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1.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 36(7): e00136419, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124311

ABSTRACT

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a disease associated with low-income populations. Thus, in assessing the burden of this disease, it is important to include its economic impact on individuals. We aimed to evaluate CL economic impact on patients treated at a referral service in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study based on the analysis of interviews and medical records from which we assembled direct medical and non-medical costs related to CL, from a societal perspective. One hundred patients were included; 50% had a monthly per capita income of up to USD 259.60 and spent on average USD 187.32 with the disease, representing an average monthly impact of 22.5% (USD 133.80). The disease imposed direct medical costs, such as: private medical appointments, medications, medical exams, dressing material, and co-participation in health insurances. Direct non-medical costs were mainly related to patients' transportation to health centers (USD 4,911.00), but also included medically-necessary care, food, and domestic and business outsourcing services. Although the Brazilian public health system guarantees access to health care, CL still represents a substantial economic impact for patients. The main action to reduce the expenses with this disease is decentralizing services for CL diagnosis and therapeutic approach, as well as increasing their efficiency.


A leishmaniose cutânea (LC) é uma doença associada a populações de baixa renda. Portanto, a inclusão do impacto financeiro sobre os pacientes é muito importante para avaliar a carga dessa doença. Tivemos como objetivo avaliar o impacto econômico da LC em pacientes afetados pela doença e tratados em um centro de referência para LC no Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Foi um estudo transversal com base em análise de entrevistas e prontuários médicos para compilação dos gastos médicos e não médicos diretos relacionados à LC, desde uma perspectiva societal. Foram incluídos cem pacientes; 50% tinham renda mensal per capita de até USD 259,60. O gasto médio na doença foi de USD 187,32, o que representa um impacto mensal médio de 22,5% (USD 133,80). A doença impôs custos médicos diretos, como o pagamento por consultas médicas particulares, exames médicos, material para curativos e co-participação em seguro de saúde. Os custos não médicos diretos estiveram relacionados ao transporte dos pacientes até os centros de saúde, cuidados adicionais, alimentação e contratos com serviços terceirizados para atividades domésticas e laborais. O transporte dos pacientes para as consultas médicas representava a principal parcela dos gastos (USD 4.911,00). Embora o acesso à assistência à saúde seja um direito garantido pelo Sistema Único de Saúde, a LC ainda gera um impacto financeiro substancial para os pacientes. A descentralização dos serviços diagnósticos e terapêuticos para LC e o aumento de sua eficiência são as principais medidas que podem reduzir os gastos com essa doença.


La leishmaniosis cutánea (LC) es una enfermedad asociada a poblaciones con ingresos bajos. Por ello, incluir el impacto financiero para las personas es muy importante a la hora de evaluar la carga de esta enfermedad. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar el impacto económico de la LC, de pacientes afectados por esta enfermedad, que fueron tratados por un servicio de referencia para el tratamiento de la LC en el Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Este estudio transversal basado en entrevistas y análisis de registros médicos para la recopilación de gastos médicos y no-médicos directos, relacionados con la LC desde una a perspectiva social. Se incluyeron a cien pacientes; el 50% contaba con ingresos mensuales per cápita de hasta USD 259,60 y gastaban un promedio de USD 187,32 en la enfermedad, representando un impacto promedio mensual de 22,5% (USD 133,80). La enfermedad supuso costes médicos directos, como el pago de citas médicas privadas, medicamentos, exámenes médicos, material para vendajes, y coparticipación en seguros médicos. Los costes directos no-médicos estaban relacionados con el transporte de los pacientes a los centros de salud, el cuidado necesario, comida, y contratos con servicios externalizados para actividades domésticas y laborales. El transporte de los pacientes para citas médicas representó la principal razón para los gastos (USD 4.911,00). A pesar de que el acceso a los cuidados de salud es un derecho garantizado por el sistema de salud público brasileño, la LC todavía supone un impacto financiero importante para los pacientes. La descentralización de los servicios para el diagnóstico de LC, la aproximación terapéutica, y el incremento de su eficiencia, son las acciones con principal potencial para reducir los gastos financieros de esta enfermedad.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/economics , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/epidemiology , Health Care Costs , Referral and Consultation , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
2.
Rev. APS ; 22(2): 455-467, 20190401.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102939

