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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876170

ABSTRACT

Objective:To characterize the mortality rate of residents in Minhang District of Shanghai from January to April in 2016-2020, and to determine the change in the epidemic Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2020. Methods:Data of mortality surveillance was collected from the death registry of Shanghai residents. Cause of death was coded and classified per the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). The standardized mortality rate was calculated based on the standard population of China in 1990. The analysis was performed by Excel 2016 and SPSS 20.0. Results:From 2016 to 2020, the average crude mortality rate of residents was 281.75/100 000 from January to April in Minhang District of Shanghai, and the standardized mortality rate was 66.57/100 000. The top five causes of death in the latest five years were cardiovascular diseases, tumor, respiratory diseases, endocrine diseases, and injury and poisoning. The mortality rate was the lowest from January to April in 2020 in the past five years; furthermore, the mortality rate of respiratory system diseases has decreased significantly. Conclusion:Sex, age, place and causes of death in residents are consistent from January to April across years in Minhang District of Shanghai. However, there are minor differences in 2020, which may be attributable to the epidemic of COVID-19.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876161

ABSTRACT

Objective:To model an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Shijiazhuang and forecast its spread trend. Method:We collected confirmed COVID-19 cases from the Health Commission of Hebei Province during the period of January 2 to January 27, 2021. We built a new model (SEIaIcRK), including the contribution of asymptomatic cases, based on the traditional SEIR model to explore and analyze the transmission of COVID-19. Results:A total of 863 confirmed cases were reported during the study period (ended on January 27, 2021). Our model fitted well with the daily cumulative incidence data and showed that the effective reproductive number decreased sharply from 3.80 on January 2 to 1.54 on January 4, then further decreased to <1 afterwards. Our model also predicted that number of COVID-19 cases would not increase after Feb 16, 2021. Conclusion:The SEIaIcRK model can be used to predict the spread trend of COVID-19 in Shijiazhuang. The current COVID-19 countermeasures effectively contain the disease spread.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907124

ABSTRACT

This study introduces the current status of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, the adjustment of response initiatives, and the global variation of novel coronaviruses and vaccination in Europe, the United States, Japan, and Singapore. It summarizes the achievements in prevention and control efforts in China during COVID-19 epidemic. In addition, it describes the key public health issues in Chinese response strategy that includes: promoting the establishment of a population immunization system; optimizing health certification by unifying health codes, trip codes, and vaccine passes as a triple-identification at the national level; retaining nucleic acid testing as a technical means of detecting the source of infection and epidemiological investigation of close contacts; adhering to the requirements of public places, public transportation and other measures such as wearing masks; strengthening the surveillance of COVID-19 and respiratory infectious diseases; normalizing the timing of implementation of prevention and control strategies.

4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-907101

ABSTRACT

This study introduces the current status of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic, the adjustment of response initiatives, and the global variation of novel coronaviruses and vaccination in Europe, the United States, Japan, and Singapore. It summarizes the achievements in prevention and control efforts in China during COVID-19 epidemic. In addition, it describes the key public health issues in Chinese response strategy that includes: promoting the establishment of a population immunization system; optimizing health certification by unifying health codes, trip codes, and vaccine passes as a triple-identification at the national level; retaining nucleic acid testing as a technical means of detecting the source of infection and epidemiological investigation of close contacts; adhering to the requirements of public places, public transportation and other measures such as wearing masks; strengthening the surveillance of COVID-19 and respiratory infectious diseases; normalizing the timing of implementation of prevention and control strategies.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-904621

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the impact of water pollutants, water levels and meteorological factors on the Oncomelania hupensis density in Eastern Dongting Lake regions, so as to provide insights into schistosomiasis control. Methods O. hupensis snails were surveyed using a systematic sampling method in snail-infested marshlands in Eastern Dongting Lake regions from 2007 to 2014, and data pertaining to water pollutants, water levels and meteorological factors were collected. The duration of submergence and the date of the start of submergence were calculated. The snail density and its influencing factors were descriptively analyzed, and a linear mixed model was generated to examine the impacts of variables on the snail density. In addition, smooth curves were fitted to investigate the relationship between snail density and variables. Results The snail density appeared a fluctuation in Eastern Dongting Lake regions during the period from 2007 to 2014, with the highest density on October, 2010 (52.79 snails/0.1 m2) and the lowest density on January 2009 (2.15 snails/0.1 m2). Linear mixed-model analysis showed that permanganate index, total phosphorus and the date of the start of submergence affected the snail density (t = 6.386, −2.920 and −3.892, all P values < 0.01). Smooth curve analysis revealed that the associations of the snail density with the permanganate index and total phosphorus appeared an approximately quadratic curve. After the end of April, the earlier date of the start of submergence resulted in a higher snail density. Conclusion Permenganate index, total phosphorus and the date of the start of submergence affect the O. hupensis snail density in Eastern Dongting Lake regions.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-882210

