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1.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 203-209, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-933782

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the urodynamic characteristics in parkinsonian-type multiple system atrophy (MSA-P) and Parkinson′s disease (PD) patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and to identify the differential diagnostic ability of urodynamic study.Methods:Sixty-eight MSA-P patients and 85 PD patients with LUTS who underwent urodynamic studies and were hospitalized in the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from February 2017 to December 2020 were reviewed. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the discriminatory power of urodynamic parameters.Results:Compared with PD, patients with MSA-P had shorter disease duration [2.70 (2.05, 3.00) years vs 5.00 (4.00, 6.00) years, Z=-7.44, P<0.001]. In free uroflowmetry (UFM) and pressure-flow study (PFS), patients with MSA-P showed lower maximal flow rate [Qmax; UFM-Qmax 6.00 (3.00, 8.75) ml/s vs 9.00 (6.00, 14.00) ml/s, Z=-4.31, P<0.001; PFS-Qmax[6.00 (3.00, 8.75) ml/s vs 9.00 (6.00, 14.00) ml/s, Z=-4.03, P<0.001] and larger postvoid residual [PVR;UFM-PVR 207.50 (113.75, 280.00) ml vs 45.00 (10.00, 117.50) ml, Z =-6.03, P<0.001; PFS-PVR 269.00 (148.75, 337.50) ml vs 75.00 (20.00, 167.50) ml, Z=-6.55, P<0.001)] with decreased compliance [42.65% (29/68) vs 14.12% (12/85), χ 2=15.68, P<0.001], decreased detrusor pressure at maximun flow rate [PdetQmax; 13.00 (6.00, 27.75) cmH 2O vs 27.00 (15.00, 39.50) cmH 2O, Z=-4.65, P<0.001; 1 cmH 2O=0.098 kPa] and impaired contractility [43.00 (34.00, 59.25) vs 79.00 (46.50, 100.00), Z=-5.44, P<0.001]. Compared with the MSA-P patients, detrusor overactivity (DO) was prominent in PD [54.41% (37/68) vs 78.82% (67/85), χ 2=10.34, P=0.001]. The ROC curve results showed that PFS-PVR had highest area under the curve (AUC), which was 0.81 (95% CI 0.74-0.88, P<0.001), followed by UFM-PVR, bladder contractility index and PdetQmax (0.78, 0.76 and 0.72, respectively). Conclusions:Patients with MSA-P showed lower Qmax and larger PVR with decreased bladder compliance and impaired contractility, while patients with PD had higher incidence of DO. The ROC results showed that PFS-PVR had the highest AUC and specificity in the differential diagnosis of MSA-P and PD,indicating that urodynamic study is a useful tool in differential diagnosis of patients with MSA-P and PD with lower urinary tract symptoms.

2.
Chinese Journal of Radiology ; (12): 411-417, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-932523

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the value of the static and dynamic pelvic floor MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in evaluating the morphology and function of urethra in patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI).Methods:From July 2020 to February 2021, a total of 28 patients with SUI and 45 age-matched healthy controls were prospectively collected at the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University. The static and dynamic pelvic floor MRI and DTI were performed for all subjects. The thickness of internal and external sphincter of middle urethra were measured on static MRI images. The functional urethral length (FUL) was measured both on static and maximal strain phase of dynamic MRI images, then the difference of FUL was calculated. The presence of bladder neck funneling and urethra opening were observed on static and dynamic MRI. The muscle fiber bundle image of urethral sphincter complex was obtained by post-processing of DTI original images. The anisotropy fraction (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and three eigenvalues (λ1, λ2, λ3) of annular sphincter and central longitudinal muscle in middle urethra were measured. The independent sample t test and chi-square test were used to analyse the difference of measured parameters in MRI, parameters of DTI and imaging signs between the two groups. Results:Compared with healthy controls, the SUI patients showed that the thickness of external sphincter in middle urethral and FUL in static status and maximal strain phase were significantly decreased ( t=-3.95, -5.72, -8.41, all P<0.001), the difference of FUL between static status and maximal strain phase was significantly increased ( t=4.41, P<0.001). The positive rate of bladder neck funneling in static status and maximal strain phase, urethral opening in maximal strain phase of SUI group increased significantly (χ2=23.09 , 22.25, 26.59, all P<0.001). In SUI group, the FA value of middle urethral annular sphincter decreased significantly ( t=-3.48, P=0.001), while the ADC, λ2 and λ3 values increased significantly ( t=3.19, 2.15 , 2.06, and P=0.002, 0.038 , 0.046, respectively). There was no significant difference in DTI parameters of middle urethral longitudinal muscle between the two groups (all P>0.05). Conclusions:Static and dynamic MRI and DTI techniques can objectively evaluate the changes of urethral morphology and function of SUI patients. The thinning of the external sphincter in the middle urethra, shortening of the FUL and the destruction of the microstructure of the annular sphincter fiber bundle were the main alterations of SUI patients.