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever e discutir fatores facilitadores e desafios enfrentados durante o processo de incorporação de um teste rápido para o diagnóstico da leishmaniose visceral (LV) humana em serviços de saúde de município endêmico para a doença no Brasil. Este estudo foi dividido em quatro eixos de análise, seguindo as etapas de execução do estudo: 1) Descrição do sistema de saúde local e da tecnologia a ser implantada; 2) Contexto e atividades preparatórias; 3) Resultados da avaliação da implantação, da aceitação e do desempenho do algoritmo diagnóstico; 4) Conclusões, considerações e recomendações. O estudo foi conduzido em Ribeirão das Neves, no estado de Minas Gerais; o teste rápido implantado, o IT LEISH®, executado a partir de sangue capilar. Impasses e desafios estiveram relacionados à recusa de profissionais de saúde em realizar o IT LEISH® durante as capacitações, como dificuldade no processo de compra do teste rápido e atraso na entrega, dificuldades para coleta do sangue capilar relatada por pacientes e profissionais de saúde e falta de clareza entre os profissionais sobre suas atribuições e responsabilidades nas unidades de saúde, além de evasão de pacientes para cidade de maior porte. Este estudo apontou para a viabilidade da implantação de um teste rápido que descentralizasse e favorecesse o acesso ao diagnóstico laboratorial da LV. No entanto, no período do estudo, a maioria dos casos de LV residentes em Ribeirão das Neves foi diagnosticada em outro município, Belo Horizonte. Tal constatação aponta para desarticulação interna envolvendo os serviços de saúde do município, seja no acolhimento e na identificação dos suspeitos de LV, seja na efetiva utilização dos recursos disponíveis. Mesmo assim, identificamos dois aspectos determinantes para a realização da implantação: o engajamento de profissionais lotados em setores estratégicos da gestão municipal e a existência de financiamento. Estes resultados demonstram a complexidade do processo de implantação de uma nova tecnologia e apontam para a necessidade de trabalho integrado. Do contrário, a disponibilidade de testes rápidos para LV não será suficiente para garantir acesso e redução da letalidade pela doença.


This study aims to describe and discuss facilitating factors and challenges faced during the process of incorporating a rapid test for the diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in health services of a municipality endemic to the disease in Brazil. This study was divided in four axis of analysis, following the study stages of execution: 1) Description of the local health system and the technology to be implemented; 2) Context and preparatory activities; 3) Results of evaluation of the implementation, acceptance and performance of the diagnostic algorithm; 4) Conclusions, considerations and recommendations. The study was conducted in Ribeirão das Neves, Minas Gerais and the rapid test implanted was IT LEISH®, performed from capillary blood. Impasses and challenges were related to the refusal of health professionals to perform IT LEISH® during training, difficulty in purchasing the rapid test and its delayed delivery, difficulties in capillary blood collection reported by patients and health professionals, lack of clarity among the professionals regarding their duties and responsibilities in health units, as well as avoidance of patients to a larger city. This study pointed to the feasibility of the implantation of a rapid test that decentralizes and favors the access to laboratory diagnosis of VL. However, in the study period, the majority of VL cases residing in Ribeirão das Neves were diagnosed in another municipality, Belo Horizonte. This finding points to internal disarticulation involving the health services of the municipality, either in the reception and identification of suspected LV, or in the effective use of available resources. Even so, we identified two determinant aspects for the implementation: the engagement of crowded professionals in strategic sectors of municipal management and the existence of financing. These results demonstrate the complexity of the process of implementing a new technology and point to the necessity of integrated work. Otherwise, the availability of rapid tests for LV will not be enough to guarantee access and reduction of disease lethality.


Subject(s)
Health Services , Leishmaniasis, Visceral , Health Management , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/prevention & control
3.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180452, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-984755

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Studies aimed at validating canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnostic tests present heterogeneous results regarding test accuracy, partly due to divergences in reference standards used and different infection evolution periods in animals. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the rapid test-dual path platform (TR-DPP) (Biomanguinhos®), EIE-Leishmaniose-Visceral-Canina-Biomanguinhos (EIE-LVC) (Biomanguinhos®), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) rK39 (in-house), and the direct agglutination test (DAT-Canis) against a reference standard comprising parasitological and molecular techniques. METHODS A phase II/III validation study was carried out in sample sera from 123 predominantly asymptomatic dogs living in an area endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. FINDINGS Sixty-nine (56.1%) animals were considered infected according to the reference standard. For each test, the sensitivity and specificity, respectively, were as follows: TR-DPP, 21.74% [confidence interval (CI)95% 13.64% to 32.82%] and 92.59% (CI95% 82.45% to 97.08%); EIE-LVC, 11.59% (CI95% 5.9% to 21.25%) and 90.74% (CI95% 80.09% to 95.98%); ELISA rK39, 37.68% (CI95% 27.18% to 49.48%) and 83.33% (CI95% 71.26% to 90.98%); and DAT-Canis, 18.84% (CI95% 11.35% to 29.61%) and 96.30% (CI95% 87.46% to 98.98%). CONCLUSION We concluded that improving the sensitivity of serum testing for diagnosing asymptomatic dogs must constitute a priority in the process of developing new diagnostic tests to be used in the visceral leishmaniasis control program in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Dogs , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/prevention & control , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/therapy , Serology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e180478, 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-990192