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the association of alcohol drinking and the incident risk of type 2 diabetes in men and to provide evidences for early prevention of diabetes. Methods:Rural adult males without diabetes in Deqing County, Zhejiang Province were enrolled. A dynamic prospective cohort study was conducted. Data were collected through questionnaires, physical examination, experimental measurements and a electronic follow-up database. Cox multivariate regression was performed to assess the association of alcohol drinking and the incident risk of type 2 diabetes in men. Results:During the follow-up period (7.15±2.90 years), 354 men developed diabetes, and the incidence rate was 4.15/1 000 person-years. After adjusting for confounding factors, the incident risk of type 2 diabetes among the men with high alcohol drinking frequency (≥7 times/week) and low single alcohol intake (0.1-19.9 g/occasion) was lower than that among non-alcohol drinkers, and the value of HR (95%CI) was 0.72 (0.56-0.94) and 0.54 (0.30-0.99), respectively. Consumption of ≥40.0 g alcohol per occasion 3-6 times a week increased the incidence of type 2 diabetes, and consumption of <40.0 g alcohol per occasion over 7 times a week decreased the incidence of type 2 diabetes, with the value of HR (95%CI) of 1.53 (1.02-2.30) and 0.52 (0.28-0.99) respectively. Conclusion:Different alcohol drinking patterns affect the incident risk of type 2 diabetes among rural adult males in Deqing County. Further study on alcohol drinking and diabetes may have ethical and practical significance for the prevention and control of diabetes in rural China.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881502

ABSTRACT

Neonicotinoid is a kind of neuroactive pesticide, and it has become the most widely used pesticide in the world. In recent years, neonicotinoid has been detected in the environment and food, suggesting that human can be exposed to this kind of pesticide through drinking water, ingestion and respiration, which poses potential health hazards to human. However, there is no comprehensive report on the pollution level of neonicotinoid pesticides in the environment and food and the impact on human health. In this paper, the pollution status, population exposure level and potential health risks of neonicotinoid pesticides in water, air and food were reviewed. We found that neonicotinoid residues are widespread in fruits and vegetables, of which imidacloprid has the highest detection rate. Except for a few samples with excessive neonicotinoid detection, the detection level in most samples did not exceed national food safety standards. A variety of neonicotinoid pesticides have been detected in the air, surface water, tap water and drinking water. External exposure studies in the population have shown that ingestion is the main route of exposure to neonicotinoid, and the external exposure level is much lower than its chronic reference dose. The internal exposure study mainly detected the concentration of neonicotinoid pesticides and their metabolites in urine. A variety of neonicotinoid pesticides and their metabolites are detected in urine, and the concentration range is ng/ml level. Internal exposure studies found that the detection rate of thiamethoxam and dinotefuran in urine is higher, and the detection rate of neonicotinoid in Asian countries is higher than that in European and American countries. Occupational exposure studies found that neonicotinoid exposure levels increased after pesticide spraying, and the exposure levels in rural areas where pesticides were commonly used were higher than those in neighboring urban areas. Animal experiments have found that neonicotinoid pesticides have reproductive toxicity, genetic toxicity, neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, liver toxicity and nephrotoxicity to non-target organisms. Cell experiments suggest that neonicotinoid is an endocrine disruptor. The symptoms of acute exposure in humans are related to the exposure dose, route and physical condition of the exposed person, which ranges from mild symptoms (nausea, vomiting, headache and diarrhea) to death. Population epidemiological studies have shown that chronic exposure to neonicotinoid pesticides is associated with adverse health effects in humans such as neonatal tetralogy of Fallot, anencephaly, and adverse mental symptoms.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881501

ABSTRACT

The earthquake occurred in Japan on March 11, 2011 was accompanied by a tsunami, which also led to a leakage accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The disaster caused large-scale casualties and property damage. Soma City in Fukushima Prefecture established a disaster response headquarter and held its first meeting 9 minutes after the earthquake. Disaster response can be divided into three stages. In the first phase, life protection is the primary task. In the second phase, the primary tasks are health protection and basic life support. And in the third phase, life quality improvement is the primary task. This article reviewed the public health emergency response of local governments in Japan after the disaster in order to improve the response to public health emergencies in China.