3.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 472-474, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911052

ABSTRACT

This study prospectively collected the clinical data of patients who received sacral neuromodulation(SNM)variable-frequency stimulation (VFS) mode from June 2020 to December 2020, in order to explore the efficacy and safety of VFS mode in the treatment of refractory lower urinary tract dysfunction. The inclusion criteria were as follows: ①SNM was implanted; ②age ≥18 years old; ③The traditional constant-frequency stimulation (CFS) mode has poor therapeutic effect, and can not be improved after repeated adjustment of stimulation parameters; ④Patients with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms, who fail to respond to conservative treatment or are intolerant to conservative treatment; ⑤The drugs that affect the lower urinary tract symptoms and pelvic function should not be increased or decreased during the trial; ⑥provision of informed consent. A total of six patients meeting the criteria were included in the study, with three males and three females. The age ranged from 47 to 74 years, with an average age of 55 years. Among those patients, three cases were diagnosed of OAB, two cases were diagnosed of interstitial cystitis, and one case was diagnosed of neurogenic bladder. All patients had received CFS-SNM for an average of 20.6 months before upgrading to VFS mode, and suffered from severe frequency of urination at the same time. Compared with the severity of symptoms during the baseline period and the CFS period, a trend of improvement was found among four patients during the VFS period. The severity of symptoms was mainly based on the average daily urination frequency and OAB-Q score. For the two patients with interstitial cystitis, OAB symptoms worsened during the VFS period, while the VAS score did not change significantly. In general, VFS-SNM is not inferior to CFS-SNM in improving the symptoms of frequent micturition. For patients with interstitial cystitis, multiple sets of VFS parameters can be tried under the premise of satisfactory pain management.

4.
Chinese Journal of Geriatrics ; (12): 886-889, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-910935

ABSTRACT

Objective:To analyze the urodynamic and clinical features of detrusor underactivity(DU)in elderly men aged 60 years and over.Methods:Five hundred and seventy-three men aged 60 years and over underwent urodynamic measurements due to dysuria were retrospectively analyzed.According to the urodynamic parameters of bladder contractibility index(BCI)and bladder outlet obstruction index(BOOI), they were divided into the three groups: only detrusor underactivity(DU group)(BCI<100 and BOOI<20), only bladder outlet obstruction(BOO group)(BCI≥100 and BOOI≥40), and the combined non-DU and non-BOO group(NDB group)(BCI≥100 and BOOI<20). The urodynamic and clinical features were compared between the three groups.Results:The internalized 323 patients meeting inclusion and exclusion criteria were divided into 3 groups: 75 in the DU, 207 in the BOO and 41 in the NDB.The age was higher in DU and BOO groups than in NDB group( P<0.05). The DU group versus the NDB group showed the higher levels or values in the volume at first desire(FDV)[(279±80)ml vs.(238±72)ml], the proportions of incomplete bladder emptying(41% vs.17%), urine flow interruption(39% vs.15%)and retention(26% vs.7%), and the lower levels in the voiding efficiency(VE)[(61±32)% vs.(110±41)%], (all P<0.05). The DU group vs.the BOO group showed the increased levels or values in the FDV[(279±80)ml vs.(206±67)ml]and maximum cytometric capacity(MCC)(353±113 ml vs.281±94 ml)and the proportions of urine flow interruption(39% vs.22%), TURP(26% vs.6%), and retention(26% vs.14%), and the decreased levels or values in the VE[(61±32)% vs.(78±37%)], the proportions of DO(41% vs.77%), urgency(26% vs.43%)and nocturia(23% vs.39%)(all P<0.05). Conclusions:The main urodynamic and clinical features are manifested as the reduction of bladder sensation and bladder emptying rate, urine flow interruption, urinary retention and having a TURP history in elderly man with detrusor underactivity.The proportions of DU and BOO are increased along with aging.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-864336

