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1.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1-12, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-913160

ABSTRACT

Due to the complexity of tumor pathology, the demand for the combined use of multiple drugs in clinical treatment has become increasingly clear-cut. Multi-drug combination can act on multiple pathways and multiple targets simultaneously to exert synergistic effects. However, the current delivery strategy for multi-drug combination still needs to be optimized. Nano-drug delivery systems can carry drugs to overcome physiological and pathological barrier to target tumor tissues and cells, achieve the goal of continuous, controllable, and targeted delivery, and enhance the efficacy of anti-tumor synergism and detoxification. To meet the new requirements for smarter and more accurate antitumor multi-drug combinational therapy, the nano-drug delivery system has been well-designed to realize more functions. For instance, delivery of multiple drugs in accurate proportions and doses can make the multi-drug synergistic effect more precise; stimulus-responsive drug release can improve selectivity and reduce side effects; controlling the time-course relationship of multiple drugs can realize sequential drug combination effect. It has shown broad prospects in the field of tumor multidrug therapy and has become one of the new directions of research and development. This article reviews the recent developments in the application of tumor drug combination therapy strategies and their delivery systems, and analyzes the new requirements and challenges of multidrug combination for the development of nano-drug delivery systems.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-920541

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the prevalence of myopic refractive error and its associated risk factors among primary school students in Shanghai Minhang Distict. Methods A total of 11 356 primary school students who participated in the children's refraction screening project in Meilong Community, Minhang District, Shanghai from January 1 to December 31, 2019 were selected for visual inspection and computer optometry Results The detection rate of myopic refractive error among 6-10 year-old students was 45.59%, with a higher rate in girls and older age group. The detection rates of 6-10 year-old students were 22.88% (6 year-old), 31.77% (7 year-old), 47.62% (8 year-old), 60.53% (9 year-old) and 69.84% (10 year-old), respectively, showing a linear trend(χ 2=1.31, P<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that myopic refractive error was statistically significantly associated with gender, age and parents' myopic. Birth weight, preterm birth and body mass index (BMI) had no influence on refractive myopic in primary school students. Conclusion Myopic refractive error is still a major public health problem in primary school students. A combined strategies for myopic refractive error reduction should be called to focus on high risk persons and behaviors.

3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-914997

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#This study aimed to investigate the prognostic value of lymph node ratio (LNR) in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. @*Materials and Methods@#We retrospectively enrolled gastric cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and curative surgery at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University from 2004 to 2015 as the study cohort. Patients with the same inclusion criteria treated in 2016–2017 were enrolled as the validation cohort. Kaplan-Meier curves were assessed using the log-rank test to analyze the differences in overall survival (OS).Multivariate survival analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazards model.The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of ypN and LNR categories for predicting the actual 3-year OS were compared. @*Results@#A total of 265 patients were included in the proposal cohort. The median number of retrieved lymph nodes (rLNs) was 32. The number of positive lymph nodes (pLNs) increased as rLN increased (P=0.037), but the LNR remained relatively constant (P=0.462). The LNR was categorized into 4 groups according to the prognosis: ypNr0, node-negative with rLN>25; ypNr1, node-negative with rLN≤25 or 00.3. In the validation cohort of 43 enrolled patients, there was a clear distinction in OS that significantly (P<0.001) varied depending on the LNR values and LNR was the only independent prognostic factor in multivariate analysis (P<0.001). @*Conclusions@#LNR was an independent prognostic factor for survival of patients with gastric cancer after preoperative chemotherapy and might be an alternative predictor for ypN stage.

4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880576

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of Qishe Pill () on neck pain in real-world clinical practice.@*METHODS@#A multi-center, prospective, observational surveillance in 8 hospitals across Shanghai was conducted. During patients receiving 4-week Qishe Pill medication, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Neck Disability Index (NDI) assessments have been used to assess their pain and function, while safety monitoring have been observed after 2 and 4 weeks.@*RESULTS@#Results from 2,023 patients (mean age 54.5 years) suggest that the drug exposure per unit of body mass was estimated at 3.41 ± 0.62 g/kg. About 8.5% (172/2,023) of all participants experienced adverse events (AEs), while 3.8% (78/2,023) of all participants experienced adverse reaction. The most common AEs were gastrointestinal events and respiratory events. The VAS score (pain) and NDI score (function) significantly decreased after 4-week treatment. An effect-quantitative analysis was also conducted to show that the normal clinical dosage may be consider as 3-4 g/kg, at which dosage the satisfactory pain-relief effect may achieve by 40-mm reduction in VAS.@*CONCLUSION@#These findings showed that patients with cervical radiculopathy who received Qishe Pill experienced significant improvement on pain and function. (Registration No. NCT01875562).

