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1.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 650-656, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985541

ABSTRACT

Objective: based on summarizing the simulation and prediction of tobacco control measures across the globe and sorting out the various scenarios of tobacco control measures, the potential short-term effects of seven tobacco control measures in different scenarios were systematically analyzed. Methods: Until April 2022, PubMed, Embase, EconLit, PsychINFO, and CINAHL databases were used to retrieve literature about tobacco control measures simulation and prediction models across the globe. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were strictly followed. Meta-analysis for the potential short-term effects of seven tobacco control measures in different scenarios was performed using the R software. Results: A total of 22 papers covering 16 countries were selected. Five studies were conducted in the United States, three in Mexico, and two in Italy. There were all papers with the measures to tax increases, smoke-free air laws, and mass media campaigns, 21 papers with youth access restrictions, 20 with marketing restrictions, and 19 with cessation treatment programs and health warnings. The tax increases had diverse influences on the price elasticity of different age groups. The price elasticity in the age group 15-17 years was the highest, which was 0.044 (95%CI: 0.038-0.051). The potential short-term effects of smoke-free air laws in workplaces were higher than in restaurants and other indoor public places. The effects of youth access restrictions were greater in the age group <16 years than in the age group 16-17. The stronger the implementation of other measures, the greater the potential short-term effects. A comparison of seven tobacco control measures showed that the cessation treatment programs increase in cessation rate was the highest, 0.404 (95%CI: 0.357-0.456). The reduction in smoking rate and reduction in initiation rate of youth access restrictions strongly enforced and publicized was the highest in the age group <16 years, 0.292 (95%CI: 0.269-0.315), and 0.292 (95%CI: 0.270-0.316). Conclusions: The potential short-term effects of seven tobacco control measures in different scenarios were evaluated more accurately and objectively through Meta-analysis. In the short term, cessation treatment programs will substantially increase smoking cessation rates, and strong youth access enforcement will sharply reduce smoking and initiation rates among adolescents under 16. These results also offer strong data-related support for the simulation and prediction of tobacco control measures in China and other countries.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Humans , United States , Tobacco Control , Prevalence , Computer Simulation , Smoking Cessation , Health Behavior , Smoking Prevention
2.
Chinese Journal of Epidemiology ; (12): 587-591, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985531

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the differences between adults and children in the epidemic characteristics and clinical manifestations of chickenpox and provide a reference for the prevention strategy adjustment of chickenpox. Methods: The incidence data of chickenpox surveillance in Shandong Province from January 2019 to December 2021 were collected. Descriptive epidemiological methods were used to analyze the distribution of cases, and the chi-square test was used to compare the differences in epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations of varicella cases between adults and children. Results: A total of 66 182 cases of chickenpox were reported from 2019 to 2021, including 24 085 cases of adults chickenpox, the male to female sex ratio was 1∶1 (12 032∶12 053), basically the same for men and women, and 42 097 cases of children chickenpox, with a gender ratio of 1.4∶1, the male to female ratio was 1.4∶1 (24 699∶17 398). Fever in chickenpox cases was mainly low and moderate, but the proportion of moderate fever with temperature between 38.1 and 39.0 ℃ in children cases (35.0%,14 744/42 097) was significantly higher than that in adults (32.0%,7 696/24 085). The number of herpes in chickenpox cases was mainly less than 50, but the proportion of severe cases with 100-200 herpes in children was higher than that in adults. The incidence rate of complications was 1.4% (333/24 085) in adults chickenpox, the incidence rate of complications was 1.7% (731/42 097) in children chickenpox. The incidence of encephalitis and pneumonia in children was higher than in adults, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The proportion of chickenpox cases was mainly outpatient, but the hospitalization rate of children cases was 14.4% (6 049/42 097), higher than that of adults, which was 10.7% (2 585/24 085). Conclusions: There were differences between adult chickenpox and child chickenpox in terms of epidemic and clinical manifestations; the symptoms of child chickenpox were more serious than adult chickenpox. However, the adult chickenpox population is generally susceptible and lacks immune strategy protection, which calls for more attention.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Adult , Male , Female , Infant , Chickenpox/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Incidence , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Epidemics , Fever/epidemiology , Chickenpox Vaccine
3.
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 831-834, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-985482