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the effects and mechanism of cystostomy on young rats′ bladders function.Methods:Eighty female SD rats were divided into cystostomy group, sham operation group (the two groups included day 1, 3, 5 after operation), control group(it included day 1, 3, 5 after operation) and medicine intervention group by using random number table, there were 8 rats in each group.Cystometry was conducted in cystostomy group (day 1, 3, and 5 postoperative subgroup), and voided interval (VI), voided volume (VV), postvoid residual urine (PVR), bladder capacity (BC), maximum bladder pressure (Pves.max), bladder threshold pressure (Pves.thr), and bladder compliance(△C) were recorded.The rats in sham operation and control groups voided freely in the condition of diuresis by intravenous infusion saline, and VV, PVR and BC were recorded.Bladders′ tissues were collected for HE staining and histopathological inflammation scores (HIS) after urodynamic investigations.In medicine intervention group, different doses of anisodamine were applied and the changes of VI, VV, PVR, BC, Pves.max and Pves.thr were observed.Results:The trend of VV, VI, BC and △C was upwards on days 1, 3, and 5 postcystostomy.Meanwhile, compared with control group [VV: (1.408±0.033) mL, BC: (1.411±0.032) mL], VV and BC on day 1 and 3 postcystostomy were less[VV: (0.288±0.059) mL, (0.598±0.154) mL; BC: (0.292±0.059) mL, (0.601±0.154) mL]. There were statistically significant differences ( P<0.05). However, VV, PVR and BC on day 5 postcystostomy were not different from that of control group(all P>0.05). HE staining demonstrated that the HIS of days 1 and 3 postcystostomy and day 1 post-sham operation were in severe inflammatory phase, with HIS >4 scores.Additionally, the inflammation on day 5 in cystostomy group and days 3-5 in sham operation group were mild (HIS<2 scores). The correlation test of BC and HIS was negative( r=-0.880, P<0.001). After the application of anisodamine on dose of 0.2 mg/kg, VI, VV and BC of the young rats on day 3 postcystostomy significantly increased, compared with those before intervention [(643.500±65.889) s, (1.073±0.110) mL, (1.076±0.110) mL vs.(367.938±77.697) s, (0.612±0.129) mL, (0.617±0.129) mL, all P<0.05], while PVR, Pves.max and Pves.thr did not significantly change compared with those before intervention. Conclusion:The recent abnormal changes of urodynamics postcystostomy were related to the traumatic acute bladder inflammation in the young rats.On day 5 after the surgery, the bladder function basically returned to normal with the regression of the acute bladder inflammation.Anisodamine at 0.2 mg/kg dose could effectively relieve the symptoms of overactive bladder postcystostomy.

6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-864221

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate changes in the bladder morphological structure and function and the expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) pathway-related proteins in the bilateral spinal nerve amputated neurogenic bladder(NB) rat.Methods:A total of 64 female SD rats were included, and 32 of them underwent bilateral spinal nerve L6+ S1 amputation to construct the NB model and the others were used as sham operation controls.Rats in both NB and control groups received bladder cystometry 3, 6, 12, 24 weeks after corresponding operation.Collagen fibers in their bladder tissues were detected by Masson staining and Sirius scarlet staining.TGF-β1, Smad2 and Smad6 proteins were checked by immunohistochemical staining.TGF-β1 receptor Ⅰ protein was measured by Western blot.Results:Bladders in the NB group were instable, with bladder leak point pressure(BLPP) and underactive voiding pressures.The basal pressure [(22.10±2.51), (18.20±1.52), (31.20±2.82), (41.10±3.41) cmH 2O(1 cmH 2O=0.098 kPa)] and bladder volume [(22.30±1.72), (49.10±5.54), (30.30±2.68), (13.50±1.52) mL] of the NB rats at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks were significantly higher than those of the sham operation controls[(3.51±0.45) cmH 2O and (0.52±0.04) mL], and the difference were significant(all P<0.05). The bladder size and thickness in the NB group firstly increased (3, 6 weeks) and then decreased (12, 24 weeks), but the bladder weight increased continuously.Masson staining showed disordered fibrous connective tissues, disintegrated layered bla-dder wall, hypertrophied smooth muscle tissues and deposited intramuscular collagen on the nerve-amputated bladder wall.Sirius scarlet staining suggested that 24 weeks after nerve amputation, collagen Ⅲ increased greatly, and the ratio of type Ⅲ/Ⅰ collagen fibers (3.14±0.71) was significantly higher than that in the sham group (0.88±0.21) ( t= 7.48, P<0.01). According to the immunohistochemical staining results, the expressions of TGF-1β and Smad2 increased while the pathway inhibitory protein Smad6 decreased with time in the NB group.Western blot showed that the expression of TGF-β1 receptor Ⅰ in the amputated bladder was 1.3 and 1.6 folds higher than that in the sham group 12 weeks and 24 weeks after operation( t=6.06, 14.45, all P<0.01). Conclusions:In NB rats with bilateral spinal nerve amputated, bladder contraction becomes paralysis, intravesical pressure increases, bladder normal structure disintegrates and the fibrosis pathway TGF-β1/Smads is activated.Therefore, the key step of development of pediatric NB is bladder fibrosis, which should be prevented as early as possibly in the clinical practice.