9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881474

ABSTRACT

Since July 2020, nucleic acids of novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 were frequently detected in cold chain food imported to China, making imported food being a potential risk to the COVID-19 outbreak. Based on the epidemiological characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, imported cold-chain food and their packaging may become the carriers of SARS-CoV-2 in long-distance cross-border transportation. In each aspect of stakeholders including governmental supervision, manufacturers and consumers, China should strengthen the risk management of imported cold-chain food to ensure the safety, especially pay attention to the health protection of industry workers in close contact with cold -chain food.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876386

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus pneumonia disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 was identified in December 2019, and is gradually spreading globally including Japan.The COVID-19 case in Japan began to appear in middle January 2020 and continued to increase over time.The period from middle January to the end of February is considered to be the initial stage of domestic transmission in Japan.The paper descibes the spread of 935 cases of COVID-19 related to Japan by the end of February 2020, including the 15 infected Japanese returned from Wuhan, the 696 infected individuals in the large-scale cruise ship "Diamond Princess" and the 224 infected individuals in Japan.This paper summarizes the measures to control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Japan, such as limiting RT-PCR detection for SARS-CoV-2, reducing the number of patients with mild illness who go to medical institutions unnecessarily, formulating guidelines for SARS-CoV-2 infection consultation, canceling large gatherings and temporarily closing schools.This paper further points out the problems encountered in the prevention and control of the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Japan, such as the slow detection of RT-PCR, the risk of infection faced by medical staff, the regional differences in the domestic health care service system, the confusion of information disclosure and management.The paper allows us to acquire a better understanding of the new coronavirus pneumonia in Japan and the world and may provide reference for the control the epidemic of COVID-19 in worldwide.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876339

ABSTRACT

Beta coronaviruses (β-CoVs) can infect human and a variety of animals, causing respiratory, intestinal, liver and nervous system diseases of the hosts.Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by coronavirus in 32 countries and regions in 2002, there have been Middle East respiratory syndrome and human coronavirus HKU1 pneumonia caused by other viruses of this genus.β-CoVs pose a continuous threat to human health with its high transmission efficiency, serious infection consequences and uncertain epidemic outbreaks.Hereby, the epidemic history, virus sources and transmission modes of β-CoVs, as well as the detection and monitoring methods for the virus are reviewed in the paper to provide ideas and measures for better control of human diseases caused by β-CoVs.

12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-876322

ABSTRACT

Beta coronaviruses (β-CoVs) can infect human and a variety of animals, causing respiratory, intestinal, liver and nervous system diseases of the hosts.Since the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by coronavirus in 32 countries and regions in 2002, there have been Middle East respiratory syndrome and human coronavirus HKU1 pneumonia caused by other viruses of this genus.β-CoVs pose a continuous threat to human health with its high transmission efficiency, serious infection consequences and uncertain epidemic outbreaks.Hereby, the epidemic history, virus sources and transmission modes of β-CoVs, as well as the detection and monitoring methods for the virus are reviewed in the paper to provide ideas and measures for better control of human diseases caused by β-CoVs.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821661

ABSTRACT

As an ancient parasitic disease, schistosomiasis has been endemic in Dongting Lake areas for more than 2 100 years. In the early 20th century, the first human case of schistosomiasis in China was reported in Dongting Lake areas, which was paid extensive attention. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, large-scale schistosomiasis control activities were launched promptly in Dongting Lake areas, and great successes have been achieved following the three stages of control efforts, including the snail control-based stage, synchronous chemotherapy for humans and livestock-based control stage and infectious source control-based control stage. In 2015, transmission control of schistosomiasis was achieved in Hunan Province. This paper comprehensively describes the discovery and control of schistosomiasis, analyzes the challenges for the current schistosomiasis control programs and proposes the emphasis for future control activities in Dongting Lake areas, so as to provide insights into the schistosomiasis control program in this area.