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876700

ABSTRACT

Surveillance is an important part of the national schistosomiasis control program of China, which play a critical role in facilitating the progress towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China. The coverage of schistosomiasis surveillance has shifted from the high-risk regions at the initial stage of the national schistosomiasis control program of China to the current all endemic counties (cities, districts), and the surveillance contents have extended from single surveillance of endemic status to comprehensive surveillance of endemic status, epidemic factors and transmission risks. With the continuous progress towards schistosomiasis elimination, the national schistosomiasis control program has shifted from “extensive control” to surveillance and early warning-based “precision control” in China, which proposes much higher requirements for schistosomiasis surveillance. Currently, the surveillance of schistosomiasis has been covered in all schistosomiasis-endemic counties (cities, districts) of China, and the development of rapid and early identification of Schistosoma japonicum cercariae and S. japonicum-infected Oncomelania hupensis snails will greatly improve the sensitivity of and the duration of responses to schistosomiasis surveillance, which will provide powerful tools for elimination of schistosomiasis in China.

6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874352

ABSTRACT

Purpose@#We sought to investigate the effectiveness and safety of dabrafenib in children with BRAFV600E-mutated Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). @*Materials and Methods@#A retrospective analysis was performed on 20 children with BRAFV600E-mutated LCH who were treated with dabrafenib. @*Results@#The median age at which the patients started taking dabrafenib was 2.3 years old (range, 0.6 to 6.5 years). The ratio of boys to girls was 2.3:1. The median follow-up time was 30.8 months (range, 18.9 to 43.6 months). There were 14 patients (70%) in the risk organ (RO)+ group and six patients (30%) in the RO– group. All patients were initially treated with traditional chemotherapy and then shifted to targeted therapy due to poor control of LCH or intolerance to chemotherapy. The overall objective response rate and the overall disease control rate were 65% and 75%, respectively. During treatment, circulating levels of cell-free BRAFV600E (cfBRAFV600E) became negative in 60% of the patients within a median period of 3.0 months (range, 1.0 to 9.0 months). Grade 2 or 3 adverse effects occurred in five patients. @*Conclusion@#Some children with BRAFV600E-mutated LCH may benefit from monotherapy with dabrafenib, especially high-risk patients with concomitant hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and intolerance to chemotherapy. The safety of dabrafenib is notable. A prospective study with a larger sample size is required to determine the optimal dosage and treatment duration.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873741

ABSTRACT

Since 2015 when the transmission of schistosomiasis was controlled in China, the country has been moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis, with the surveillance-response as the main interventions for schistosomiasis control. During the period of the 13th Five-Year Plan, the transmission of schistosomiasis had been interrupted in four provinces of Sichuan, Jiangsu, Yunnan and Hubei and the prevalence of schistosomiasis has been at the historically lowest level in China. As a consequence, the goal set in The 13th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China is almost achieved. However, there are multiple challenges during the stage moving towards elimination of schistosomiasis in China, including the widespread distribution of intermediate host snails and complicated snail habitats, many types of sources of Schistosoma japonicum infections and difficulty in management of bovines and sheep, unmet requirements for the current schistosomiasis control program with the currently available tools, and vulnerable control achievements. During the 14th Five-Year period, it is crucial to consolidate the schistosomiasis control achievements and gradually solve the above difficulties, and critical to provide the basis for achieving the ultimate goal of elimination of schistosomiasis in China. Based on the past experiences from the national schistosomiasis control program and the challenges for schistosomiasis elimination in China, an expert consensus has been reached pertaining to the objectives, control strategy and measures for The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China, so as to provide insights in to the development of The 14th Five-Year National Schistosomiasis Control Program in China.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873551

