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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-873191

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the effect of Shuangshen Ningxin capsule in alleviating myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats by regulating mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate(ATP)-sensitive potassium channels.Method:A total of 56 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham-operated control group (sham), model group (model), Shuangshen Ningxin group (SSNX, 90 mg·kg-1).Shuangshen Ningxin and mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel (MitoKATP) channel inhibitor group 5-hydroxyl-acid group (SSNX+5-HD, 5 mg·kg-1), with 14 rats in each group. Except the sham operation group, the other three groups received occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) for 45 min, and were sacrificed 3 h after reperfusion. Myocardial ischemia and infarct size were observed by TSC Evans blue staining, and myocardial tissue damage degree was observed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The kit was used to measure serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK) and creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB). The ultrastructural changes of mitochondria and mitochondrial autophagy were observed under transmission electron microscope. The changes of mitochondrial membrane potential in cardiomyocytes were detected by fluorescent probe.Result:Compared with the sham group, myocardial infarct size and myocardial ischemic area percentage in the model group were significantly increased, myocardial tissue arrangement was disordered and loose, individual myocardial fibers were broken, cardiomyocytes were necrotic, and serum CK, CK-MB, LDH activities were significantly increased (P<0.01). Mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly decreased (P<0.01), and mitochondrial structure was destroyed by transmission electron microscopy. Compared with the model group, the myocardial tissue of the SSNX group was arranged orderly, and a small amount of cell edema was mildly degenerated. The percentage of myocardial infarct size and myocardial ischemic area was significantly decreased, serum CK, CK-MB, and LDH activities were significantly decreased (P<0.01), while mitochondrial membrane potential increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the SSNX+5-HD group had mild myocardial tissue disorder and mild degeneration of cell edema in some areas, the percentage of myocardial infarct size and myocardial ischemic area was significantly reduced, serum CK, CK-MB, and LDH activities were significantly decreased (P<0.01), and mitochondrial membrane potential increased (P<0.01). Compared with SSNX group, SSNX+5-HD group had significant increase in serum CK, CK-MB and LDH activities (P<0.01), significant increase in the percentage of myocardial infarct size and myocardial ischemic area, and mitochondrial membrane potential Reduced (P<0.05).Conclusion:SSNX protects rat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury by opening mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-802054

ABSTRACT

Ischemic heart disease is one of the most deadly diseases in the world, and new therapies and preventive measures are urgently needed. In general, cardiomyocytes rely on adenosine triphosphate(ATP) produced by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to maintain their systolic and ion pump functions. Autophagy is a procedural degradation mechanism widely present in eukaryotic cells. It is a self-defense mechanism and self-repair process of the body tissues. It is also a way of apoptosis and a basic phenomenon to maintain the energy balance of human cells. Mitochondrial autophagy is a type of selective autophagy in cells. In fact, damaged mitochondria selectively remove damaged proteins and organelles with autophagy to maintain intracellular homeostasis. Mitochondrial autophagy is important for maintaining the homeostasis of cardiomyocytes. With the deepening of modern biological research, more and more traditional Chinese medicines(TCM) or their extracts have been proven to alleviate myocardial cell damage after ischemia/reperfusion through autophagy or regulation of mitochondrial function. This further inspires TCM workers to find effective treatment measures by targeting mitochondria. Under the above background, this paper reviews the effects of mitochondrial autophagy on ischemic heart disease and the intervention studies of TCM in this field.

3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773225

ABSTRACT

This study was to investigate the mechanism of safflower yellow injection for regulating inflammatory response against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury( MIRI) in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham operation group,model group,Hebeishuang group,safflower yellow injection high,medium and low dose groups. MIRI model was established by ligating left anterior descending coronary artery. Myocardial histopathological changes were observed by HE staining; myocardial infarct size was detected by TTC staining; content and changes of tumor necrosis factor-α( TNF-α) and interleukin-6( IL-6),serum creatine kinase( CK),aspartate aminotransferase( AST),and lactate dehydrogenase( LDH) were detected by biochemical method or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay( ELISA). Western blot assay was used to detect the protein expression of Toll-like receptor 4( TLR4) and nuclear factor-κB( NF-κB p65) in myocardial tissues. The results showed that as compared with the sham operation group,the myocardial arrangement of the model group was disordered,with severe edemain the interstitial,significantly increased area of myocardial infarction,increased activities of AST,CK and LDH in serum,and significantly increased contents of TNF-α and IL-6; the expression levels of TLR4 and NF-κB( p65) protein in myocardial tissues were also increased. As compared with the model group,the myocardial tissues were arranged neatlyin the Hebeishuang group and safflower yellow injection high,medium and low dose groups; the edema was significantly reduced; the myocardial infarct size was significantly reduced; the serum AST,CK,LDH activity and TNF-α,IL-6 levels were significantly decreased,and the expression levels of TLR4 and NF-κB( p65) protein in myocardial tissues were decreased. As compared with the Hebeishuang group,the myocardial infarct size was larger in the safflower yellow injection high,medium and low dose groups; the activities of AST,CK and LDH in serum and the contents of TNF-α and IL-6 in serum were higher,but there was no statistically significant difference in the expression levels of TLR4 and NF-κB( p65) protein in tissues. It is suggested that safflower yellow injection has a significant anti-MIRI effect,and its mechanism may be related to the regulation of TLR-NF-κB pathway to inhibit inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blood , Chalcone , Pharmacology , Creatine Kinase , Blood , Interleukin-6 , Metabolism , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase , Blood , Male , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury , Drug Therapy , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , Metabolism , Transcription Factor RelA , Metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Metabolism
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-275416