14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821623

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the effects of water body environments on the microbial community of Oncomelania hupensis snails in marshlands of the eastern Dongting Lake where natural extinction of O. hupensis snails are found, so as to explore the correlation between the natural extinction of O. hupensis snails and the microbial community in snails. Methods Snails were caged water bodies in the Qianliang Lake marshland (Qianliang Lake regions) where natural extinction of snails was found and in the Junshan Park marshland (Junshan Park regions) in the eastern Dongting Lake for 30 days, and then all snails were collected and identified for survival or death. DNA sequencing of the fungi and bacteria was performed in snails before and after immersion in waters, and the biodiversity and abundance were analyzed. Results The survival rates of O. hupensis snails were 28.0% (70/250) and 64.8% (162/250) in Qianliang Lake regions and Junshan Park regions 30 days after immersion in waters, respectively (χ2 = 81.365, P < 0.01). The number of the fungal community and the biodiversity of the bacterial community were both greater in snails caged in Qianliang Lake regions post-immersion than pre-immersion, and there was a significant difference in the structure of the fungal and bacterial communities. The microbial community with a significant difference included Flavobacteriaceae,which was harmful to O. hupensis snails. Conclusion The water body environment affects the composition of the microbial community in O. hupensis snails in marshlands with natural snail distinction around the eastern Dongting Lake; however, further studies are required to investigate whether the natural distinction of snails is caused by water body environments-induced changes of the microbial spectrum in O. hupensis snails.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-792883

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus pneumonia disease (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 began to emerge in Wuhan, Hubei, China in December 2019. It is currently spreading globally including Japan. The COVID-19 case in Japan began to appear in middle January 2020 and continued to increase over time. The period from middle January to the end of February is considered to be the initial stage of domestic transmission in Japan. This article described the spread of 935 COVID-19 cases related to Japan by the end of February 2020, including the 15 infected Japanese returned from Wuhan, the 696 infected individuals in the large-scale cruise ship 'Diamond Princess' and the 224 infected individuals in Japan. This paper summarizes the measures to control the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Japan, such as limiting RT-PCR detection for SARS-CoV-2, reducing the number of patients with mild illness who go to medical institutions unnecessarily, formulating guidelines for SARS-CoV-2 infection consultation, canceling large gatherings and temporarily closing schools. This paper further points out the problems encountered in the prevention and control of the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in Japan, such as the slow detection of RT-PCR, the risk of infection faced by medical staff, the regional differences in the domestic health care service system, the confusion of information disclosure and management. The above introduction as allows us to acquire a better understanding of the new coronavirus pneumonia in Japan and the world and may provide reference for the control the epidemic of COVID-19 in worldwide.

16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818914

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis is a modern disease name, but it has been widespread in ancient China and exists in a specific form in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) . The purpose of the paper is to make clear the existing form of schistosomiasis in TCM and infer the prevalence of schistosomiasis in ancient China. The paper focuses on the period when great progress was made on schistosomiasis by TCM, and sums up the understanding of TCM toward schistosomiasis in this period. By studying and analyzing the literature of schistosomiasis in this period, the paper tries to find out the representative Chinese medicine symptom description and TCM "other name" of schistosomiasis, so as to accurately judge whether the relevant description in ancient TCM books and historical documents can provide scientific basis for schistosomiasis. It is important to understand the prevalence and cognition of schistosomiasis in ancient China.

17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818891

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the reasons of natural extinction of Oncomelania hupensis snails by comparing the difference of the water chemical properties between the snail-breeding marshland and non-snail marshland in Eastern Dongting Lake areas. Methods Three adjoining marshlands in Eastern Dongting Lake areas were selected, one was a snail-breeding marshland, the second was a non-snail marshland, and the third was a boundary zone between them. During the periods of water-rising season, wet season and water-falling season, the water samples from the bottom of 0.5 m were collected by the systematic random sampling method (200 m × 200 m grid method). In addition, the water samples below the surface of 0.5 m were also collected in the wet season. The physicochemical indexes of the sampling water were detected. Results According to the Surface Water Environmental Quality Standard (GB 3838–2002), the water quality indicators which were less than the detection limit were Cr, Cd, Zn, Hg, Cu, S- and CN- during the three sampling seasons. The pollutants which were slightly higher than Grade III but lower than Grade IV (Hg ≤ 1 μg/L, TP ≤ 0.1 mg/L) were Hg and TP. The pollutants below the Grade III included As and F-. The temperature and pH values were within the Grade III. The oxygen consumption indicators covering DO, COD and BOD in the water-rising season and wet season were within the Grade III, while the value of BOD was beyond the scope of Grade III but was between Grade Ⅳ (≤ 6 mg/L) and Grade V (≤ 10 mg/L) in the water-falling season. The differences of the water pollution indexes between the snail-breeding marshland and non-snail marshland were statistically significant, and these indexes included F-, As and pH in the water-rising season (P < 0.05); pH, BOD and Fat the surface layer in the wet season (P < 0.05); F- at the bottom in the wet season (P < 0.05); TP and F- in the water-falling season. Moreover, the above-mentioned indexes in the non-snail marshland of Qianliang Lake were higher than those in the snail-breeding marshland of Junshan Park. Thus, F- was the only index which had statistical differences in every sampling season, and the concentration of F- at the non-snail marshland was also higher than that at the snail-breeding marshland. In the water-rising season, the pH value at the non-snail marshland exceeded the suitable range for the growth of snails (6.8 to 7.8). Conclusion In the Eastern Dongting Lake area, the high concentration of F- and pH of water may be responsible for the natural extinction of O. hupensis snails.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-818769