ABSTRACT

@#Objective    To summarize the experience and lessons of right ventricular decompression in children with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum (PA/IVS) and to reflect on the strategies of right ventricular decompression. Methods    The clinical data of 12 children with PA/IVS who underwent right ventricular decompression in our hospital from March 2015 to December 2019 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 10 males and 2 females with a median age at the time of surgery was 5 d (range, 1-627 d). Correlation analysis between the pulmonary valve transvalvular pressure gradient and changes in Z score of tricuspid valves after decompression was performed. Results    One patient died of refractory hypoxemia due to circulatory shunt postoperatively and family members gave up treatment. There were 2 (16.67%) patients received postoperative intervention. The pulmonary transvalvular gradient after decompression was 31.95±21.75 mm Hg. Mild pulmonary regurgitation was found in 7 patients, moderate in 2 patients, and massive in 1 patient. The median time of mechanical ventilation was 30.50 h (range, 6.00-270.50 h), and the average duration of ICU stay was 164.06±87.74 h. The average postoperative follow-up time was 354.82±331.37 d. At the last follow-up, the average Z score of tricuspid valves was 1.32±0.71, the median pressure gradient between right ventricle and main pulmonary artery was 41.75 mm Hg (range, 21-146 mm Hg) and the average percutaneous oxygen saturation was 92.78%±3.73%. Two children underwent percutaneous balloon pulmonary valvoplasty at 6 and 10 months after surgery, respectively, with the rate of reintervention-free of 81.8%. There was no significant correlation between pulmonary transvalvular gradients after decompression and changes in Z score of tricuspid valves (r=–0.506, P=0.201). Conclusion    For children with PA/IVS, the simple pursuit of adequate decompression during right ventricular decompression may lead to  severe pulmonary dysfunction, increase the risk of ineffective circular shunt, and induce refractory hypoxemia. The staged decompression can ensure the safety and effectiveness for initial surgery and reduce the risk of postoperative death.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 244-256, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-872604

ABSTRACT

Network pharmacological approaches were used to predict the components, targets and pathways of Erhuang decoction (EhD) in the treatment of acute lung injury (ALI). The SwissTargetPrediction platform, DisGeNET, Therapeutic Target Database (TTD), GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) databases were used to predict potential targets of EhD and were integrated with the predicted targets for the treatment of ALI. A protein-protein interaction network model was constructed by using String database and Cytoscape software; the DAVID platform was used for Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis. A network of drug components-targets-pathways was constructed by Cytoscape software and the SwissDock platform was used to dock the molecules of EhD found in blood with the key disease targets. An ALI model was established in mice and inflammatory factor detection and Western blot protein expression experiments with lung tissue sections were carried out to verify the effect of EhD in the treatment of ALI. Animal experiment ethical requirements were approved by the Ethical Committee Experimental Animal Center of Shandong University (Grant Number: 2016020). We identified 148 potential targets including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), vascular endothelial cell growth factor A (VEGFA), RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase (AKT1), and nuclear factor-kappa B/p65 (RELA). The potential targets are largely associated with the biological processes of inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Additional pathways relate to cancer, VEGF signaling, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling, along with other signaling pathways. Pharmacodynamic experiments showed that EhD could significantly reduce the content of inflammatory factors and the degree of lung injury of ALI mice. Western blot revealed that EhD could significantly decrease the expression of NF-κB/p65 and upregulate the expression of NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha (IκBα). From the perspective of network pharmacology, the mechanisms of EhD in the treatment of ALI is consistent with the characteristics of multiple ingredients, multiple targets and multiple pathways. This research provides a reference for further study of the mechanism of this traditional Chinese medicine.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887945

ABSTRACT

As a traditional Chinese medicinal material, Lonicera japonica has a long medicinal history. The chemical constituents of Lonicera japonica are complex, mainly including iridoid glycosides, flavonoids, triterpenes, organic acids and volatile oil. Iridoid glycosides account for a higher proportion. In addition, modern pharmacological studies have shown that the iridoid glycosides have many pharmacological activities such as antivirus, anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, liver protection and lowering blood sugar. This review intends to systematically summarize the iridoid glycosides identified from Lonicera japonica and their pharmacological activities by searc-hing Chinese and English databases, in order to provide a reference for the further development and utilization of Lonicera japonica and for the improvement of quality standards of medicinal materials.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Flavonoids , Glycosides/pharmacology , Iridoid Glycosides/pharmacology , Lonicera , Plant Extracts
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887743

ABSTRACT

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), two of the most prevalent human herpesviruses, cause a wide spectrum of diseases and symptoms and are associated with serious health problem. In this study, we developed an internal control reference recombinase-aided amplification (ICR-RAA) assay for the rapid detection of EBV and CMV within 30 min. The assay had a sensitivity of 5 and 1 copies/test for EBV and CMV, respectively, with no cross reaction with other pathogens. In comparison with those of the commercial quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), the sensitivity of the EBV and CMV ICR-RAAs using extracted DNA was 93.33% and 84.84%, respectively; the specificity was 98.75% and 100.00%, respectively; and the Kappa values were 0.930 and 0.892 (


