotoxicity in the use of MTX severely limits its clinical use. Therefore, how to prevent and treat hepatotoxicity of MTX has become an urgent clinical problem. This paper summarizes and analyzes relevant literatures on the prevention and treatment of hepa-totoxicity caused by MTX with traditional Chinese medicines and natural medicines in recent years. MTX-induced hepatotoxicity mechanisms include folate pathway, oxidative stress damage and adenosine pathway, of which oxidative stress theory is the main research direction. A total of 14 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine and natural medicine extracts including white peony root, and 21 kinds of natural monomer compounds, including berberine, play an anti-MTX-induced hepatotoxic effect by resisting oxidative stress, inhibiting inflammation and regulating signal pathways. According to current studies on the prevention and treatment of hepatotoxicity induced by MTX with traditional Chinese medicines and natural medicines, there are insufficiencies, such as partial and superficial mechanism studies, inadequate combination of experimental research and clinical practice, non-standard experimental design and lack of application of advanced technologies and methods. This paper systematically reviewed the effects and mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicines and natural medicines against hepatotoxicity induced by MTX and defined current studies and deficiencies, in the expectation of proposing new study strategies and directions and providing scientific basis for rational clinical use of MTX and development of new drugs against MTX hepatotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/prevention & control , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Liver/metabolism , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Methotrexate/toxicity , Oxidative Stress
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3824-3831, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888104

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to provide the protection strategies for wild germplasm resources of original plants of Viticis Fructus and a theoretical basis for the sustainable use of Viticis Fructus. The genetic diversity and genetic structures of the 232 indivi-duals in 19 populations of Vitex rotundifolia and V. trifolia were analyzed by eight SSR markers with tools such as Popgene32, GenAlex 6.502, and STRUCTURE. Bottleneck effect was detected for the population with more than 10 individuals. The results indicated that 42 and 26 alleles were detected from the populations of V. rotundifolia and V. trifolia, respectively, with average expected heterozygo-sities of 0.448 6 and 0.583 9, which are indicative of low genetic diversity. AMOVA revealed the obvious genetic variation of V. rotundifolia and V. trifolia within population(84.43%, P<0.01; 60.37%, P<0.01). Furthermore, in eight SSR loci, six from V. rotundifolia populations and two from V. trifolia populations failed to meet Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations(P<0.05), which confirmed that the populations experienced bottleneck effect. As assessed by Mantel test, geographical distance posed slight impacts on the genetic variation between the populations of V. rotundifolia and V. trifolia. Principal component analysis(PCA) and STRUCTURE analysis demonstrated evident introgression of genes among various populations. The original plants of Viticis Fructus were confirmed low in genetic diversity and genetic differentiation level. Therefore, the protection of wild resources of original plants of Viticis Fructus should be strengthened to ensure its sustainable use.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Fruit/genetics , Genetic Variation , Geography , Microsatellite Repeats , Vitex/genetics
5.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3540-3550, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888005

ABSTRACT

Cannabinoid receptor type 2( CB2 R),a member of the G protein-coupled receptor( GPCR) superfamily,has a variety of biological activities,such as regulating pain response,resisting inflammation and fibrosis,and mediating bone metabolism. Some CB2 R regulators exhibit a good regulatory effect on bone metabolism. Cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa can cause psychoactive effects despite various pharmacological actions they exerted by targeting CB2 R. Therefore,it is of great significance to discover CB2 R regulators in non-Cannabis plants for finding new lead compounds without psychoactive effects and elucidating the action mechanism of plant drugs. The present study clarifies the discovery,structure,and physiological functions of CB2 R,especially its regulatory effects on bone metabolism,summarized CB2 R regulators extracted from non-Cannabis plants,and systematically analyzes the regulatory effects of CB2 R regulators on bone metabolism in animals,osteoblasts,and osteoclasts,to provide a scientific basis for the discovery of new CB2 R regulators and the development of anti-osteoporotic drugs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cannabinoids/pharmacology , Cannabis , Osteoblasts , Osteoclasts , Receptors, Cannabinoid
6.
Chinese journal of integrative medicine ; (12): 31-38, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880494

