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Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 350-355, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981954


Multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF) is a severe form of asthenozoospermia categorized by immotile spermatozoa with abnormal flagella in ejaculate. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) is used to detect pathogenic variants in patients with MMAF. In this study, a novel homozygous frameshift variant (c.6158_6159insT) in dynein axonemal heavy chain 8 (DNAH8) from two infertile brothers with MMAF in a consanguineous Pakistani family was identified by WES. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed DNAH8 mRNA decay in these patients with the DNAH8 mutation. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy revealed highly divergent morphology and ultrastructure of sperm flagella in these patients. Furthermore, an immunofluorescence assay showed the absence of DNAH8 and a reduction in its associated protein DNAH17 in the patients' spermatozoa. Collectively, our study expands the phenotypic spectrum of patients with DNAH8-related MMAF worldwide.

Humans , Male , Consanguinity , Pakistan , Infertility, Male/metabolism , Semen/metabolism , Sperm Tail/metabolism , Spermatozoa/metabolism , Flagella/pathology , Mutation
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 255-259, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928556


Asthenoteratozoospermia is one of the most severe types of qualitative sperm defects. Most cases are due to mutations in genes encoding the components of sperm flagella, which have an ultrastructure similar to that of motile cilia. Coiled-coil domain containing 103 (CCDC103) is an outer dynein arm assembly factor, and pathogenic variants of CCDC103 cause primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD). However, whether CCDC103 pathogenic variants cause severe asthenoteratozoospermia has yet to be determined. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) was performed for two individuals with nonsyndromic asthenoteratozoospermia in a consanguineous family. A homozygous CCDC103 variant segregating recessively with an infertility phenotype was identified (ENST00000035776.2, c.461A>C, p.His154Pro). CCDC103 p.His154Pro was previously reported as a high prevalence mutation causing PCD, though the reproductive phenotype of these PCD individuals is unknown. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of affected individuals' spermatozoa showed that the mid-piece was severely damaged with disorganized dynein arms, similar to the abnormal ultrastructure of respiratory ciliary of PCD individuals with the same mutation. Thus, our findings expand the phenotype spectrum of CCDC103 p.His154Pro as a novel pathogenic gene for nonsyndromic asthenospermia.

Humans , Male , Asthenozoospermia/pathology , Dyneins/genetics , Homozygote , Microtubule-Associated Proteins , Mutation , Mutation, Missense , Sperm Tail/metabolism
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 479-483, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888459


The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is emerging as a global health threat and shows a higher risk for men than women. Thus far, the studies on andrological consequences of COVID-19 are limited. To ascertain the consequences of COVID-19 on sperm parameters after recovery, we recruited 41 reproductive-aged male patients who had recovered from COVID-19, and analyzed their semen parameters and serum sex hormones at a median time of 56 days after hospital discharge. For longitudinal analysis, a second sampling was obtained from 22 of the 41 patients after a median time interval of 29 days from first sampling. Compared with controls who had not suffered from COVID-19, the total sperm count, sperm concentration, and percentages of motile and progressively motile spermatozoa in the patients were significantly lower at first sampling, while sperm vitality and morphology were not affected. The total sperm count, sperm concentration, and number of motile spermatozoa per ejaculate were significantly increased and the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm was reduced at the second sampling compared with those at first in the 22 patients examined. Though there were higher prolactin and lower progesterone levels in patients at first sampling than those in controls, no significant alterations were detected for any sex hormones examined over time following COVID-19 recovery in the 22 patients. Although it should be interpreted carefully, these findings indicate an adverse but potentially reversible consequence of COVID-19 on sperm quality.