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cytomegalovirus/genetics , Cytomegalovirus Infections/virology , DNA, Viral/analysis , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/virology , Female , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Recombinases/genetics , Young Adult
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-885794

ABSTRACT

Objective:In this study, we established a reliable surgical procedure of lung ischaemia-reperfusion(IR) injury in rats. The research progress of different lung IR injury models and application value was also discussed.Methods:Twenty-eight adult SD rats were randomly divided into SHAM group and lung IR injury group(IR group), 14 rats in each group. In IR group, rats underwent tracheotomy under general anesthesia and received mechanical ventilation. Chest was opened in supine position, and pulmonary hilum was blocked for 30 minutes then the occlusion was removed. Samples were harvested after reperfusion for 45minutes. Rats in SHAM group received surgery and exposure of the right pulmonary artery, and experienced the same amount of time before the chest closed. Arterial blood gas was extracted postoperatively. Gross view of the lungs and pathological changes were observed, and the dry/wet ratio(W/D) was determined. Protein level of pro-inflammatory factors, markers in oxidative stress pathway, and endothelial functional markers in lung were tested by western blot analysis.Results:In IR group, there was pink foamy secretion in the airway, and the lungs exhibited signs of edema and congestion. In IR group, the alveolitis score was significantly increased, the W/D ratio was also increased, p38MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways were activated, and the expression of TNF-α was significantly increased, while the expression of eNOS was significantly decreased.Conclusion:Left hilum clamping and bilateral reperfusion injury in lung is a practical animal model, it is a simple, low-cost and repeatable animal model for further studies. No microsurgical instruments were required during the procedure. Lung IR injury is characterized by oxidative stress response, inflammatory response and endothelial cell dysfunction.

13.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 192-196, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-884987

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the diagnostic efficacy of targeted biopsy (TB) versus targeted biopsy combined with systematic biopsy (TB+ SB) for patients with multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) prostate imaging-reporting and data system (PI-RADS) score of 4-5.Methods:The clinical data of 378 patients with mpMRI PI-RADS score of 4-5 in Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital from January 2018 to February 2020 who received prostate TB+ SB were retrospectively analyzed. Median age was 69 (64, 75) years old, median prostate specific antigen was 9.5 (6.7, 16.3) ng/ ml, and median prostate volume was 34.1 (23.5, 48.4) ml. There were 240 cases with PI-RADS score of 4 and 138 cases with PI-RADS score of 5. Evaluating Gleason score of positive biopsy pathology and using χ 2 test or Fisher exact test to analyze the detection of prostate cancer (PCa) and clinically significant prostate cancer(CsPCa) by TB versus TB+ SB. Results:Of the all 378 cases, 88 cases (23.3%) were negative and 290 cases (76.7%) were positive. The average number of needle for TB was 2.4 per person, while SB was 12 per person. TB and SB had no statistically significant difference in the detection rate of PCa (73.3% vs. 68.3%, P=0.129) and CsPCa (55.8% vs. 49.7%, P=0.094) and in the accuracy (79.1% vs. 77.8%, P=0.658), but had a statistically significant difference in the positive rate (64.2% vs. 23.1%, P < 0.001). The pathological coincidence rate of TB and TB+ SB was 92.3%. There was no statistical difference in the detection rate of PCa (73.3% vs. 76.7%, P=0.275) and CsPCa (55.8% vs. 62.2%, P=0.076) between TB and TB+ SB. The missed diagnosis rate of TB for PCa was 4.5%, for CsPCa was 10.2%. For patients with PI-RADS score of 4, TB had no significant difference in the detection rate of PCa (65.4% vs. 69.2%, P=0.381) and CsPCa (46.7% vs. 52.9%, P=0.171) from TB+ SB. The accuracy of TB was 82.1%. The missed diagnosis rate of TB for PCa was 5.4%, for CsPCa was 11.8%. For patients with PI-RADS score of 5, TB had no significant difference in the detection rate of PCa (87.0% vs. 89.9%, P=0.452) and CsPCa (71.7% vs. 78.3%, P=0.211) from TB+ SB. The accuracy of TB was 73.9%. The missed diagnosis rate of TB for PCa was 3.2%, for CsPCa was 8.3%. Conclusions:For high-risk prostate cancer patients with PI-RADS score of 4-5, TB can obtain a detection effect similar to that of TB+ SB with fewer needles, but there is still the possibility of inaccurate diagnosis and missed diagnosis.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882417