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To systematically evaluate the protective effects of Humulus lupulus L. extract (HLE) on osteoporosis mice.@*METHODS@#In vivo experiment, a total of 35 12-week-old female ICR mice were equally divided into 5 groups: the sham control group (sham); the ovariectomy with vehicle group (OVX); the OVX with estradiol valerate [EV, 0.2 mg/(kg•d)] the OVX with low- or high-dose HLE groups [HLE, 1 g/(kg•d) and 3 g/(kg•d)], 7 in each group. Treatment began 1 week after the ovariectomized surgery and lasted for 12 weeks. Bone mass and trabecular bone mircoarchitecture were evaluated by micro computed tomography, and bone turnover markers in serum were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. In vitro experiment, osteoblasts and osteoclasts were treated with HLE at doses of 0, 4, 20 and 100 µg/mL. Biomarkers for bone formation in osteoblasts and bone resorption in osteoclasts were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the OVX group, HLE exerted bone protective effects by the increase of estradiol (P<0.05), the improvement of cancellous bone structure, bone mineral density (P<0.01) and the reduction of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), bone gla-protein, c-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX-I) and deoxypyridinoline levels (P<0.01 for all). In vitro experiment, compared with the control group, HLE at 20 µg/mL promoted the cell proliferation (P<0.01), and increased the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteopontin levels in osteoblasts (both P<0.05). HLE at 100 µg/mL increased the osteoblastic ALP activities, and HLE at all dose enhanced the extracellular matrix mineralization (both P<0.01). Furthermore, compared with the control group, HLE at 20 µg/mL and 100 µg/mL inhibited osteoclastic TRAP activity (P<0.01), and reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and cathepsin K (both P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#HLE may protect against bone loss, and have potentials in the treatment of osteoporosis.

7.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 401-416, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827229

ABSTRACT

Rubus chingii Hu, a member of the rosaceae family, is extensively distributed in China and Japan. Its unripe fruits (Fupenzi in Chinese) have a long history of use as an herbal tonic in traditional Chinese medicine for treating various diseases commonly associated with kidney deficiency, and they are still in use today. Phytochemical investigations on the fruits and leaves of R. chingii indicate the presence of terpenoids, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids, phenylpropanoids, phenolics, and organic acids. Extracts or active substances from this plant are reported to have various pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antifungal, antithrombotic, antiosteoporotic, hypoglycemic, and central nervous system-regulating effects. This review provides up-to-date information on the botanical characterizations, traditional usages, chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, toxicity, and quality control of R. chingii. Possible directions for future research are also briefly proposed. This review aims to supply fundamental data for the further study of R. chingii and contribute to the development of its clinical use.

8.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1100-1106, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779976

ABSTRACT

This study was designed to investigate the effects of icariin on bone metabolism in osteoprotic mice induced by iron overload, the model of iron overload mice was established by intraperitoneal injection of iron dextran (100 mg·kg-1). Sixty 2-month-old C57/BL6 male mice were randomly divided into six groups, including normal control group, model group, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC)-treated group, icariin (50, 100 and 200 mg·kg-1)-treated group. Except for the mice in control group, the mice were intraperitoneal injected weekly with iron dextran (100 mg·kg-1) to establish the model of iron overload mice. The NAC and icariin were suspended in 0.5% CMC-Na solution, and administered orally for six times one week according to body weight. The mice in normal group and model group were given the same volume of 0.5% CMC-Na solution. Three months later, the organs, serum and femurs of mice were collected. Serum biochemical parameters were detected with an ELISA kit, the distal femur bone density and trabecular bone microstructure were analyzed by Micro-CT, and the mechanical properties of femur were measured by universal mechanical analyzer. Compared with the normal control group, iron overload decreased the bone mineral density and deteriorated the micro-architecture structure and bone mechanical properties in femur of mice, increased the level of iron, phosphorus and activity of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRACP-5b), reduced the level of osteocalcin (OCN) in serum, decreased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) of liver tissues, increased the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) of liver tissues. Icariin increased bone mineral density, improved the micro-architecture and mechanical properties of bone tissue, reduced the levels of iron and phosphorus, decreased the activity of TRACP-5b and enhanced the levels of OCN in serum, and also decreased the activity of MDA in liver tissue of iron overload mice. These results suggest that icariin is able to reduce bone loss and improve bone microstructure and mechanical properties in iron overload mice through regulation of bone metabolism via anti-oxidation.

9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1825-1829, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-256087

ABSTRACT

Hops, the female inflorescences of the hop plant (Humulus lupulus), are widely used in the brewing industry to add bitterness and aroma to beer. Combining with the relevant literature, the chemical composition(resinae, volatile oil, polyphenol and polysaccharide) in hops and their pharmacological effects are reviewed in this paper so as to present some sights for further application research and development.

10.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 936-942, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779677

ABSTRACT

Cathepsin K (CTSK) is considered a critical pharmaceutical target in the treatment of osteoporosis. CTSK exerts proteolytic activities against regulatory proteins besides its collagenase function, which may account for some of the adverse reactions when blocked by active site-directed inhibitors. Exosite inhibitors that can discriminate between the therapeutic collagenase and other biological activities of CTSK specifically inhibit the collagenase activity of CTSK without interfering with the other proteolytic activities of the protease. Active recombinant CTSK was expressed in Pichia pastoris, and purified by n-butyl sepharose and SP sepharose column chromatography. Herba Ecliptae is a common traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of bone diseases. Collagenase assay and benzyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Arg-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin (Z-FR-MCA) substrate assay based on CTSK are applied to verify the exosite inhibitors. n-Butanol extract of Herba Ecliptae are the most active fraction and eclalbasaponin IX isolated from n-butanol fraction is the potential exosite inhibitor of CTSK.