ABSTRACT

China is rich in antimony, boron, and vanadium mineral resources, which have been detected in environmental water bodies and drinking water. During the revision process of the "Standards for Drinking Water Quality (GB5749-2006)", research and evaluation are focused on three indicators: antimony, boron and vanadium. Vanadium is added and the limit value of boron is adjusted. This study reviews and discusses the technical contents related to the revision of the antimony, boron and vanadium, including the environmental presence levels, exposure status, health effects, and the revision of the standard limits of these three indicators. Suggestions are also made for the implementation of this standard.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antimony , Boron/analysis , China , Drinking Water , Vanadium , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
4.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 217-222, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-996552

ABSTRACT

Objective: The spatial distribution model of particulate matter based on time change in a specific place was established to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics and movement of particulate matter. Methods: A convenience store was selected as the research subject. The micro-climate and particle number concentration (PNC) of the site were detected, and numerical simulation was carried out by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation method. Based on the discrete phase model, the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics and movement rules of simulated particles were analyzed. Results: The wind speed at the entrance of the convenience store was low and almost unchanged during the detection, while the wind speeds outside and inside outlets were high and changed sharply. The PNC of particle size of 0.02-1.00 μm was higher than that of particle size >1.00 μm (all P<0.05). The PNC with particle size of 0.02-1.00 μm from high to low were checkout counter, entrance, outer outlet and inner outlet (all P<0.05). The PNC of the checkout counter and entrance varies greatly, while the PNC of the outer outlet and inner outlet was relatively steady. The CFD simulation results showed that particles exhaled by individuals near the entrance of the checkout counter of the convenience store could be expelled outdoors more quickly with the influence of airflow. However, particles exhaled by individuals in the middle of the shelves remained suspended indoors for a longer period of time compared to those near the checkout counter. Particles emitted from the air conditioning outlet diffuse throughout the entire store and reach a steady state in 300 seconds. Conclusion: The particulate matter in the convenience store was mainly small particle with the size less than 1.00 μm. The residence time, downward trend and number of suspended particulates of human exhaled particles were related to air flow. The particulates escaped from the air conditioner could quickly spread to almost the entire convenience store.

5.
China Occupational Medicine ; (6): 133-139, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-996536

ABSTRACT

Objective: To analyze the current status of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs), work fatigue and musculoskeletal pain in Chinese occupational population, and to study the relationship between work fatigue and musculoskeletal pain and WMSDs. Methods: A total of 66 961 employees from 323 enterprises in 15 key industries in China were selected as the study subjects using stratified cluster sampling method. The incidence of WMSDs in the past year was investigated using the Chinese version of the Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire, and the work fatigue and musculoskeletal pain were investigated using Borg 6-20 Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale and visual analogue scale. The data were standardized using the age composition data of 18 to 60 years from the seventh national population census. Results: The standardized annual incidence of WMSDs was higher in the front-line workers than that in the administrative and other supportive staff (38.82% vs 36.30%). The detection rates of work fatigue and musculoskeletal pain in the study subjects were 44.54% and 63.08%, respectively. The result of S-curve fitting showed that the risk of WMSDs increased with the level of work fatigue (P<0.01). Among the front-line workers, the average of monthly fatigue frequency in the neck, shoulder, lower back, upper back, wrist/hand, foot and ankle, knee, leg, and elbow were higher in the group with WMSDs compared to those without WMSDs (all P<0.01). The pain degree of musculoskeletal pain was higher in all nine sites in the fatigued group than in the no-fatigue group (all P<0.01). The standardized detection rate of musculoskeletal pain was higher in the fatigued group than in the non-fatigued group (80.38% vs 25.71%). The work fatigue was moderate and positively correlated with musculoskeletal pain in all seven sites except the lower back and elbow, with Kendall Tau-b correlation coefficients ranging from 0.423 to 0.546 (all P<0.01). Conclusion: There is a good correlation between work fatigue and local musculoskeletal pain, work fatigue and WMSDs in Chinese occupational population. Implementing ergonomic interventions to control the development of work fatigue can be an effective measure for preventing WMSDs.