ABSTRACT

The population of Brazil is currently characterised by many individuals harbouring low-intensity Schistosoma mansoni infections. The Kato-Katz technique is the diagnostic method recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to assess these infections, but this method is not sensitive enough in the context of low egg excretion. In this regard, potential alternatives are being employed to overcome the limits of the Kato-Katz technique. In the present review, we evaluated the performance of parasitological and immunological approaches adopted in Brazilian areas. Currently, the diagnostic choices involve a combination of strategies, including the utilisation of antibody methods to screen individuals and then subsequent confirmation of positive cases by intensive parasitological investigations.


Subject(s)
Humans , Schistosoma mansoni , Immunoassay
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180272, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041550

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is fatal if not diagnosed and treated. This study aimed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of diagnostic-therapeutic alternatives for VL in Brazil. METHODS: A decision model estimated the life expectancy and costs of six diagnostic-therapeutic strategies. RESULTS: IT LEISH + liposomal amphotericin B emerged the best option, presenting lower costs and higher effectiveness. DAT-LPC + liposomal amphotericin B showed an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of US$ 326.31 per life year. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate the feasibility of incorporating DAT and designating liposomal amphotericin B as the first-line drug for VL in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Amphotericin B/economics , Cost-Benefit Analysis/statistics & numerical data , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/economics , Meglumine/economics , Antiprotozoal Agents/economics , Brazil , Coombs Test/economics , Amphotericin B/administration & dosage , Sensitivity and Specificity , Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect/economics , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Meglumine/administration & dosage , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 51(3): 318-323, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-957424

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Pentavalent antimonials (Sbv) are the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), despite their high toxicity and only moderate efficacy. The aim of this study was to report therapeutic responses with different available options for ML. METHODS This study was based on a review of clinical records of 35 patients (24 men and 11 women) treated between 2009 and 2015. RESULTS The median age of patients was 63 years, and the median duration of the disease was 24 months. Seventeen patients received Sbv, while nine patients were treated with liposomal amphotericin B (AmB), and another nine patients were treated with fluconazole. Patients treated with AmB received a total median accumulated dose of 2550mg. The mean duration of azole use was 120 days, and the daily dose ranged from 450 to 900mg. At the three-month follow-up visit, the cure rate was 35%, 67%, and 22% for Sbv, AmB, and azole groups, respectively. At the six-month follow-up visit, the cure rates for Sbv, AmB, and azole groups were 71%, 78%, and 33%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS There is a scarcity of effective ML treatment alternatives, and based on our observations, fluconazole is not a valid treatment option.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous/drug therapy , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antimony/therapeutic use , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Middle Aged
7.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(2): 71-79, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Despite its recognised toxicity, antimonial therapy continues to be the first-line drug for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) treatment. Intralesional administration of meglumine antimoniate (MA) represents an alternative that could reduce the systemic absorption of the drug and its side effects. OBJECTIVES This study aims to validate the standard operational procedure (SOP) for the intralesional infiltration of MA for CL therapy as the first step before the assessment of efficacy and safety related to the procedure. METHODS The SOP was created based on 21 trials retrieved from the literature, direct monitoring of the procedure and consultation with experts. This script was submitted to a formal computer-aided inspection to identify readability, clarity, omission, redundancy and unnecessary information (content validation). For criterion and construct validations, the influence of critical condition changes (compliance with the instructions and professional experience) on outcome conformity (saturation status achievement), tolerability (pain referred) and safety (bleeding) were assessed. FINDINGS The median procedure length was 12 minutes and in 72% of them, patients classified the pain as mild. The bleeding was also classified as mild in 96.6% of the procedures. Full compliance with the SOP was observed in 66% of infiltrations. Despite this, in 100% of the inspected procedures, lesion saturation was observed at the end of infiltration, which means that it tolerates some degree of modification in its execution (robustness) without prejudice to the result. CONCLUSIONS The procedure is reproducible and can be used by professionals without previous training with high success and safety rates.


