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1.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 20(1): 38-50, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284405

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the insecticidal activity of Gallesia integrifolia essential oil from fruits, leaves, and flowers against Aedes aegyptilarvae and pupae. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sulfur compounds represented 95 to 99% of the essential oil from fruits, leaves, and flowers. Essential oil major compounds were 2,8-dithianonane (52.6%) in fruits, 3,5-dithiahexanol-5,5-dioxide (38.9%) in leaves, and methionine ethyl ester (45.3%) in flowers. The essential oils showed high activity against larvae, and low for pupae withLC99.9of 5.87 and 1476.67µg/mL from fruits; 0.0096 and 348.33 µg/mL from leaves and 0.021and 342.84 µg/mL from flowers, respectively. The main compound with insecticide activity is probably n-ethyl-1,3-dithioisoindole, from isoindole organothiophosphate class, found in greater amount in flower and leaf essential oil. The great insecticide activity of G. integrifolia essential oil suggests that this product is a natural insecticide.


Este estudio evaluó la actividad insecticida del aceite esencial de frutos, hojas y flores de Gallesia integrifolia contra larvas y pupas de Aedes aegypti. El aceite esencial se obtuvo por hidrodestilación y se caracterizó por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Los compuestos de azufre representaron del 95 al 99% del aceite esencial de frutas, hojas y flores. Los compuestos principales del aceite esencial fueron 2,8-ditianonano (52,6%) en frutas, 3,5-ditiahexanol-5,5-dióxido (38,9%) en hojas y éster etílico de metionina (45,3%) en flores. Los aceites esenciales mostraron alta actividad contra larvas y baja para pupas con LC99.9de 5.87 y 1476.67µg/mL de frutos; 0,0096 y 348,33 µg/mL de hojas y 0,021 y342,84 µg/mL de flores, respectivamente. El principal compuesto con actividad insecticida es probablemente el n-etil-1,3-ditioisoindol, de la clase de los organotiofosfatos de isoindol, que se encuentra en mayor cantidad en el aceite esencial de flores y hojas. La gran actividad insecticida del aceite esencial de G. integrifolia sugiere que este producto es un insecticida natural.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Aedes/drug effects , Phytolaccaceae/chemistry , Insecticides/pharmacology , Terpenes/analysis , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Cholinesterase Inhibitors , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Flowers/chemistry , Fruit/chemistry , Insecticides/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
2.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 49(supl.1): 229-235, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974342

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Gallesia integrifolia (Phytolaccaceae) is native to Brazil and has a strong alliaceous odor. The objective of this study was to identify the chemical composition of G. integrifolia fruit essential oil and evaluate fungicidal activity against the main food-borne diseases and food spoilage fungi. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and identified by GC-MS. From 35 identified compounds, 68% belonged to the organosulfur class. The major compounds were dimethyl trisulfide (15.49%), 2,8-dithianonane (52.63%) and lenthionine (14.69%). The utilized fungi were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium funiculosum, Penicillium ochrochloron, Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium, and Trichoderma viride. Minimal fungicidal concentration for the essential oil varied from 0.02 to 0.18 mg/mL and bifonazole and ketoconazole controls ranged from 0.20 to 3.50 mg/mL. The lower concentration of the essential oil was able to control P. ochrochloron, A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus and T. viride. This study shows a high fungicidal activity of G. integrifolia fruit essential oil and can support future applications by reducing the use of synthetic fungicides.