ABSTRACT

The blending end-point determination of Angong Niuhuang Wan (AGNH) is a key technology problem. The control strategy based on quality by design (QbD) concept proposes a whole blending end-point determination method, and provides a methodology for blending the Chinese materia medica containing mineral substances. Based on QbD concept, the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to assess the cinnabar, realgar and pearl powder blending of AGNH in a pilot-scale experiment, especially the whole blending end-point in this study. The blending variability of three mineral medicines including cinnabar, realgar and pearl powder, was measured by moving window relative standard deviation (MWRSD) based on LIBS. The time profiles of realgar and pearl powder did not produce consistent results completely, but all of them reached even blending at the last blending stage, so that the whole proposal blending end point was determined. LIBS is a promising Process Analytical Technology (PAT) for process control. Unlike other elemental determination technologies such ICP-OES, LIBS does not need an elaborate digestion procedure, which is a promising and rapid technique to understand the blending process of Chinese materia medica (CMM) containing cinnabar, realgar and other mineral traditional Chinese medicine. This study proposed a novel method for the research of large varieties of traditional Chinese medicines..

5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-320342

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a licorice chalconoid, is considered to be a bioactive agent with chemopreventive potential. This study investigates the mechanisms involved in ISL-induced apoptosis in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Cell viability was evaluated using a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry using an Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit. The intracellular ROS levels were assessed using a 2, 7-dichlorofluorescein probe assay. The mitochondrial membrane potential was measured with the dual-emission potential-sensitive probe 5, 5', 6, 6'-tetra-chloro-1, 1', 3, 3'-tetraethyl-imidacarbocyanine iodide (JC-1). The degradation of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) protein, the phosphorylation of PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), the phosphorylation of the α-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), the expression of the 78 kD glucose-regulated protein (GRP 78), and the activation of caspase-12 were analyzed via western blot analysis.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>ISL significantly inhibited the proliferation, the increase in ROS levels and apoptotic rates of HeLa cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, ISL induced mitochondrial dysfunction, caspase activation, and PARP cleavage, which displayed features of mitochondria dependent on apoptotic signals. Besides, exposure of HeLa cells to ISL triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as indicated by the increase in p-eIF2α and GRP78 expression, ER stress-dependent apoptosis is caused by the activation of ER-specific caspase-12.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The findings from our study suggest that ISL-induced oxidative stress causes HeLa cell apoptosis via the mitochondrion-dependent and the ER stress-triggered signaling pathways.</p>


Subject(s)
Aldehyde Reductase , Apoptosis , Cell Survival , Chalcones , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Chemoprevention , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , HeLa Cells , Humans , Mitochondria , Neoplasms , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-319698

ABSTRACT

Licochalcone A (LCA), as a major flavonoid in Glycyrrhiza inflate, has attracted wide attention in recent years. Studies showed that LCA has multiple pharmacological effects such as anti-tumour, anti-inflammation, anti-bacteria and anti-parasite. We made a summary for domestic and foreign study literatures for various pharmacological effects of LCA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Infective Agents , Pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic , Pharmacology , Chalcones , Pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Glycyrrhiza , Chemistry , Humans
7.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1477-1482, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-274635

ABSTRACT

This study is to investigate the mechanism of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells proliferation induced by alteronol in vitro. Human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells cultured in vitro were treated with different concentrations of alteronol. Inhibition rate was detected by SRB assay. Cellular morphological changes were observed by Hoechst and AO/EB (acridine orange/ethidium bromide dye) staining. The apoptosis rate was determined by Annexin V-FITC/PI assay. Cell cycle distribution was determined by flow cytometry. Western blotting analysis was carried out to determine the cell cycle related proteins. The proliferation of HL-60 cells treated with alteronol was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner. Based on cell viability assay, observation on cell morphology and apoptosis rate, it confirmed that alteronol played an obvious role in proliferation inhibition of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells, but it did not induce apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells in different concentrations groups. Alteronol could effectively inhibit the proliferation of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells inducing cell cycle arrest at G1 phase, as well as, alteration expression of cell cycle proteins level of CyclinD1 and pRb.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Pharmacology , Apoptosis , Cell Cycle , Cell Proliferation , Cyclin D1 , Metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , HL-60 Cells , Humans , Naphthoquinones , Pharmacology , Phosphorylation , Retinoblastoma Protein , Metabolism
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-249911