Adult , Humans , Male , Asthenozoospermia/virology , COVID-19/physiopathology , China , Gonadal Steroid Hormones/blood , Progesterone/blood , Prolactin/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Semen/physiology , Semen Analysis , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa/physiology , Time Factors
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 627-632, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922370


Multiple morphological abnormalities of the sperm flagella (MMAF) is a specific type of asthenoteratozoospermia, presenting with multiple morphological anomalies in spermatozoa, such as absent, bent, coiled, short, or irregular caliber flagella. Previous genetic studies revealed pathogenic mutations in genes encoding cilia and flagella-associated proteins (CFAPs; e.g., CFAP43, CFAP44, CFAP65, CFAP69, CFAP70, and CFAP251) responsible for the MMAF phenotype in infertile men from different ethnic groups. However, none of them have been identified in infertile Pakistani males with MMAF. In the current study, two Pakistani families with MMAF patients were recruited. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) of patients and their parents was performed. WES analysis reflected novel biallelic loss-of-function mutations in CFAP43 in both families (Family 1: ENST00000357060.3, p.Arg300Lysfs*22 and p.Thr526Serfs*43 in a compound heterozygous state; Family 2: ENST00000357060.3, p.Thr526Serfs*43 in a homozygous state). Sanger sequencing further confirmed that these mutations were segregated recessively in the families with the MMAF phenotype. Semiquantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was carried out to detect the effect of the mutation on mRNA of the affected gene. Previous research demonstrated that biallelic loss-of-function mutations in CFAP43 accounted for the majority of all CFAP43-mutant MMAF patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report CFAP43 biallelic loss-of-function mutations in a Pakistani population with the MMAF phenotype. This study will help researchers and clinicians to understand the genetic etiology of MMAF better.

Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Infertility, Male/epidemiology , Loss of Function Mutation/genetics , Microtubule Proteins/genetics , Pakistan/epidemiology , Sperm Tail/physiology
Asian Journal of Andrology ; (6): 555-561, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922362


Meiosis is an essential step in gametogenesis which is the key process in sexually reproducing organisms as meiotic aberrations may result in infertility. In meiosis, programmed DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation is one of the fundamental processes that are essential for maintaining homolog interactions and correcting segregation of chromosomes. Although the number and distribution of meiotic DSBs are tightly regulated, still abnormalities in DSB formation are known to cause meiotic arrest and infertility. This review is a detailed account of molecular bases of meiotic DSB formation, its evolutionary conservation, and variations in different species. We further reviewed the mutations of DSB formation genes in association with human infertility and also proposed the future directions and strategies about the study of meiotic DSB formation.

Humans , DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded , DNA Repair/genetics , Infertility/genetics , Meiosis/physiology
Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics ; (6): 275-279, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-295495


<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To analyze defective homologous chromosomal recombination in Han Chinese azoospermic patients.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Testicular biopsy samples from 7 healthy controls and 7 Han Chinese azoospermic patients including 2 obstructive azoospermia (OA group) and 5 non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA group) were analyzed. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to categorize early stage cells at meiosis prophase and to analyze chromosome pairing and recombination of pachytene spermatocyte. Newly developed meiotic proteins antibodies (anti-SCP3, anti-synaptonemal complex proteins 3, anti-MLH1, anti-Mut-L Homolog 1, anti-CREST, chromosome centromere antibody) were used to identify synaptonemal complex (anti-SCP3), recombination sites (anti-MLH1) and centromere (anti-CREST), respectively. Staging of spermatocyte was determined according to SCP3 formation progression. Qualitative data were compared by a Chi-square test, and ANOVA was used to analyze quantitative data.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Respectively, 2346 and 2932 spermatocytes were categorized in the controls and azoospermic patients. The proportions of zygotene cells in both OA group and NOA group were significantly higher than that of the control group. Investigation of 1967 pachytene cells from the controls and 354 pachytene cells from azoospermic patients indicated that the mean MLH1 foci per pachytene cell of NOA group was statistically lower than that of the controls. Compared with the controls, incomplete synaptonemal complexes cells (containing gap and/or split) were significantly increased in the NOA group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Delayed meiosis prophase is relatively common in azoospermic patients, and changes in quantity and distribution of recombination foci may be the cause for spermatogenesis arrest in Han Chinese population.</p>

Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Asian People , Azoospermia , Genetics , Metabolism , Pathology , Meiosis , Genetics , Recombination, Genetic , Spermatocytes , Metabolism , Synaptonemal Complex , Genetics