Subject(s)
Humans , Injections, Intralesional/adverse effects , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Meglumine , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Clinical Protocols/standards , Reproducibility of Results
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 113(9): e180200, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-955123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a world-wide health problem which currently lacks effective, affordable and easy to use therapy. Recently, the meglumine antimoniate (MA) intralesional infiltration was included among the acceptable therapies for New World leishmaniasis. While this approach is attractive, there is currently little evidence to support its use in Americas. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to provide information about effectiveness and safety of a standardised MA intralesional infiltration technique for the treatment of CL. METHODS It is a single-arm phase II clinical trial conducted at a Brazilian referral centre. CL cases with parasitological confirmation presenting a maximum of three CL-compatible skin lesions were treated with weekly MA intralesional infiltration by using a validated technique, up to a maximum of eight infiltrations. RESULTS A total of 53 patients (62 lesions) were included. Overall, patients received a median of seven infiltrations (IQR25-75% 5-8) over a median treatment period of 43 days (IQR25-75% 28-52 days). The definitive cure rate at D180 was 87% (95% CI:77-96%). The majority of adverse events were local, with mild or moderate intensity. Bacterial secondary infection of the lesion site was observed in 13% of the treated patients, beside two intensity-three adverse events (hypersensitivity reactions).


Subject(s)
Humans , Organometallic Compounds/administration & dosage , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , /therapeutic use , Injections, Intralesional , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(4): 478-482, July-Aug. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896990

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: The drugs available for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) treatment in Brazil have specific characteristics in terms of operability, effectiveness, toxicity, and cost. The aim of this study was to estimate the direct costs of therapies recommended by the Ministry of Health (MH) for VL treatment in Brazil. METHODS: The analytical perspective used was that adopted by the Brazilian Public Health System. Three drugs and four regimens were included: 1) N-methyl glucamine antimoniate intramuscularly at 20mg per kg per day for 30 days; 2) N-methyl glucamine antimoniate intravenously at 20mg per kg per day for 30 days; 3) amphotericin B deoxycholate at 1mg per kg per day for 21 days; and 4) liposomal amphotericin B at 3mg per kg per day for a 7 days treatment. RESULTS: The estimated direct costs of treatment for an adult patient using N-methylglucamine antimoniate administered via the intramuscular and intravenous routes were USD 418.52 and USD 669.40, respectively. The estimated cost of treatment with amphotericin B deoxycholate was USD 1,522.70. Finally, the estimated costs of treatment with liposomal amphotericin B were USD 659.79, and USD 11,559.15 using the price adopted by the WHO and the Drug Regulation Board, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis indicates the economic feasibility of replacing N-methyl glucamine antimoniate with liposomal amphotericin B, which allows a shorter treatment period with less toxicity compared with other treatments, provided that the purchase value used by the WHO and transferred to the MH is maintained.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Antiprotozoal Agents/economics , Organometallic Compounds/economics , Organometallic Compounds/therapeutic use , Brazil , Amphotericin B/economics , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Clinical Protocols , Deoxycholic Acid/economics , Deoxycholic Acid/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Meglumine Antimoniate , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/economics , Meglumine/economics , Meglumine/therapeutic use , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use
10.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 33(12): e00142416, 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889655

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The aim of the present study was to estimate the financial costs of the incorporation and/or replacement of diagnostic tests for human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil. The analysis was conducted from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) over a period of three years. Six diagnostic tests were evaluated: the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT), the IT LEISH rapid test, the parasitological examination of bone marrow aspirate, the direct agglutination test (DAT-LPC) standardized in the Clinical Research Laboratory, René Rachou Institute of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, the Kalazar Detect rapid test, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The assumptions used were the number of suspected cases of VL reported to the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2014 and the direct cost of diagnostic tests. The costs to diagnose suspected cases of VL over three years using the IFAT and the DAT-LPC were estimated at USD 280,979.91 and USD 121,371.48, respectively. The analysis indicated that compared with the use of the IFAT, the incorporation of the DAT-LPC into the SUS would result in savings of USD 159,608.43. With regard to the budgetary impact of rapid tests, the use of IT LEISH resulted in savings of USD 21.708,72 over three years. Compared with a parasitological examination, diagnosis using PCR resulted in savings of USD 3,125,068.92 over three years. In this study, the replacement of the IFAT with the DAT-LPC proved financially advantageous. In addition, the replacement of the Kalazar Detect rapid test with the IT LEISH in 2015 was economically valuable, and the replacement of parasitological examination with PCR was indicated.