ABSTRACT

Objective:After using proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA) fixation to treat femoral intertro-chanteric fractures (ITFs), closed negative pressure drainage systems are often used for drainage, but the clinical effect of this method is uncertain. A prospective randomized controlled trial study was conducted to analyze the negative effects of negative pressure drainage systems after PFNA fixation.Methods:Sixty patients with ITFs and underwent PFNA fixation were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the drainage group were equipped with negative pressure drainage systems after PFNA fixation. At 4, 10, and 90 days after the surgery, the visual analog scale (VAS) score, analgesic dosage, thigh swelling width, wound and infection status, hemoglobin, hematocrit level, total blood loss and transfusion blood volume of the patients were recorded to evaluate the prognosis.Results:The total blood loss of the drainage group [(579.1±236.7) ml] was greater than that of the non-drainage group [(427.8±239.8) ml; P=0.01]. The transfusion blood volume of the drainage group [(443.3±176.3) ml] was greater than that of the non-drainage group [(307.8±155.4) ml; P=0.01]. Compared with the non-drainage group, the drainage group had a higher VAS score at 4 days after the surgery (2.3±0.6, P=0.02). There was no difference between the two groups in analgesic dosage, thigh swelling width, wound infection and hematoma, hospital stay and the total number of complications (all P>0.05). Conclusions:In the patients with ITFs treated with PFNA fixation, the transfusion blood volume and total blood loss of the patients in the drainage group are higher than those in the non-drainage group. In addition, drainage systems may not have short-term benefits for postoperative wound conditions.

15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881088

ABSTRACT

Huashi Baidu prescription (HSBDF), recommended in the Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Pneumonia (On Trials, the Seventh Edition), was clinically used to treat severe corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with cough, blood-stained sputum, inhibited defecation, red tongue etc. symptoms. This study was aimed to elucidate and profile the knowledge on its chemical constituents and the potential anti-inflammatory effect in vitro. In the study, the chemical constituents in extract of HSBDF were characterized by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS in both negative and positive modes, and the pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to determine the effects of HSBDF in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. The results showed that a total of 217 chemical constituents were tentativedly characterized in HSBDF. Moreover, HSBDF could alleviate the expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in the cell models, indicating that the antiviral effects of HSBDF might be associated with regulation of the inflammatory cytokines production in RAW264.7 cells. We hope that the results could be served as the basic data for further study of HSBDF on anti-COVID-19 effect.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Humans , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881072

ABSTRACT

In this study, a high performance thin-layer chromatography/single quadrupole mass spectrometry QDa (HPTLC-QDa) method for robust authentication of Ganoderma lucidum, a popular and valuable herbal medicine, has been developed. This method is simple and practical, which allows direct generation of characteristic mass spectra from the HPTLC plates automatically with the application of in situ solvent desorption interface. The HPTLC silica gel plates were developed with toluene-ethyl formate-formic acid (5 : 5 : 0.2, V/V) and all bands were transferred to QDa system directly in situ using 80% methanol with 0.1% formic acid as desorption solvent. The acquired HPTLC-QDa spectra showed that luminous yellow band b3, containing ganoderic acid B/G/H and ganodeneric acid B, the major active components of Ganoderma, could be found only in G. lucidum and G. lucidum (Antler-shaped), but not in G. sinense and G. applanatum. Moreover, bands b13 and b14 with m/z 475/477 and m/z 475/491/495, respectively, could be detected in G. lucidum (Antler-shaped), but not in G. lucidum, thus allowing simple and robust authentication of G. lucidum with confused species. This method is proved to be simple, practical and reproducible, which can be extended to analyze other herbal medicines.

17.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 191-202, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881011

ABSTRACT

Primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic autoimmune disease involving exocrine glands. Current studies have found that the occurrence of the disease is closely related to genetic, environmental and neuroendocrine factors, as well as abnormal activation of T and B lymphocytes. The etiology and pathogenesis of pSS is complex, and there is a lack of specific targeted drugs. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have been comprehensively investigated for their treatment effects on pSS. Through a systematic review of the literature, we summarized the TCMs used to treat pSS, and find that there are four major ways that TCMs are used, including upregulation of aquaporin proteins, suppression of cell apoptosis, suppression of the abnormal activation of B lymphocytes and suppression of the abnormal activation of T lymphocytes (balancing T helper type [Th]1/Th2 & Th17/Treg and suppressing follicular helper T [Tfh] cells). However, there are not enough data about the active constituents, quality control, pharmacokinetics, toxicity and modern preparations of these TCMs; therefore, more investigations are needed. This paper highlights the importance of TCMs for treating pSS and provides guidance for future investigations.