11.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 413-420, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812616

ABSTRACT

There is an increasing interest in phytoestrogens due to their potential medical usage in hormone replacement therapy (HRT). The present study was designed to investigate the in vitro effects of estrogen-like activities of two widespread coumarins, osthole and imperatorin, using the MCF-7 cell proliferation assay and their alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in osteoblasts Saos-2 cells. The two compounds were found to strongly stimulate the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. The estrogen receptor-regulated ERα, progesterone receptor (PR) and PS2 mRNA levels were increased by treatment with osthole and imperatorin. All these effects were significantly inhibited by the specific estrogen receptor antagonist ICI182, 780. Cell cycle analysis revealed that their proliferation stimulatory effect was associated with a marked increase in the number of MCF-7 cells in S phase, which was similar to that observed with estradiol. It was also observed that they significantly increased ALP activity, which was reversed by ICI182,780. These results suggested that osthole and imperatorin could stimulate osteoblastic activity by displaying estrogenic properties or through the ER pathway. In conclusion, osthole and imperatorin may represent new pharmacological tools for the treatment of osteoporosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Alkaline Phosphatase , Genetics , Metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation , Cnidium , Chemistry , Coumarins , Pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Furocoumarins , Pharmacology , MCF-7 Cells , Osteoblasts , Cell Biology , Phytoestrogens , Pharmacology , Receptors, Estrogen , Genetics , Metabolism
12.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 66-72, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812448

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids are a large group of phenolic secondary metabolites havinga wide range of biochemical and pharmacological effects. Quantitative analysis of flavonoid profiles in the genus Actinidia, which has not been intensively conducted, is useful to a better understanding of the pattern and distribution of flavonoids. In the present work, a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method was developed to profile the flavonoids, which was then used to determine the dynamic change of 17 biologically active flavonoids in the leaves of Actinidia valvata at the main growing stages, including glucuronides and acylated di- and triglycosides of flavonoids. The contents of flavonoid triglycosides were significantly higher than other flavonoids. The highest concentrations of kaemperol glycosides were observed in June, while other flavonoids showed highest concentrations in October. On the other hand, the contents of four isorhamnetin glycosides were increased sharply in September to October. The flavonoid profiles seem to be related to temperature, UV-B, and water deficit. Further studies are required to examine the functions of flavonoids in the Actinidia valvata and the underlying molecular mechanisms of actions.


Subject(s)
Actinidia , Chemistry , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Flavonoids , Chemistry , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Seasons , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Methods , Ultraviolet Rays
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4526-4531, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-341785

ABSTRACT

Phytoestrogens, which can bind with estrogen receptor and produce estrogen-like effects, are a kind of nonsteroidal compound in plant. Phytoestrogens chemically include isoflavones, coumarins, lignans and other compounds. Phytoestrogens are selective estrogen receptor modulator, and have therapeutical effects on breast cancer, prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease, menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis and other disease, however, do not produce stimulatory hyperplasia effects on uterus, mammary glands and other tissues and organs with positive estrogen receptor. Long-term exposure or excessive use of phytoestrogens maybe affects male reproductive system and hematopoietic function of fetus. Some questions need to be further studied, such as evaluation criteria on biological activity, adverse effects, and action mechanism of phytoestrogen. This review covers plant sources, chemical structure, pharmacological activity and safety of phytoestrogens. It will provide a useful reference for intensive research and rational utilization the phytoestrogens.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Phytoestrogens , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-131138

ABSTRACT

The optimization conditions for extraction of the lignans from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) including the proportion between ethanol and water (A), reflux time (B), extraction time (C) and solvent volume (D) were investigated through an orthogonal design of L₉(3⁴). HPLC was used to determine the schisandrin, deoxyschisandrin and \γ-schisandrin in the plant. It was found that the optimized conditions of extraction were refluxing twice with 95% ethanol, volume 10 times of the dried powder weight (ml) for 90 min. Additionally, adsorption capacity on macroporous resins, ratio of sample to solvent volume and elution of various concentrations of the ethanol extract for purification of the lignans were optimized in this study. From the results, the maximum adsorption capacities of schisandrin, deoxyschisandrin and \γ-schisandrin were found to be 0.16, 0.75 and 0.62 mg/g resin, respectively. The adsorbed processing at volume 8 BV and the ratio of sample to solvent volume of 10:125 was also obtained. Seventy percent ethanol was the most suitable eluent to get the highest yield of the lignans as adsorbed by the macroporous resin.

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