7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-743524

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the significance of blood oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) and ambulatory urodynamics monitoring (AUM) to find the cause of primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) in children.Methods Thirty-seven children with PMNE (20 males and 17 females) were selected,with a mean age of (11.3 ±4.1) years old.A clinical management tool,3-day urination record,daytime BOLD-fMRI scan,conventional urodynamics (CUD) and AUM were performed respectively.Thirty-seven gender-age matched children(19 males,18 females) who would receive surgery treatment because of upper urinary tract disease and were confirmed to have no lower urinary tract dysfunction by CUD were enrolled as controls,with a mean age of (11.1 ± 2.9) years old,and 13 cases underwent BOLD-fMRI scanning.Results It was found that the ALFF value of the left middle frontal gyrus of PMNE was decreased and the ReHo value of the left superior occipital gyrus was increased compared with the control group by the resting BOLD-fMRI.The maximum voiding volume of PNME children was (303.11 ± 87.48) mL,the total urine volume at night was (568.65 ± 208.48) mL,and the nighttime bladder volume was (217.43 ± 81.53) mL.The incidence of maximum voiding volume reduction,nocturnal polyuria and decreased nocturnal bladder volume were 24.32% and 56.76%,and 64.86%,respectively.However,AUM results showed that maximum detrusor pressure in the PMNE group was (39.22 ± 7.78) cmH2O (1 cmH2O =0.098 kPa),which was statistically significantly higher than that in CUD (32.22 ±9.00) cmH2O,and the difference was statistically significant (P <0.05).In PMNE group,29 cases (78.37%) had detrusor overactivity (DO),which was significantly higher than that in CUD group [16 cases (43.24%)],and the difference was statistically significant(t =-3.047,P =0.004).CUD and AUM were all detected in children with DO,the frequency of DO detected by AUM was significantly higher than that detected by CUD[(2.00 ±0.55 times/h) vs.(1.38 ±0.50) times/h,P <0.05],and the maximum amplitude of detrusor pressure when DO occurring was significantly higher in AUM than in CUD [(19.56 ± 6.01) cmH2O vs.(14.38 ± 3.07) cmH2O],and the differences were statistically significant (all P < 0.05);however,there was no significant difference in bladder compliance detected by AUM or CUD (P > 0.05).Conclusions The abnormal functions of the left middle frontal gyrus and left superior occipital gyrus,nighttime DO and the decrease of bladder capacity at night are considered to be key causes of enuresis in children with PMNE.AUM and resting state BOLD-fMRI evaluations are helpful in differentiating the pathogenesis of PMNE.

8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-707422

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate application of modified isosceles triangle osteotomy which is designed with the assistance of Picture Archiving and Communication System ( PACS ) in supracondylar surgery for cubitus varus. Methods We reviewed the 31 patients who had been treated for cubitus varus from January 2012 to July 2017. They were 12 males and 19 females, aged from 17 to 24 years ( average, 20. 6 years) . Their elbow varus angles ranged from 14° to 35° (average, 22. 4°) . Preoperatively, the modified isosceles triangle osteotomy was designed using the PACS. The angle of osteotomy = carrying angle of the normal arm + the angle of cubitus varus. The lateral length of the isosceles triangle osteotomy was calculated according to the osteotomy angle. All the cases were fixated with a locking plate. Results The follow-ups lasted from 12 to 40 months ( average, 16 months ) . Bony union was achieved in the osteotomy site by all cases after 7 to 12 weeks ( average, 9 weeks ) . The carrying angles ranged from 8° to 15° ( average, 11°) at final follow-ups. The affected elbow obtained a range of flexion and extension from 126° to 150° ( average, 139°) and a range of rotation from 134° to 160° ( 144°) . According to the Mayo elbow performance score ( MEPS ) one year after operation, 23 cases were rated as excellent, 7 as good and one as fair, yielding an excellent to good rate of 96. 8%. No loss of carrying angle, neural deficit, malunion, delayed union, or myositis ossifi-cans of the elbow was observed during the follow-ups. Conclusion The PACS can be used in preoperative design of the modified isosceles triangle osteotomy for cubitus varus, leading to accuracy in the angle and length of the osteotomy to guarantee fine clinical results.