Resumo: O estudo teve como objetivo estimar os custos financeiros da incorporação e/ou substituição dos testes diagnósticos para a leishmaniose visceral (LV) humana no Brasil. A análise foi realizada na perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) ao longo de três anos. Foram avaliados seis testes diagnósticos: reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI), teste rápido IT LEISH, exame parasitológico de aspirado de medula óssea, teste de aglutinação direta DAT-LPC padronizado pelo Laboratório de Pesquisas Clínicas do Instituto René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, teste rápido Kalazar Detect e reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR). Os parâmetros utilizados foram o número de casos suspeitos de LV notificados ao Ministério da Saúde em 2014 e o custo direto dos testes diagnósticos. Os custos do diagnóstico de casos suspeitos de LV ao longo de três anos usando o RIFI e DAT-LPC foram estimados em USD 280.979,91 e USD 121.371,48, respectivamente. De acordo com a análise, comparado ao uso do RIFI, a incorporação do DAT-LPC pelo SUS resultaria numa economia de USD 159.608,43. Com relação ao impacto dos testes rápidos, o uso do IT LEISH resultou em economia de USD 21.708,72 ao longo de três anos. Comparado ao exame parasitológico, o diagnóstico com PCR resultou em economia de USD 3.125.068,92 ao longo de três anos. Neste estudo, a substituição do RIFI pelo DAT-LPC mostrou ser financeiramente vantajosa. Além disso, a substituição do teste rápido Kalazar Detect com o IT LEISH em 2015 foi economicamente apropriada, e a substituição do exame parasitológico pela PCR está economicamente indicada.


Resumen: El objetivo del estudio fue estimar los costes financieros de la incorporación y/o sustitución de las pruebas diagnósticas para la leishmaniasis visceral (LV) humana en Brasil. El análisis se realizó desde la perspectiva del Sistema Único de Salud (SUS) a lo largo de tres años. Se evaluaron seis pruebas diagnósticas: reacción de inmunofluorescencia indirecta (RIFI), test rápido IT LEISH, examen parasitológico de aspirado de medula ósea, test de aglutinación directa DAT-LPC, estandarizado por el Laboratorio de Investigación Clínica del Centro de Investigación René Rachou, Fundación Oswaldo Cruz, test rápido Kalazar Detect y la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). Los parámetros utilizados fueron el número de casos sospechosos de LV notificados al Ministerio de Salud en 2014 y el coste directo de los test diagnósticos. Los costes del diagnóstico de casos sospechosos de LV a lo largo de tres años, usando el RIFI y DAT-LPC, se estimaron en USD 280.979,91 y USD 121.371,48, respectivamente. De acuerdo con el análisis, comparado con el uso del RIFI, la incorporación del DAT-LPC por el SUS resultaría en un ahorro de USD 159.608,43. En relación con el impacto de los test rápidos, el uso del IT LEISH aportaba un ahorro de USD 21.708,72 a lo largo de tres años. Comparado con el examen parasitológico, el diagnóstico con PCR suponía un ahorro de USD 3.125.068,92 a lo largo de tres años. De acuerdo con el estudio, la sustitución del RIFI con el DAT-LPC mostró ser financieramente ventajosa. Asimismo, la sustitución del test rápido Kalazar Detect con el IT LEISH en 2015 representó un ahorro económico, y los resultados favorecieron la sustitución del examen parasitológico con PCR.


Subject(s)
Humans , Budgets/statistics & numerical data , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/economics , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/economics , Time Factors , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction/economics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Health Expenditures/statistics & numerical data , National Health Programs/economics
11.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 111(8): 512-516, Aug. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-789001

ABSTRACT

Although intralesional meglumine antimoniate (MA) infiltration is considered an option for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) therapy and is widely used in the Old World, there have been few studies supporting this therapeutic approach in the Americas. This study aims to describe outcomes and adverse events associated with intralesional therapy for CL. This retrospective study reviewed the experience of a Brazilian leishmaniasis reference centre using intralesional MA to treat 31 patients over five years (2008 and 2013). The median age was 63 years (22-86) and the median duration time of the lesions up to treatment was 16 weeks. In 22 patients (71%), intralesional therapy was indicated due to the presence of contraindications or previous serious adverse events with systemic MA. Other indications were failure of systemic therapy or ease of administration. Intralesional treatment consisted of one-six infiltrations (median three) for a period of up to 12 weeks. The initial (three months) and definitive (six months) cure rates were 70.9% and 67.7%, respectively. Most patients reported mild discomfort during infiltration and no serious adverse events were observed. In conclusion, these results show that the intralesional MA efficacy rate was very similar to that of systemic MA treatment, and reinforce the need for further studies with adequate design to establish the efficacy and safety of this therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Meglumine/administration & dosage , Organometallic Compounds/administration & dosage , Antiprotozoal Agents/adverse effects , Injections, Intralesional , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/pathology , Meglumine/adverse effects , Organometallic Compounds/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
12.
Cad. saúde pública ; 31(10): 2127-2136, Out. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-770608