18.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 89-103, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881005

ABSTRACT

The processing of Chinese herbal medicine is a form of pharmaceutical technology developed over thousands of years, in order to increase efficiency and decrease toxicity of herbs in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Herbal processing is essential for safe and effective application of TCM in clinical practice, as it alters the active chemical components and therefore the functions of herbal medicines. Alkaloid-rich herbal medicines in TCM are commonly processed by cleansing, cutting, processing by dry stir-frying, stir-frying with liquid adjuvants, and processing by water decoction. In addition, commonly used adjuvants for processing alkaloid-rich herbal medicines are river sand, wine, vinegar, brine, honey and herbal juice. For alkaloid-rich herbal medicines, the main chemical reactions that occur during processing include hydrolysis, oxidation, replacement, decomposition and condensation. This paper aimed to summarize the processing methods and mechanisms for alkaloid-rich Chinese herbal medicines, and provide much-needed theoretical support and scientific evidence for understanding those mechanisms and effects. Information on processing methods for alkaloid-rich herbal medicines was collected from classic books of herbal medicine, PhD and MSc dissertations, online scientific databases including PubMed, SciFinder, Scopus, Web of Science, Baidu Scholar and Google Scholar. This paper should help to advance our knowledge of the processing mechanisms and aid in the development of processing methods for alkaloid-rich Chinese herbal medicines.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880051

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To understand the carrying rate, gene mutation frequency and composition ratio of thalassemia in pregnant women in Suxian and Beihu districts of Chenzhou, Hunan Province.@*METHODS@#Thalassemia gene in 11 212 samples was analyzed by using Next-Generation Sequencing.@*RESULTS@#Among the 11 212 samples, 938 were diagnosed as thalassemia, in which 618 (5.51%) were diagnosed as α-thalassemia, 268 (2.39%) as β-thalassemia, 29(0.26%)as abnormal hemoglobin and 23 (0.21%) as αβ-thalassemia. The gene mutations of --SEA /αα(40.29%) and -α3.7/αα(37.7%) in α-thalassemia were the most common, while for β- thalassemia, the most commonly gene mutation were β41-42M/βN(24.26%) and β654M/βN(23.88%). The detection rate of rare type α,β-thalassemia gene was 0.19%(21/11 212), 0.53%(59/11 212), respectively.@*CONCLUSION@#The carrying rate of thalassemia in pregnant women is 8.37% in Suxian and Beihu districts of Chenzhou city, and the genotypes are complex. Next-Generation Sequencing can detect rare thalassemia genes and new gene mutations effectively.


Subject(s)
China , Female , Genotype , Hemoglobins, Abnormal , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mutation , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , alpha-Thalassemia/genetics , beta-Thalassemia/genetics
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879441

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the clinical effect of the simple nucleus pulposus removal and small incision interlaminar window in the treatment of prolapsed and displaced lumbar disc herniation.@*METHODS@#From February 2016 to February 2018, 35 patients with single-segment prolapse and displaced lumbar disc herniation were treated by the simple nucleus pulposus removal and small incision interlaminar window under general anesthesia. Among them, there were 21 males and 14 females;aged (42±17) years;27 cases of L@*RESULTS@#All the operations were successful and the operation time was 30 to 60 min with an average of 40 min, the intraoperative blood loss was 10 to 30 ml with an average of 20 ml. All the patients were followed up for 1 to 3 years with an average of 1.2 years. Thirty-five patients with low back pain and lower limb symptoms were significantly relieved or disappeared. According to modified Macnab standard, 29 cases obtained excellent results, 5 good, and 1 fair.@*CONCLUSION@#Applying the concept of minimally invasive operation, small incision interlaminar window and simple nucleus pulposus removal for the treatment of prolapsed and displaced lumbar disc herniation has the advantages of short operation time, definite curative effect, and less trauma. And it is a safe and effective surgical method under the premise of strict control of the indications.


Subject(s)
Adult , Diskectomy, Percutaneous , Endoscopy , Female , Humans , Intervertebral Disc Displacement/surgery , Lumbar Vertebrae/surgery , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleus Pulposus , Prolapse , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
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