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the reasons of natural extinction of Oncomelania hupensis snails by comparing the difference of the water chemical properties between the snail-breeding marshland and non-snail marshland in Eastern Dongting Lake areas. Methods Three adjoining marshlands in Eastern Dongting Lake areas were selected, one was a snail-breeding marshland, the second was a non-snail marshland, and the third was a boundary zone between them. During the periods of water-rising season, wet season and water-falling season, the water samples from the bottom of 0.5 m were collected by the systematic random sampling method (200 m × 200 m grid method). In addition, the water samples below the surface of 0.5 m were also collected in the wet season. The physicochemical indexes of the sampling water were detected. Results According to the Surface Water Environmental Quality Standard (GB 3838–2002), the water quality indicators which were less than the detection limit were Cr, Cd, Zn, Hg, Cu, S- and CN- during the three sampling seasons. The pollutants which were slightly higher than Grade III but lower than Grade IV (Hg ≤ 1 μg/L, TP ≤ 0.1 mg/L) were Hg and TP. The pollutants below the Grade III included As and F-. The temperature and pH values were within the Grade III. The oxygen consumption indicators covering DO, COD and BOD in the water-rising season and wet season were within the Grade III, while the value of BOD was beyond the scope of Grade III but was between Grade Ⅳ (≤ 6 mg/L) and Grade V (≤ 10 mg/L) in the water-falling season. The differences of the water pollution indexes between the snail-breeding marshland and non-snail marshland were statistically significant, and these indexes included F-, As and pH in the water-rising season (P < 0.05); pH, BOD and Fat the surface layer in the wet season (P < 0.05); F- at the bottom in the wet season (P < 0.05); TP and F- in the water-falling season. Moreover, the above-mentioned indexes in the non-snail marshland of Qianliang Lake were higher than those in the snail-breeding marshland of Junshan Park. Thus, F- was the only index which had statistical differences in every sampling season, and the concentration of F- at the non-snail marshland was also higher than that at the snail-breeding marshland. In the water-rising season, the pH value at the non-snail marshland exceeded the suitable range for the growth of snails (6.8 to 7.8). Conclusion In the Eastern Dongting Lake area, the high concentration of F- and pH of water may be responsible for the natural extinction of O. hupensis snails.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-815895

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis is one of the key diseases of surveillance and prevention in China. The elimination of schistosomiasis is of great significance to people’s health and social economy. With the development of spatial epidemiology, progress has been made in the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis, the prediction of spatial and temporal trends, and analysis of the environmental factors. This paper reviews the application of spatial epidemiology in the control and prevention of schistosomiasis and introduces the spatio-temporal distribution methods, spatial model, and application of remote sensing technology.

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-779510

ABSTRACT

Su Teh Lung(1906-1985), a famous public health scientist, medical educator and thinker, one of the founders of epidemiology in China. Through scientific experiments and field investigations, he first clarified the distribution law of Oncomelania hupensis comprehensively and proposed the method of eliminating Oncomelania hupensis, and his work has made outstanding contributions to the study of the causes and prevention of schistosomiasis in China. He advocated a comprehensive research of every link of epidemiological process with ecological research, attached importance to statistical methods and logical thinking, went deep into the field, combined with reality, and created theoretical system of epidemiology in China. He advocated truth, seek truth from facts, devoted all his life to the practice and research of epidemic prevention and control, which has a far-reaching impact on the development of preventive medicine in China and the world.

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