ABSTRACT

Abstract This work reports the process and costs of comprehensively implementing two tests to decentralize the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in an endemic city in Brazil: a rapid test (IT LEISH) and a direct agglutination test (DAT-LPC). The implementation began by training health professionals to perform the tests. Estimation of the training costs considered the proportional remuneration of all professionals involved and the direct costs of the tests used for training. The study was conducted between November 2011 and November 2013. During that time, 17 training sessions were held, and 175 professionals were trained. The training cost for each professional was US$ 7.13 for the IT LEISH and US$ 9.93 for the DAT-LPC. The direct costs of the IT LEISH and DAT-LPC were estimated to be US$ 6.62 and US$ 5.44, respectively. This first evaluation of the implementation of these diagnostic tests indicates the feasibility of decentralizing both methods to extend access to VL diagnosis in Brazil.


Resumo Este trabalho relata o processo e os custos da implantação de dois testes para descentralizar o diagnóstico da leishmaniose visceral (LV) em um município endêmico no Brasil: um teste rápido (IT LEISH) e um teste de aglutinação direta (DAT-LPC). A implantação iniciou com o treinamento dos profissionais de saúde do município na realização dos testes diagnósticos. Os itens incluídos nas estimativas de custo das capacitações foram a remuneração proporcional de todos os profissionais envolvidos e os custos diretos dos testes usados. O estudo foi conduzido entre novembro de 2011 e novembro de 2013. Durante esse período, 17 capacitações foram realizadas e 175 profissionais treinados. O custo relacionado a cada profissional de saúde capacitado na realização do IT LEISH foi de US$ 7,13 e na realização do DAT-LPC, de US$ 9,93. O custo direto do IT LEISH e do DAT-LPC foi estimado em US$ 6,62 e US$ 5,44, respectivamente. Esta primeira avaliação da implantação desses dois testes aponta para a viabilidade da descentralização de ambos os métodos, que aumentam o acesso ao diagnóstico da LV no Brasil.


Resumen Este trabajo relata la puesta en funcionamiento y los costos de pruebas de diagnóstico de VL en un municipio endémico en Brasil: el test rápido (IT LEISH) y la prueba de aglutinación directa (DAT-LPC). Esta puesta en marcha comenzó por capacitar al personal sanitario del municipio para la realización de las pruebas. Para estimar los costos de la capacitación, se consideró la remuneración proporcional de todo el personal involucrado y los costos directos derivados de la aplicación de las pruebas. El estudio fue realizado entre noviembre de 2011 y noviembre de 2013. En ese periodo se realizaron 17 capacitaciones y se formaron 175 profesionales. Se calcula que el costo derivado de capacitar cada profesional para realizar el IT LEISH fue de 7.13 US$ y 9.93 US$ para el DAT-LPC. Los costos directos del IT LEISH y del DAT-LPC se estimaron en 6,62 US$ y 5,44 US$ respectivamente. La primera evaluación de la puesta en funcionamiento de las dos pruebas en este municipio señala que es viable descentralizar su realización, lo que amplía el acceso al diagnóstico de la VL en Brasil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/economics , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Agglutination Tests/economics , Agglutination Tests/methods , Brazil , Cost of Illness , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Feasibility Studies , Health Personnel/economics
13.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(2): 209-214, 04/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744469

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated parasitological and molecular techniques for the diagnosis and assessment of cure of schistosomiasis mansoni. A population-based study was performed in 201 inhabitants from a low transmission locality named Pedra Preta, municipality of Montes Claros, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Four stool samples were analysed using two techniques, the Kato-Katz® (KK) technique (18 slides) and the TF-Test®, to establish the infection rate. The positivity rate of 18 KK slides of four stool samples was 28.9% (58/201) and the combined parasitological techniques (KK+TF-Test®) produced a 35.8% positivity rate (72/201). Furthermore, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-ELISA assay produced a positivity rate of 23.4% (47/201) using the first sample. All 72 patients with positive parasitological exams were treated with a single dose of Praziquantel® and these patients were followed-up 30, 90 and 180 days after treatment to establish the cure rate. Cure rates obtained by the analysis of 12 KK slides were 100%, 100% and 98.4% at 30, 90 and 180 days after treatment, respectively. PCR-ELISA revealed cure rates of 98.5%, 95.5% and 96.5%, respectively. The diagnostic and assessment of cure for schistosomiasis may require an increased number of KK slides or a test with higher sensitivity, such as PCR-ELISA, in situations of very low parasite load, such as after therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Delirium/physiopathology , Hallucinations/complications , Vision Disorders/complications , Nurse-Patient Relations , Syndrome
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(6): 756-762, Nov-Dec/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732985