9.
Chinese Journal of Trauma ; (12): 345-350, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-707312

ABSTRACT

Objective To evaluate the clinical effect of mini-plate internal fixation via anterior elbow approach in treating coronoid process fractures.Methods A retrospective case series study was conducted on the clinical data of 43 cases of ulnar coronoid process fractures treated from December 2014 to December 2016.There were 29 males and 14 females,with an average age of 32.4 years (range,24-64 years).Twenty-four cases were injured on the right,and 19 on the left.There were 18 cases of simple coronoid process fractures,23 combined with ipsilateral capitulum radius fractures,and two combined with ipsilateral ulna olecranon fractures.According to the O'Driscoll classification,there were four cases of type Ⅰ,3 type Ⅱa,9 type Ⅱb,17 type Ⅱc,6 type Ⅲa,and 4 type Ⅲb.The elbow flexion and extension range was 40°-90°[(64 ± 18)°],and the rotation range 60°-130°[(83 ± 15)°].All the patients underwent mini-plate internal fixation via anterior elbow approach.The operation time,intraoperative blood loss,wound healing,fracture healing,and postoperative complications were recorded.Function of elbow joint was evaluated by Mayo elbow performance score (MEPS).Results All patients were followed up for 12-24 months (mean,15.7 months).The average operation time was 52 minutes (range,36-86 minutes).The average blood loss was 20 ml (range,10-50 ml).At the last follow-up,all were seen incision healing by first intention and clinical fracture healing.The index finger,and middle finger palmaris numbness occurred in one patient after surgery,and the patient recovered at 2 months of follow up.The elbow flexion and extension range was 86°-145° [(117 ± 114) °],and the rotation range of 114°-155° [(132 ± 17) °],showing significant difference in comparison with the preoperative measure (P < 0.05).According to the MEPS one year after operation,14 cases were evaluated excellent,27 good,and four fair,with an excellent and good rate of 91%.Conclusion The mini-plate internal fixation via the anterior elbow approach is effective in treating ulnar coronoid process fractures,for the operation is simple,allows full exposure,reduction,or reconstruction under direct vision,and effectively restores the function of the elbow joint.

10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-696501

ABSTRACT

Objective To identify the risk factors associated with recurrent urinary tract infection (RUTI) in children with neurogenic bladders (NB) who received clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) in order to provide recommendations for reducing the risk of RUTI.Methods Records of 184 children with NB managed by CIC at the Department of Urology Surgery,the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from July 2011 to September 2015 were reviewed and analyzed.According to UTI incidence,they were divided into 2 groups as occasional UTI group (0-1 time/year,OUTI group) and RUTI group (> 1 time/year).The clinical and urodynamic data were compared between 2 groups,and the risk factors were identified by regression analysis.Results Of the total patients,147 patients (79.9%) were diagnosed as OUTI and 37 cases (20.1%) as RUTI.Median follow-up lasted for average 27 months (12-39 months).The characteristics of RUTI group was indicated significantly in the study,which included increasing age(7.4 years old vs.5.9 years old),a higher level of spinal lesions,and more vesicoureteral reflux(VUR),and there were significant differences in bladder wall thickness(4.7 cm vs.3.6 cm) and lower bladder compliance compared with RUTI group (all P < 0.05).But there was no statistical significance in gender,antibiotics,hydronephrosis,incontinence,bladder capacity,detrusor overactivity,detrusor sphincter dyssynergia and detrusor leakage point pressure between 2 groups (all P > 0.05).Increasing age,increased bladder wall thickness,lower bladder com-pliance and the presence of VUR were independent risk factors associated with RUTI group (all P < 0.05).Conclusions Increasing age,increasing bladder wall thickness,lower bladder compliance and VUR are the risk factors for RUTI in NB children managed with CIC.It is necessary to follow up video-urodynamic and ultrasound findings in order to identify the high-risk patients and provide the evidence for preventing RUTI.

11.
China Pharmacist ; (12): 535-538, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-705582

ABSTRACT

Objective:To develop an HPLC method for the determination of vonoprazan pyroglutamate and vonoprazan fumarate. Methods:The column of Intertsil ODS-3 (150 mm×4.6 mm,5 μm) was used. The mobile phase was composed of methanol and a mixture of 0.15% phosphoric acid(ajust pH of 3 with 0.15% triethylamine solution). Gradient elution was adopted and the flow rate was set at 1.0 ml·min-1. The detection wavelength was 230 nm and the column temperature was 30℃. The sample size was 10 μl. Results: The standard curve of vonoprazan pyroglutamate showed a good linearity over the range of 2.060-131.800 μg·ml-1with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 7. The average spiked recovery of vonoprazan pyroglutamate was 99.40% (RSD=0.63%, n=9). The content of three batches of TAK-438 P was 98.7%,99.0% and 98.4%(n=3),respectively. The standard curve of vonoprazan fumarate showed a good linearity over the range of 1.844-118.000 μg·ml-1with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 9. The average spiked recovery of TAK-438 F was 100.67%(RSD =0.52%, n =9). The content of three batches of vonoprazan fumarate was 98.5%,98.2% and 98.9%(n=3),respectively. Conclusion:A reliable and sensitive HPLC method for the quantification of vono-prazan pyroglutamate is established and validated,which provides the basis for the content determination.