6.
Chinese Journal of Digestion ; (12): 447-452, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-995448

ABSTRACT

The standardized treatment of malignant tumor has always been the direction of continuous improvement of major medical institutions. In recent years, the basic research, prevention, screening and diagnosis and treatment level of gastric, gastroesophageal junction and esophageal cancer have been greatly improved, resulting in a significant improvement in the 5 years′ survival rate of patients, but there are still great differences in the diagnosis and treatment level among different regions. Chinese gastric cancer, gastroesophageal junction cancer and esophageal cancer differ greatly from European and American countries in etiology, pathological types, high incidence sites, etc. Therefore, the relevant guidelines of European and American countries cannot fully meet Chinese clinical practice. In 2021, Elsevier Publishing Group launched the Chinese edition of Elsevier clinical pathway for gastric, gastroesophageal junction and esophageal cancer, and the first update edition was made in 2022, which aims to promote the quality control of tumor diagnosis and treatment, standardize tumor diagnosis and treatment behaviors, promote the homogenization and standardization of tumor diagnosis and treatment, and ultimately improve the survival rate and quality of life of patients with malignant tumor. This pathway refers to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network clinical practice guidelines, the Chinese Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines, combines evidence-based medicine and clinical experience, and follows the scientific, universal, standardized and operable principles. It has been promoted and applied in clinical practice, and is constantly updated according to the latest research results.

7.
Chinese Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging ; (6): 566-570, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-993636

ABSTRACT

Brain glioma invariably relapses since the tumor is difficult to remove completely. Accurate identification of tumor subtypes and tracing of tumor boundaries intraoperatively are the key clinical issues. Raman spectroscopy has a good application prospect in the intraoperative diagnosis of brain glioma due to its advantages of nondestructive, label-free, histology imaging and high specificity. In this article, the research and application of Raman spectroscopy in the in vitro diagnosis and intraoperative navigation-related diagnosis and treatment of brain glioma are reviewed.

8.
Chinese Journal of Digestive Surgery ; (12): 736-741, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-990696

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the quality of surgical specimens of rectal cancer in the Chinese transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) registry collaborative (CTRC) database.Methods:The retrospective and descriptive study was conducted. Based on the concept of real-world research, the clinicopathological data of 1 761 patients with rectal cancer in the CTRC database who underwent taTME in 40 medical centers, including the Beijing Friendship Hospital of Capital Medical University et al, from November 15, 2017 to December 31, 2022 were collected. There were 1 212 males and 549 females, aged 62(range, 53-68)years. Observation indicators: (1) preoperative examinations; (2) neoadjuvant therapy; (3) postoperative examinations. Measurement data with skewed distri-bution were represented as M(range). Count data were described as absolute numbers. Results:(1) Preoperative examinations. Of the 1 761 patients, 1 324 patients underwent preoperative pelvic magnetic resonance imaging examination, and the results showed that 4 cases as clinical T0 stage, 30 cases as clinical T1 stage, 250 cases as clinical T2 stage, 828 cases as clinical T3 stage, 141 cases as clinical T4 stage, 11 cases as clinical Tx stage, 60 cases missing clinical T staging data, 490 cases as clinical N0 stage, 373 cases as clinical N1 stage, 311 cases as clinical N2 stage, 86 cases as clinical Nx stage, 64 cases missing clinical N staging data, 156 cases with mesorectal fascia invasion, 223 cases with extraintestinal blood vessels invasion. The distance from lower margin of tumor to anal margin of 1 324 patients was 50(range, 40-60)mm. (2) Neoadjuvant therapy. Of the 1 761 patients, 873 patients underwent neoadjuvant therapy, including 17 cases receiving radiotherapy alone, 155 cases receiving chemotherapy alone, 43 cases receiving short-course simultaneous chemoradiotherapy, 26 cases receiving short-course simultaneous chemoradiotherapy and delayed surgery, 1 case receiving contact radiotherapy, 277 cases receiving long-course simultaneous chemoradiotherapy, 9 cases receiving other treatments, and 345 cases missing neoadjuvant therapy data. (3) Postoperative examinations. Of the 1 761 patients, 1 584 cases achieved R 0 resection, 23 cases achieved R 1 resection, 1 case achieved R 2 resection, and there were 153 cases missing surgical margin data. The tumor diameter, number of lymph nodes harvest and positive rate of intravascular tumor thrombus were 30(range, 20-45)cm, 13(range, 10-17) and 20.794%(330/1 587) in 1 761 patients. There were 1 647 patients with circumferential margin records, which showed positive in 51 cases, and the minimum distance from deep part of tumor to circumferential margin was 5(rang, 3-13)mm in 1 647 patients. There were 547 cases with distal margin records, which showed positive in 4 cases, and the distance from lower margin of tumor to distal margin was 20(10-25)mm in 547 cases. There were 1 698 patients with specimen integrity records, which showed intact specimen in 1 436 cases, fair specimen in 233 cases, poor specimen in 8 cases, unevaluated specimen in 21 cases, and there were 20 cases with rectal tube perforation. Of the 1 761 patients, cases as pathological T0 stage, Tis stage, T1 stage, T2 stage, T3 stage, T4 stage was 103, 23, 145, 515, 712, 179, respectively, and there were 4 cases of pathology that could not be evaluated and 80 cases missing pathological T staging data. Of the 1 761 patients, cases as pathological N0 stage, N1a stage, N1b stage, N1c stage, N2a stage, N2b stage was 1 117, 189, 133, 66, 109, 68, respectively, and there were 79 cases missing pathological N staging data. Of the 1 761 patients, there were 79 cases with distant metastasis, 1 591 cases without distant metastasis, and 91 cases without data of tumor metastasis. Of the 873 patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy, there were 405 patients with tumor regression grade records including 105 cases as grade 1, 142 cases as grade 2, 91 cases as grade 3, 43 cases as grade 4, 24 cases as grade 5. Conclusions:In China, the quality of surgical specimens of taTME for rectal cancer is good with low positive rate of resection margin. It is recommended that using a formatted postoperative pathological report for good quality control of pathological report of surgical specimen.