Subject(s)
Plant Oils/pharmacology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Phytolaccaceae/chemistry , Fungicides, Industrial/pharmacology , Penicillium/growth & development , Penicillium/drug effects , Aspergillus/growth & development , Aspergillus/drug effects , Plant Oils/chemistry , Brazil , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Fruit/chemistry , Fungicides, Industrial/chemistry , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
3.
Arq. ciênc. vet. zool. UNIPAR ; 15(1)jan-jun. 2012.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-681429

ABSTRACT

Os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMAs) são importantes para a sobrevivência e desenvolvimento das plantas e podem ser influenciados pelo manejo do solo. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar os efeitos do cultivo da aveia preta na atividade microbiana do solo por isso da respiração basal do solo (RBS), o teor de matéria orgânica do solo (MOS), a densidade de esporos, colonização radicular e o potencial de inóculo de FMAs em relação à mata ciliar adjacente localizada na Universidade Paranaense – UNIPAR, Campus II – Unidade de Umuarama – PR. O potencial de infectividade do solo por FMAs foi definido a partir do método do número mais provável (NMP). O cultivo de aveia preta diminuiu a RBS em 22% quando comparado com o solo da mata ciliar, provavelmente devido ao maior teor de MOS na mata. A densidade de esporos dos FMAs apresentou diferenças significativas (p < 0,01), variando de 7,74 a 10,53 esporos g–1 em solo na mata ciliar e aveia preta, respectivamente. A colonização radicular por FMAs foi significativamente maior (p < 0,02) na aveia preta (36%) do que na mata ciliar (26%). O potencial de inóculo de FMAs foi maior no solo cultivado com aveia preta (1,09 propágulos g–1 de solo) do que no solo de mata ciliar (0,36 propágulos g–1). O cultivo do solo com aveia preta e baixo pH do solo aumentou a densidade de esporos, colonização radicular e potencial de inoculo de FMAs.


Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important for the survival and development of plants and may be influenced by the soil management. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of soil cultivation with black oats on soil microbial activity, basal soil respiration (BSR), soil organic matter (SOM), spore density, root colonization and infectivity potential of AMF in relation to a nearby riparian forest located at Universidade Paranaense, Campus II, Umuarama – PR. The infectivity potential of the soil by AMF was defined by the most probable number method (MPN). Cultivation of black oats decreased BSR by 22% when compared with riparian forest, probably due to high SOM in the riparian forest. Mycorrhizal spore density had significant differences (p < 0.01) between sampled areas, 7.74 to 10.53 spores g–1 of soil cultivated by riparian forest and black oats, respectively. Mycorrhizal root colonization was significantly (p < 0.02) higher in back oats (36%) than in riparian forest (26%). The infectivity potential of the soil by AMF was higher for soil cultivated with black oats (1.09 propagules g–1 of soil) than riparian forest (0.36 propagules g–1 of soil). The soil cultivation with black oats and the low soil pH increased spore density, root colonization and infectivity potential of AMF.


Los hongos micorrizas arbusculares (HMA) son importantes para la supervivencia y desarrollo de las plantas y pueden ser influenciados por el manejo del suelo. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar los efectos del cultivo de avena negra en la actividad microbiana del suelo, por respiración basal del suelo (RBS), el contenido de materia orgánica del suelo (MOS), la densidad de esporas, colonización radicular y potencial de inoculo de HMAs en comparación con la mata ciliar adyacente ubicada en la Universidad Paranaense - UNIPAR, Campus II - Unidad Umuarama - PR. El potencial de inefectividad del suelo por HMA se ha definido a partir del método de número más probable (NMP). El cultivo de avena negra disminuyó la RBS en 22% en comparación con el suelo de la mata ciliar, probablemente debido al mayor contenido de MOS en la mata. La densidad de esporas de los HMAs presentó diferencias significativas (p <0,01), variando de 7,74 a 10,53 esporas g-1 en suelo de la mata ciliar y avena negra. La colonización radicular por HMAs fue significativamente mayor (p <0,02) en la avena negra (36%), en comparación con la mata ciliar (26%). El potencial de inoculo de HMAs fue mayor en el suelo cultivado con avena negra (1,09 propágulos g-1 del suelo), en comparación con 0,36 propágulos g-1 del suelo de la mata ciliar. El suelo cultivado con avena negra es bajo en pH, aumentando la densidad de esporas, colonización radicular y potencial de inoculo de HMAs.


Subject(s)
Avena/classification , Plants , Soil Analysis , Fungi/ultrastructure
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