12.
China Pharmacist ; (12): 308-310, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-705518

ABSTRACT

To investigate the role of clinical pharmacists in the treatment team for acute drug poisoning,the pharmaceutical prac-tice of clinical pharmacists involved in the treatment of acute metronidazole poisoning was reported in the present paper. Clinical phar-macists assisted physicians in developing blood perfusion regimen on the basis of drug characteristics. Referring to the related guide-lines and evidence-based medicine, clinical pharmacists optimized the drug treatment programs to avoid drug-induced liver injury and stress ulcer. Meanwhile,clinical pharmacists provided an individualized heparin regimen and pharmaceutical care for the patient. With the close collaboration with physicians,the patient obtained perfect medicine therapy and pharmaceutical care. It is suggested clinical pharmacists play an active role in the rescue of acute drug poisoning patient by providing poisoning drug information for physicians time-ly and participating in the design of drug treatment programs using professional knowledge.

13.
China Pharmacist ; (12): 1038-1041, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-619669

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the transdermal absorption of phloretin and ligustilide in Fufang phloretin cream.Methods: In vitro percutaneous absorption test using the Franz intelligent transdermal absorption apparatus was adopted, an HPLC method was used to determine the contents of phloretin and ligustilide in the accepting solution at different time points, and then the cumulative release amount and the total penetration amount were calculated to evaluate the percutaneous absorption behavior.Results: Phloretin and ligustilide showed a good linearity within the range of 0.044 2-4.42 μg·ml-1(r=0.999 9) and 0.048 7-4.87 μg·ml-1(r=0.999 9), respectively, the average recovery was 99.85% and 99.92%, and RSD was 0.67% and 0.66% (n=9), respectively.The in vitro permeation behavior of phloretin and ligustilide through the skin of rats fit Higuchi equations(r>0.9), suggesting a good linear correlation between the cumulatine penetration amount (Qn) and (time).Conclusion: Fufang phloretin cream has a good percutaneous permeation property in vitro.

14.
Herald of Medicine ; (12): 1099-1102, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-661861

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the absorption characteristics of promethazine hydrochloride in different parts of rat intestine, provide evidence for the development of new preparation. Methods Rat single-pass intestinal perfusion model was established. By using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), 25, 50, 100 μgmL-1 promethazine hydrochloride concentration changing in different parts of the intestine was detected. Through the relevant calculation, the absorption rate constant ( Ka ) , and the apparent absorption coefficient ( Papp ) were obtained. Results With the concentration increase of promethazine hydrochloride in duodenal and ileal segments, the Ka and Papp increased significantly in the same part. Ka was (28.00±0.02)×10-2min-1 and Papp was (9.64±0.22) in the jejunum were the highest when the promethazine hydrochloride concentration was 50 μgmL-1 . As the concentration increased in colon, there were no significant changes in Ka and Papp . Conclusion Promethazine hydrochloride is absorbed in various intestinal segments, most obviously in duodenum and ileum, the absorption order is duodenum>ileum>jejunum>colon. Promethazine hydrochloride is absorbed most in the small intestine, in line with the intestinal absorption characteristics.

15.
Herald of Medicine ; (12): 1099-1102, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-658942

ABSTRACT

Objective To study the absorption characteristics of promethazine hydrochloride in different parts of rat intestine, provide evidence for the development of new preparation. Methods Rat single-pass intestinal perfusion model was established. By using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), 25, 50, 100 μgmL-1 promethazine hydrochloride concentration changing in different parts of the intestine was detected. Through the relevant calculation, the absorption rate constant ( Ka ) , and the apparent absorption coefficient ( Papp ) were obtained. Results With the concentration increase of promethazine hydrochloride in duodenal and ileal segments, the Ka and Papp increased significantly in the same part. Ka was (28.00±0.02)×10-2min-1 and Papp was (9.64±0.22) in the jejunum were the highest when the promethazine hydrochloride concentration was 50 μgmL-1 . As the concentration increased in colon, there were no significant changes in Ka and Papp . Conclusion Promethazine hydrochloride is absorbed in various intestinal segments, most obviously in duodenum and ileum, the absorption order is duodenum>ileum>jejunum>colon. Promethazine hydrochloride is absorbed most in the small intestine, in line with the intestinal absorption characteristics.