9.
International Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine ; (6): 935-938, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989741

ABSTRACT

Precancerous lesions of gastric cancer (PLGC) is a pathological change accompanied by intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia on the basis of chronic atrophic gastritis. It is also an important stage of "inflammation-cancer transformation" on gastric mucosa. Paying attention to the intervention of PLGC has important value and significance for the secondary prevention of gastric cancer. PLGC has the characteristics of occult onset, toxin damaging collaterals, and long course of disease, which is highly consistent to the pathogenesis characteristics of incubative pathogenic factors. Based on the relevance of incubative pathogenic factors and PLGC, treatment of PLGC from the perspective of incubative pathogenic factors should be mainly strengthening the spleen and stomach, and combined with the methods of regulating qi and dissipating dampness, and removing blood stasis and detoxification. It should also pay attention to the prognosis.Paying attention to the body-mind treatment can reduce the re-occurrence , so as to provide a new way of thinking for treating PLGC from incubative pathogenic factors.

10.
International Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine ; (6): 604-611, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989666

ABSTRACT

Objective:The mechanism of Indigo Naturalis in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) was predicted by GEO chip combined with network pharmacology, and preliminarily verified by molecular docking. Methods:The main active components and targets of Indigo Naturalis were obtained by searching TCMSP, SymMap database, SwissTargetPrediction and Pharmmapper. The UC disease targets were obtained from DrugBank database, OMIM database, TTD database, Disgenet database and GEO gene chips. Venn diagram was used to show drug-disease common targets. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of intersection targets was analyzed by String platform, and Cytoscape 3.8.2 software was used to construct the PPI network of components and disease targets. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis were performed on the core targets. AutoDock Vina 1.2.1 was used for molecular docking, and the results were visualized by Discovery studio Visualizer. Results:A total of 10 active components and 184 compound targets of IN-UC, of which 42 were core targets, were enriched and analyzed by GO and KEGG. The therapeutic effect of Indigo Naturalis on UC may involve activation of various process, such as reactive oxygen species metabolism, heme binding, protein phosphatase binding, secretory granule exocytosis, cytoplasmic vesicles, cell focal adhesion and cell substrate connection, and regulates PI3K/Akt signal pathway, human cytomegalovirus infection signal pathway, EB virus infection signal pathway HF1 signaling pathway and insulin resistance signaling pathway to treat UC. Conlusion:Indigo Naturalis has the characteristics of multi-component, multi target and multi pathway in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Through PTGS2, CAT and other core targets, it can regulate PI3K/Akt signal pathway, human giant cell signal pathway, HIF-1 signal pathway to play a therapeutic role.