ABSTRACT

Introduction Parenteral antimony-based compounds are still the standard of care for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) treatment in many countries, despite their high toxicity. Previous studies showed that oral azithromycin could be an option for CL treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of oral azithromycin (AZ) for CL treatment compared with injectable meglumine antimoniate (MA). Methods This was a randomized, open-label, 2-arm, non-inferiority clinical trial. Treatment-naïve patients with localized CL were treated with MA (15mg/kg/day up to 1,215mg) or AZ (500mg/day) during 20 consecutive days. The primary efficacy end point was a CL cure 90 days after treatment completion. The analysis was performed with intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses. After an anticipated interim analysis, the study was interrupted due to the high failure rate in the azithromycin group. Results Twenty-four volunteers were included in each group. The MA group had a higher cure rate than the AZ group with the ITT and PP analyses, which were 54.2% versus 20.8% [relative risk (RR) 1.97; 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) 1.13-3.42] and 72.2% versus 23.8% (RR 3.03; 95%CI 1.34-6.87), respectively. No unexpected adverse events were observed. Conclusions ...


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Antiprotozoal Agents/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Early Termination of Clinical Trials , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous/drug therapy , Meglumine/administration & dosage , Organometallic Compounds/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Brazil , Time Factors , Treatment Failure
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(2): 147-153, abr. 2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705816

ABSTRACT

Clinical and laboratory risk factors for death from visceral leishmaniasis (VL) are relatively known, but quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) might assess the role of parasite load in determining clinical outcome. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors, including parasite load in peripheral blood, for VL poor outcome among children. This prospective cohort study evaluated children aged ≤ 12 years old with VL diagnosis at three times: pre-treatment (T0), during treatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2). Forty-eight patients were included and 16 (33.3%) met the criteria for poor outcome. Age ≤ 12 months [relative risk (RR) 3.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.89-6.52], tachydyspnoea (RR 3.46; 95% CI 2.19-5.47), bacterial infection (RR 3.08; 95% CI 1.27-7.48), liver enlargement (RR 3.00; 95% CI 1.44-6.23) and low serum albumin (RR 7.00; 95% CI 1.80-27.24) were identified as risk factors. qPCR was positive in all patients at T0 and the parasite DNA was undetectable in 76.1% of them at T1 and in 90.7% at T2. There was no statistical association between parasite load at T0 and poor outcome.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Leishmania/isolation & purification , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/standards , Parasite Load/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , Chi-Square Distribution , DNA, Protozoan/isolation & purification , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Hepatomegaly , Leishmania/genetics , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/diagnosis , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/epidemiology , Liver/parasitology , Prospective Studies , Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Risk Factors , RNA, Ribosomal/blood , Serum Albumin , Statistics, Nonparametric , Spleen/parasitology
17.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 47(1): 3-11, Jan-Feb/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703152

ABSTRACT

In light of the World Health Organization's initiative to extend schistosomiasis morbidity and mortality control programs by including a disease elimination strategy in low endemic settings, this paper reviews diagnostic tools described during the last decades and provide an overview of ongoing efforts in making an efficient diagnostic tool available worldwide. A literature search on PubMed using the search criteria schistosomiasis and diagnosis within the period from 1978 to 2013 was carried out. Articles with abstract in English and that used laboratory techniques specifically developed for the detection of schistosomiasis in humans were included. Publications were categorized according to the methodology applied (parasitological, immunological, or molecular) and stage of development (in house development, limited field, or large scale field testing). The initial research generated 4,535 publications, of which only 643 met the inclusion criteria. The vast majority (537) of the publications focused on immunological techniques; 81 focused on parasitological diagnosis, and 25 focused on molecular diagnostic methods. Regarding the stage of development, 307 papers referred to in-house development, 202 referred to limited field tests, and 134 referred to large scale field testing. The data obtained show that promising new diagnostic tools, especially for Schistosoma antigen and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) detection, which are characterized by high sensitivity and specificity, are being developed. In combination with international funding initiatives these tools may result in a significant step forward in successful disease elimination and surveillance, which is to make efficient tests accessible and its large use self-sustainable for control programs in endemic countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Antibodies, Helminth/blood , DNA, Helminth/blood , Feces/parasitology , Schistosomiasis/diagnosis , Schistosomiasis/genetics , Schistosomiasis/immunology
18.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 46(1): 55-59, Jan.-Feb. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-666795