16.
China Pharmacist ; (12): 421-426, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-510101

ABSTRACT

Objective:To study the kinetics of transdermal absorption of volatile oil from Angelica slinesis in fetal skin and investi-gate the mechanism of penetration enhancement in terms of morphology. Methods: Franz diffusion cells were used to investigate the transdermal characteristics in vitro. The content of ligustilide was determined by HPLC, and the cumulative permeation amount per unit area and rate constant of ligustilide were calculated. The effects of volatile oil from Angelica slinesis on skin ultrastructure was observed by a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. Results:The kinetics of volatile oil at different concentra-tions was all in accordance with Higuchi equations. The ultrastucture changes of fetal skin under the scanning electron microscope were as follows:the wrinkles on skin surface increased, some areas of stratum corneum peeled off and turnovered like worn-out cotton pad-ding, the follicular orifice was enlarged, and the cuticles of the hair shaft dropped off and became thinner. The changes of fetal skin ul-trastucture under the transmission electron microscope were as follows:stratum corneum cells peeled off, the cell junction in basal lam-ina and stratum spinosum were broken, and the intercellular space was enlarged. Conclusion: The volatile oil from Angelica slinesis has good transdermal permeability. Its enhancement mechanism of transdermal drug absorption is closely related with the effects on skin ultrastructure, which can change the structure of stratum corneum to increase the cell gaps resulting in enhancing drug penetration.

17.
China Pharmacist ; (12): 472-475, 2017.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-510004

ABSTRACT

Objective: To establish a high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method ( HPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of PA-824 in the plasma of Beagle dogs, and study the pharmacokinetics of PA-824 in Beagle dogs. Methods:Carbamazepine was used as the internal standard, and the plasma samples were pretreated with ethyl acetate for the liquid-liquid extraction of PA-824. An Eclipse Plus C18 column (100 mm × 2. 1 mm, 3. 5 μm) was used with the mobile phase consisting of methanol-water (90 :10). The flow rate was 0. 6 ml·min-1 and the column temperature was 30 ℃. The injection volume was 5 μl and the sample analysis time was 5 min. The determination was performed with an electrospray ionization ( ESI) source in the positive multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The ion pairs were m/z 360. 1→m/z 175. 0 (collision energy of 35, solution cluster volt-age of 65) for PA-824 and m/z 237. 2→m/z 194. 0 (collision energy of 28, solution cluster voltage of 83) for carbamazepine. After the oral administration, PA-824 in plasma was measured at different time points, and then the pharmacokinetic parameters were calcu-lated by DAS 2. 0 software. Results: PA-824 showed a good linear relationship within the range of 50-10000 ng · ml-1 ( r =0. 9991). The recovery was 97. 7%-105. 1%, and the RSDs of intra-day and inter-day were less than 5. 0%. At three different dosa-ges (100, 200 and 500 mg) of PA-824, AUC0-twere (5735. 18 ± 1918. 76),(11548. 47 ± 1838. 04) and (21987. 88 ± 4587. 58) ng·min·ml-1,t1/2 were(14.17 ±5.97),(11.11 ±4.39) and (13.13 ±5.46)h,and Cmaxwere(626.66 ±188.48),(2399.13 ± 516.51) and (4861.33 ±2253.61)ng·ml-1, respectively. Conclusion:The method is simple, accurate, rapid and reproducible, and suitable for the pharmacokinetic study of PA-824 in the plasma of Beagle dogs.