11.
International Journal of Cerebrovascular Diseases ; (12): 332-338, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-989234

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the correlation between serum uric acid to albumin ratio (UAR) and large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA), its severity and short-term outcome.Methods:Patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted to the Department of Neurology, the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University from September 2017 to August 2022 were retrospectively enrolled. They were classified into LAA and non-LAA according to the TOAST etiological criteria. Patients with LAA were further divided into mild stroke group (≤8) and moderate to severe stroke group (>8) according to the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score at admission, and good outcome group (≤2) and poor outcome group (>2) according to the modified Rankin Scale score at discharge. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the correlation between UAR and LAA, its severity and short-term outcome. The predictive value of UAR for poor outcomes in patients with LAA was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results:A total of 4 178 patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled, including 2 751 males (65.8%), aged 61.95±10.73 years. There were 2 000 (47.9%) patients with LAA, including 1 112 (55.6%) mild stroke and 888 (44.4%) moderate to severe stroke; 813 (40.65%) had good short-term outcomes and 1 187 (59.35%) had poor outcomes. UAR in the LAA group was significantly higher than that in the non-LAA group ( P<0.05). In patients with LAA, the UAR of the moderate to severe stroke group and the short-term poor outcome group were significantly higher than that of the mild stroke group and the short-term good outcome group, respectively (all P<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the UAR was an independent risk factor for LAA (odds ratio [ OR] 1.043, 95% confidence interval [ CI] 1.016-1.071; P=0.002), its severity ( OR 2.000, 95% CI 1.860-2.151; P<0.001), and short-term poor outcomes ( OR 1.456, 95% CI 1.379-1.537; P<0.001). ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the curve of UAR for predicting short-term poor outcomes in patients with LAA was 0.727 (95% CI 0.704-0.750; P<0.001). The optimal cutoff value was 6.62, and the sensitivity and specificity were 86.6% and 56.7%, respectively. The area under the curve of UAR for predicting short-term poor outcomes in patients with LAA was greater than that predicted solely by uric acid and albumin. Conclusions:UAR is associated with LAA, its severity and poor prognosis, and has higher predictive value for poor outcomes in patients with LAA.

12.
Journal of Sun Yat-sen University(Medical Sciences) ; (6): 63-70, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-961830

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate whether the whole intestinal microbiota transplantation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) model mice has more significant effects on ileum intestinal microenvironment in normal mice under the guidance of the theory of traditional Chinese medicine that "interior-exterior relationship exists between the heart and small intestine". MethodsThe whole intestinal microbiota of fourteen 6-month-old specific pathogen free male APP/PS1 double-transgenic AD model mice was transplanted into the gut of six normal C57BL/6J mice of the same age and background treated with mixed antibiotics for 14 days. Then, after 14 days of normal rearing, the mice were sacrificed. Next, the pathological changes in the ileum and colon were observed, and the composition and diversity of the ileal and colonic microbiota was analyzed by sequencing. ResultsAfter the whole intestinal microbiota of AD mice was transplanted into normal mice, pathological analysis showed that only the ileum tissue had mucosal damage and crypt gland epithelial cell degeneration, necrosis, and shedding. Moreover, the microbiota analysis found that only the number of genera (P<0.01), Chao1 index (P<0.01) and Simpson index of ileal microbiota in normal mice decreased (P<0.01), and the composition of intestinal microbiota was quite similar to that of AD model mice. ConclusionUnder the effect of whole gut microbiota transplantation in AD mice, the diversity and composition of ileal microbiota change more than that of colonic microbiota in normal mice, and at the same time, it results in pathological damage to the ileal mucosa, indicating that the ileal microenvironment may be more closely related to the occurrence and development of AD, which is highly consistent with the traditional Chinese medicine theory of "interior-exterior relationship between heart and small intestine".