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To find out the mechanisms of redifferentiation and reversion of malignant human gastric cancer cells induced by ascorbic acid.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>Human gastric cancer cells grown in the laboratory were used. The Trypan blue dye exclusion method was used to determine the cell doubling time. The electrophoresis rate and colonogenic potential were the indices used to measure the rate of redifferentiation. The content of malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured using the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and the content of H202 were evaluated by spectrophotography.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Six mmol/L ascorbic acid was used as a positive control. Human gastric cancer cells were treated with 75 microm hydrogen peroxide, which alleviated many of the malignant characteristics. For example, the cell surface charge obviously decreased and the electrophoresis rate dropped from 2.21 to 1.10 microm x s(-1) x V(-1) x cm(-1). The colonogenic potential, a measure of cell differentiation, decreased 90.2%. After treatment with ascorbic acid, there was a concentration- and time-dependent increase in hydrogen peroxide (H202) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). However, the activity of catalase (CAT) resulted in a concentration- and time-dependent decrease. SOD and 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT) exhibited some effects, but there were statistically significant differences between the SOD and AT group and the H202 group.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Ascorbic acid induces growth inhibition and redifferentiation of human gastric cancer cells through the production of hydrogen peroxide.</p>


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid , Pharmacology , Cell Differentiation , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Metabolism , Stomach Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Pathology , Tumor Cells, Cultured
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-329599

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>Ixeris chinesis (Thunb.) Ankai has been used as a Chinese folk medicine, but only scanty information is available on the physiological and biochemical functions of the compounds extracted from I. chinesis. In the present study the effects of apigenin-7-glucoside (APIG) isolated from I. chinesis against liver injury caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) were investigated.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), and reduced glutathione (GSH) were evaluated by spectrophotography. The content of 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was measured with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with electrochemical and UV detection methods. The antioxidant activity of APIG was evaluated using chemiluminescence single photon counting technology.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>CCl4 significantly increased the enzyme activities of GPT and GOT in blood serum, as well as the level of MDA and 8-OHdG in liver tissue, and decreased the levels of GSH. Pretreatment with APIG was able not only to suppress the elevation of GPT, GOT, MDA and 8-OHdG, and inhibit the reduction of GSH in a dose-dependent manner in vivo, but also to reduce the damage of hepatocytes in vitro. On the other hand, we also found that APIG had strong antioxidant activity against reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The hepatoprotective activity of APIG is possibly due to its antioxidant properties, acting as scavengers of ROS. These results obtained in vivo and in vitro suggest that APIG has protective effects against hepatic oxidative injury induced by chemicals. Further studies on the pharmaceutical functions and immunological responses of APIG may help its clinical application.</p>


Subject(s)
Alanine Transaminase , Blood , Metabolism , Animals , Antioxidants , Therapeutic Uses , Apigenin , Therapeutic Uses , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Blood , Metabolism , Asteraceae , Chemistry , Carbon Tetrachloride , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , DNA Damage , Deoxyguanosine , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Glutathione , Metabolism , Hepatocytes , Metabolism , Lipid Peroxidation , Liver , Metabolism , Male , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Protective Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-264313

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the effects and mechanisms of ascorbic acid (AA) and sodium selenite (SS) on growth inhibition and redifferentiation in human gastric cancer cells.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>In the present study, trypan blue dye exclusion method was used to determine the cell growth curve and mitotic index, cell electrophoresis and colonogenic potential were used as the indexes of redifferentiation. In order to find out the mechanisms of redifferentiation, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) were assayed, the content of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and H2O2 were evaluated.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After treatment with AA 3 mol/L + SS 2 mu mol/L, the growth rate and mitotic index of human gastric cancer cells (MGc-803) decreased remarkably. The indexes related with cell malignancy were alleviated. For example, cell surface charge was obviously decreased, the electrophoresis rate was dropped from 2.21 to 1.15 mu m.s-1.V-1.cm-1. The indexes related with cell redifferentiation were promoted. For example, the colonogenic potential was decreased to 93.5%. These results indicated that redifferentiation of human gastric cancer cells was successfully induced by AA + SS. The activities of SOD and GPX were significantly higher, while the activity of CAT was slower in treated group than that in the control. The content of MDA was slightly decreased, GSH was sharply decreased, and H2O2 content was dramatically increased.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>These results indicated that combination of ascorbic acid and sodium selenite may induce the redifferentiation of human gastric cancer cells and inhibit cell growth by virtue of enhancing the activities of antioxidative enzymes and inducing the formation of H2O2, and altering the cell redox status. Combination of ascorbic acid and sodium selenite may be a potent anticancer agent for human gastric cancer.</p>


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid , Pharmacology , Catalase , Pharmacology , Cell Differentiation , Glutathione Peroxidase , Pharmacology , Humans , Mitotic Index , Sodium Selenite , Pharmacology , Stomach Neoplasms , Pathology , Superoxide Dismutase , Pharmacology , Tumor Cells, Cultured
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