ABSTRACT

INTRODUTION: A major concern with the visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is its high lethality rate, even with proper treatment. Low age, prior malnutrition, disease duration prior to diagnosis, severe anemia, fever for more than 60 days, diarrhea and jaundice are known poor prognostic factors. The goals of this study are to describe the clinical and laboratory characteristics of VL among children under 12 years of age and to identify the factors associated with VL poor outcome. METHODS: Two hundred and fifty children under 12 years of age with confirmed VL admitted to Hospital João Paulo II (FHEMIG), Belo Horizonte, Brazil, between January 2001 and December 2005 were evaluated retrospectively. The primary outcome was the poor clinical evolution: sepsis, and/or pneumonia, and/or urinary tract infection, and/or of bleeding (expect epistaxis), and/or severe neutropenia (neutrophil < 500 cells/mm³). Odds ratio (crude and adjusted) and its 95% confidence interval for each variable were calculated. Values less than 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: Average age was 3.3 years (3.6 months-11.6 years), 71.2% were younger than 5 years and 47.2% lived in Metropolitan Area of Belo Horizonte. The mean fatality rate was 3.6%. Sixty-six (26.4%) patients presented poor evolution. After a multivariate analysis, age <18 months, abnormal respiratory physical examination on hospital admission, and platelets <85,000/mm³ remained associated with increased chance of poor evolution. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that patients aged between 12 and 18 months, with platelet counts bellow 85,000/mm³, and respiratory abnormalities at admission should be considered potentially severe.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/mortality , Brazil/epidemiology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/complications , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Socioeconomic Factors
19.
Rev. bras. farmacogn ; 22(6): 1253-1258, Nov.-Dec. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-659038

ABSTRACT

Many phenolic compounds such as xanthones, quinones and coumarins have been isolated from Kielmeyera species; however the presence of flavonoids have been showed in other genera in the Calophylleae tribe as Caraipa, Mesua and Calophyllum. Six known glycosidic flavonoids: quercetin 3-β-O-galactopyranoside (1), quercetin 3-β-O-glucopyranoside (2), quercetin 3-O-α-rhamnoside (3), luteolin 6-C-β-glucopyranoside (4), isovitexin (5), kaempferol 3-O-α-rhamnoside (6) and one triterpene, lupenone (7) were isolated, for the first time, from organic crude extract of Kielmeyera variabilis Mart. & Zucc., Calophyllaceae, leaves. The crude organic extract from K. variabilis leaves exhibited 95% of leishmanidal activity at 20 µg/mL on amastigote-like form of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in vitro model and only compound 3 showed 40-45% of growth inhibition at concentration ranging from 0.78 to 20 µg/mL. In addition, quercetin 3-O-α-rhamnoside (quercitrin) was found to be the major metabolite. Our results and previous reports suggest that synergistic effects of flavonoid glycosides are the cause of significant leishmanidal activity of the crude organic extract from K. variabilis leaves.

20.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(7): 899-902, Nov. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-656046

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of schistosomiasis in areas with low endemicity using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic method. We analysed faecal samples from 219 individuals residing in Piau and Coronel Pacheco, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using a single faecal sample from each individual and two slides of the Kato-Katz technique as a gold standard. Fifteen out of the 219 samples were positive with both methods of diagnosis. One sample was diagnosed as positive by the Kato-Katz technique only and 61 were diagnosed only by PCR. The positivity rates were 7.3% with the Kato-Katz method and 34.7% with PCR. When both techniques were assumed to have 100% specificity and positive individuals were identified by both methods, the sensitivity of the Kato-Katz method was 20.8% and the PCR sensitivity was 98.7%. The Kappa index between the two techniques was 0.234, suggesting weak agreement. The assessment of a single faecal sample by PCR detected more cases of infection than the analysis of one sample with two slides using the Kato-Katz technique, suggesting that PCR can be a useful diagnostic tool, particularly in areas with low endemicity.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Schistosoma mansoni/genetics , Schistosomiasis mansoni/diagnosis , Brazil , Feces/parasitology , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Schistosoma mansoni/isolation & purification
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