13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2630-2638, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981367

ABSTRACT

Diabetic kidney disease is an important microvascular complication of diabetes and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Its pathological characteristics mainly include epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT) in glomerulus, podocyte apoptosis and autophagy, and damage of glomerular filtration barrier. Transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β)/Smad signaling pathway is specifically regulated by a variety of mechanisms, and is a classic pathway involved in physiological activities such as apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation. At present, many studies have found that TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway plays a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease. Traditional Chinese medicine has significant advantages in the treatment of diabetic kidney disease for its multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway characteristics, and some traditional Chinese medicine extracts, traditional Chinese medicines and traditional Chinese medicine compound prescription improve the renal injury of diabetic kidney disease by regulating TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. This study clarified the mechanism of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway in diabetic kidney disease by expounding the relationship between the key targets of the pathway and diabetic kidney disease, and summarized the research progress of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of diabetic kidney disease by interfering with TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway in recent years, to provide reference for drug research and clinical treatment of diabetic kidney disease in the future.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diabetic Nephropathies/genetics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Kidney/pathology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition , Smad Proteins/metabolism , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/genetics
14.
China Pharmacy ; (12): 1899-1903, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-979944

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE To explore the construction of mind map by clinical pharmacists for the consultation of pulmonary nocardiosis and its application in clinical practice, and to provide reference for promoting the correct selection of nocardiosis treatment drugs in clinical practice and ensuring drug safety and efficacy. METHODS A total of 7 patients with Nocardia pulmonary infection from January 2017 to April 2022 in our hospital were collected. Based on evidence-based medicine, a consultation mind map (mainly including understanding the medical history, identifying infectious bacteria, identifying risk factors, developing treatment plans, and conducting evaluations) was constructed to address the difficulties of large differences in drug sensitivity among different strains of Nocardia and numerous adverse reactions of Compound sulfamethoxazole as a first-line drug. The treatment plan was developed for 7 patients with pulmonary nocardiosis, and whole-process pharmaceutical care was provided. RESULTS Combined with the mind map, different antibiotic combination regimens were given according to the drug sensitivity results of Nocardia, the different species of Nocardia, and the patient’s allergy history. Among them, 4 cases were treated with imipenem cilastatin, the patients receiving Compound sulfamethoxazole and linezolid for a long time were given full pharmaceutical care, and the adverse drug reactions were timely treated.CONCLUSIONS Clinical pharmacists apply the consultation mind map of pulmonary nocardiosis to the treatment of inpatients, take advantage of pharmacy, participate in clinical drug therapy, and really play a role in the clinical treatment team so as to promote rational drug use.

15.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1245-1255, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-978698

ABSTRACT

Oral mucosal drug delivery has the advantages of rapid drug absorption, no first-pass effect and good patient compliance. However, factors such as low drug dissolution, saliva carrying the drug into the gastrointestinal tract and the existence of physiological barriers in the mucosa may affect the mucosal permeation and bioavailability of the drug. Nanotechnology applied to drug oral mucosa delivery can overcome the above disadvantages and obtain efficient absorption effect. This paper describes the physiological structure of oral mucosa and the factors affecting the absorption of drugs in oral mucosa, reviews the application of nanotechnology such as liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, nanoemulsions, polymer nanoparticles, polymer micelles and nanohybrid suspensions in oral mucosal drug delivery and the mechanism of promoting drug absorption, summarizes the main problems of current research, and gives an outlook on the application of nano oral mucosal drug delivery system. The main problems of current research are summarized, and the prospects for the application of nano oral mucosal drug delivery systems are discussed.