18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-495245

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the changes in intracellular Ca2+ in the ureter smooth muscle cells (USMC) of rats with neuropathic urinary tract dysfunction (NUTD) and their significance.Methods Forty-five rats were randomly and averagely divided into NUTD group,experimental control (EC) group and blank control (BC) group.The NUTD group was operated with a spinal cord transection at the first lumbar level and the sacral cord was destroyed;in EC group the spinal process was partly bitten at the same position,but the spinal cord was not transected;BC group was given no operations.One week later,the video-urodynamic was performed to observe the acontractile detrusor (ACD),vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and urinary tract dysfunction in rats among the NUTD group,EC group and the BC group.Video-urodynamic assessment was performed at the sixth week after operation.Ureter smooth muscle cells (USMC) were obtained by collagenase digestion.Intracellular Ca2 + in the USMC were observed by laser scanning confocal microscope.Then the effects of Bay K8644(10-8 mol/L,10-7 mol/L,10-6 mol/L) on cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations([Ca2+] i) in NUTD group were studied by calculating the fluorescence intensity.Results ACD and no detrusor overactivity were found in all rats in NUTD group and without vesicoureteral reflux.Immunofluorescence method confirmed that the cells were USMC.Compared with BC group (31.44 ± 2.82) and EC group (32.06 ± 3.67),the fluorescence intensity (FI) of intracellular Ca2 + in USMC was much lower in the NUTD group (9.80 ± 1.11),and there was significant difference(P < 0.05).Bay K8644 (10-8 mol/L,10-7 mol/L,10-6 mol/L) increased the FI of [Ca2 +] i in a concentration-dependent manner,which were 3.80 ± 1.30,10.04 ± 2.15,19.89 ± 2.06,respectively,and there was significant difference (P < 0.05).Conclusions The decrease in Ca2 + concentration in the ureter smooth muscle cells may be one of the important factors for the primary ureteral dysfunction of NUTD.And calcium channel agonist can be meaningful for adjusting abnormal Ca2+ concentration in USMC of NUTD.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-491090

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the effect of erythropoietin(EPO)on the expression of aquaporin - 2 (AQP2)in the kidney of young SD rats after release of bilateral ureter obstruction(BUO - R). Methods Thirty - two young SD rats were equally divided into 4 groups randomly(BUO group,BUO - R group,BUO - R ﹢ EPO group and Sham group,8 rats in each group). The BUO model was built through bilateral ureteral ligation. EPO(500 U/ kg)was given to BUO - R ﹢ EPO rats at 2 h after release of BUO,and then repeated 6 h,12 h,24 h and 36 h thereafter and the same volume of 9 g/ L saline was simultaneously given to BUO - R rats. The Sham group was prepared in parallel by laparotomy and free dissection of bilateral ureters but not ligated. Both side kidneys were harvested 48 h(72 h for Sham group)after release of BUO to examine the effect of EPO on the expression of AQP2 in inner medulla by immunohisto-chemistry,Real - time PCR and Western blot. The urine samples were collected by using metabolic cage before death. Results The osmotic pressure of BUO - R ﹢ EPO group was higher than that of BUO - R group,but lower than that of Sham group(P ﹤ 0. 05). Immunohistochemistry showed that the collecting duct wall thinned and lumen enlarged. After the pictures were analysized by using Image - Pro Plus software,it showed that the expression of AQP2 in collecting duct in BUO group was significantly down - regulated compared with that in Sham group,whereas,it was slightly weaker in BUO - R group and BUO - R ﹢ EPO group than Sham group(P ﹤ 0. 05). These results were further confirmed by a-dopting Western blot,and the relative quantity of AQP2 in BUO group was also the lowest of the four groups(P ﹤0. 05). Real - time PCR showed that the level of AQP2 mRNA in Sham group was(24. 30 ± 1. 03)folds of BUO group,(10. 60 ± 1. 05)folds of BUO - R group and(5. 70 ± 1. 01)folds of BUO - R ﹢ EPO group,respectively. Conclusion EPO could promote not only the recovery of AQP2 mRNA and protein expression but also the recovery of AQP2 function in young BUO - R rats.

20.
Chinese Journal of Urology ; (12): 174-178, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-488693

ABSTRACT

Objective To conduct a systematic review to evaluate efficacy and safety of bladder neck preservation techniques during radical prostatectomy.Methods We searched PubMed,Embase,Medline,Central (the Cochrane Library,Issue 1,2013),CNKI,CBM from the inception to July 2015 for randomized or observational studies assessing the influence of preservation of bladder neck on the continence recovery and cancer control outcomes after radical prostatectomy.Two researchers evaluated the quality of included studies.A meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.0 software.Results Twelve observational and two randomized studies were analyzed.BNP group had a faster recovery of early continence than non-BNP group at 1 month[OR =2.88,95% CI 1.80-4.60,P < 0.05],3-4 months [OR =2.32,95% CI 1.42-3.80,P < 0.05].However there was no statistically significant difference in terms of continence rate at 6 months [OR =1.49,95% CI 0.97-2.29,P =0.07] and 12 months [OR =0.99,95% CI 0.70-1.39,P =0.93] among two groups.There was no significant difference in terms of PSM rate [OR =0.92,95 % CI 0.71-1.19,P =0.52] between BNP and non-BNP groups.Conclusions We found that preservation of the bladder neck result in earlier return of urinary continence without adversely affecting cancer control.

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