16.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 48-53, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970172

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the safety and effectiveness of inflatable video-assisted mediastinoscopic transhiatal esophagectomy (IVMTE). Methods: Totally 269 patients admitted to the Anhui Provincial Hospital of Anhui Medical University who underwent IVMTE (IVMTE group, n=47) or thoracoscopy combined with minimally invasive Mckeown esophageal cancer resection (MIME group, n=222) from September 2017 to December 2021 were analyzed retrospectively. There were 31 males and 16 females in IVMTE group, aged (68.6±7.5) years (range: 54 to 87 years). There were 159 males and 63 females in MIME group, aged (66.8±8.8) years (range: 42 to 93 years). A 1∶1 match was performed on both groups by propensity score matching, with 38 cases in each group. The intraoperative conditions and postoperative complication rates of the two groups were compared by t test, Wilcoxon rank, χ2 test, or Fisher exact probability method. Results: Patients in IVMTE group had less intraoperative bleeding ((96.0±39.2) ml vs. (123.8±49.3) ml, t=-2.627, P=0.011), shorter operation time ((239.1±47.3) minutes vs. (264.2±57.2) minutes, t=-2.086, P=0.040), and less drainage 3 days after surgery (85(89) ml vs. 675(573) ml, Z=-7.575, P<0.01) compared with that of MIME group. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in terms of drainage tube-belt time, postoperative hospital stay, and lymph node dissection stations and numbers (all P>0.05). The incidence of Clavien-Dindo grade 1 to 2 pulmonary infection (7.9%(3/38) vs. 31.6%(12/38), χ²=6.728, P=0.009), total complications (21.1%(8/38) vs. 47.4%(18/38), χ²=5.846, P=0.016) and total lung complications (13.2%(5/38) vs. 42.1%(16/38), χ²=7.962, P=0.005) in the IVMTE group were significantly lower. Conclusion: Inflatable video-assisted mediastinoscopic transhiatal esophagectomy combined with laparoscopic esophagectomy is safe and feasible, which can reach the same range of oncology as thoracoscopic surgery.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Esophagectomy/methods , Treatment Outcome , Laparoscopy , Thoracoscopy , Lymph Node Excision/methods , Esophageal Neoplasms/surgery , Postoperative Complications
17.
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 802-806, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981826

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the genetic basis for a Chinese pedigree affected with recurrent fetal hydrocephalus.@*METHODS@#A couple who had presented at the Affiliated Hospital of Putian College on March 3, 2021 was selected as the study subject. Following elective abortion, fetal tissue and peripheral blood samples were respectively obtained from the abortus and the couple, and were subjected to whole exome sequencing. Candidate variants were verified by Sanger sequencing.@*RESULTS@#The fetus was found to harbor compound heterozygous variants of the B3GALNT2 gene, namely c.261-2A>G and c.536T>C (p.Leu179Pro), which were inherited from its father and mother, respectively.According to the guidelines of American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, both variants were classified as pathogenic (PVS1+PM2_Supporting; PM3+PM2_Supporting+PP3+PP4).@*CONCLUSION@#The compound heterozygous variants of the B3GALNT2 gene probably underlay the α-dystroglycanopathy in this fetus. Above results have provided a basis for genetic counseling of this pedigree.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Aborted Fetus , Asian People/genetics , East Asian People , Fetus , Genetic Counseling , Mutation , N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases , Pedigree , Walker-Warburg Syndrome/genetics
18.
China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology ; (12): 507-513, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981724

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate outcomes of mixed unicompartmental knee arthroplasty(UKA) and total knee arthroplasty(TKA) in the treatment of medial osteoarthritis(OA) of the knee.@*METHODS@#Retrospective analysis of 156 patients, 44 males and 112 females, aged from 50 to 75 years old with an average of(58.76±4.97) years old, who underwent knee arthroplasty from October 2017 to October 2019. The patients were divided into two groups:81 cases(81 knees) underwent TKA, including 23 males and 58 females, aged from 51 to 75 years old with an average of (58.60±5.01) years old, and 75 case (75 knees) underwent UKA with mixed phase 3 Oxford, including 21 males and 54 females, aged from 50 to 72 years old with an average of (58.92±4.95) years old. The two groups were compared regarding to the clinical outcomes, assessed using surgical information and complications, American Knee Society score(AKSS) clinical score and functional score. Radiographs were assessed using hip-knee-ankle angle(HKA), tibial component valgus/varus angle(TCVA), tibial component posterior slope angle(TCPSA), femoral component valgus/varus angle(FCVA), femoral component posterior slope angle(FCPSA), looking for bearing dislocation, prosthesis loosening, progression of OA in lateral compartment.@*RESULTS@#Intraoperative bleeding, operative time and hospital days were significantly better in the UKA group than in the TKA group (P<0.05), and there were no postoperative complications in either group. Patients in both groups were enrolled with an average follow-up time of (38.01±8.90) months, ranged from 24 to 54 months. AKSS functional, AKSS clinical, HKA in both groups significantly improved at the final follow-up compared with those before operation. At the final follow-up, the UKA group was significantly better than the TKA group in AKSS functional and AKSS clinical, whereas HKA in the TKA group was better. At the final follow-up. TCVA and FCVA between the two groups were not significantly different, while TCPSA and FCPSA in the UKA group were significantly greater than the TKA group. No signs of progression of OA to the lateral compartment were observed.@*CONCLUSION@#Mixed phase 3 Oxford UKA in medial unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis was considerably better than TKA for less blood loss, shorter operation time, shorter hospital stay, rapid postoperative recovery, helping achieve satisfactory function, provided satisfactory outcome.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , Osteoarthritis, Knee/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Knee Joint/surgery , Knee Prosthesis
19.
Chinese Journal of Hospital Administration ; (12): 168-172, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-958752

ABSTRACT

Medical service pricing system is the basic system of health economics, which has a profound impact on physicians′ medical behavior and the running mode of hospital. Rui′an City, Wenzhou City, Zhejiang Province, freed up the cost space of drug and consumables based on the reasonable diagnosis and treatment behavior of doctors and selection of drug and consumables in the hospital procurement link. 68% of the free space was used to improve the price of medical services. 248 medical service items with obvious cost inversion were selected, such as nursing, traditional Chinese medicine, diagnosis, etc., and the price adjustment range was determined according to the agreed free space limit. Meanwhile, the credit mechanism of Alipay was applied to synchronously implement " vacating space and adjusting structure" , so as to solve the game problem between medical treatment and medical insurance, broaden the path of the " translation compensation method" of medical service price reform, and produce policy superposition and linkage effect with the reform of medical insurance payment mode.

20.
Chinese Journal of General Practitioners ; (6): 526-532, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-957876

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the current situation and needs of pharmaceutical training for general practice faculty.Methods:A self-designed questionnaire survey was conducted in April 2019. The participants were general practice faculty attending the national training course in Zhongshan Hospital and selected by convenience sampling method.Results:A total of 219 general practice teachers participated in the survey, 51.14% (112/219) of the participants thought that the current pharmaceutical knowledge did not meet the needs of pharmaceutical services in daily work, and 67.58% (148/219) attended pharmacy related training every year, and the frequency was mainly 1—2 times per year (56.62%, 124/219). The main reasons for attending the training were working needs (68.24%, 101/148) and willingness (55.41%, 82/148); 63.51% (94/148) of the participants thought that the training was moderate or less effective, mainly because of the weak strength of trainers (40.54%, 60/148), insufficient attention paid by trainers (37.16%, 55/148) and lack of depth (37.16%, 55/148). The survey showed that 76.26% (167/219) of general practice teachers had pharmaceutical training needs; and gender, working years and working experience in secondary and/or tertiary hospitals were influencing factors for pharmaceutical training needs. And female faculty, those working less than 10 years and with working experience in secondary hospitals had higher demand for pharmaceutical training. The expected pharmaceutical training focused primarily on the selection and optimization of medication schemes (72.60%, 159/219), interaction/incompatibility between medicines (62.10%, 136/219) and pharmaceutical care in medical treatment (57.08%, 125/219). The expected training methods were mainly interactive case analysis and discussion (69.41%, 152/219) through the internet or APP (such as WeChat) (54.34%, 119/219); the expected training frequency was no more than once in two months (36.07%, 79/219), better in working time (48.86%, 107/219) and each session was 30—45 minutes (38.36%, 84/219).Conclusion:General practice faculty has a high demand for pharmaceutical training. Targeted, individualized and systematic pharmaceutical training courses should be developed according to the pharmaceutical training needs of participants.

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