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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-874868

ABSTRACT

Of all microorganisms in the human body, the largest and most complex population resides in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The gut microbiota continuously adapts to the host environment and serves multiple critical functions for their hosts, including regulating host immunity, procuring energy from food, and preventing the colonization of pathogens. Mounting evidence has suggested gut microbial imbalance (dysbiosis) as a core pathophysiology in the development of GI motility and metabolic disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome and diabetes. Current research has focused on discovering associations between these disorders and gut microbial dysbiosis; however, whether these associations are a consequence or cause is still mostly unexplored. State-of-the-art studies have investigated how gut microbes communicate with our body systems through microbiota-derived metabolites and how they are able to modulate host physiology. There is now mounting evidence that alterations in the composition of small intestinal microbes have an association with GI dysmotility and metabolic disorders. Although treatment options for gut microbial dysbiosis are currently limited, antibiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, and dietary interventions are currently the best options. However, treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics has been viewed with skepticism due to the risk of developing antibiotic resistant bacteria. Studies are warranted to elucidate the cellular and molecular pathways underlying gut microbiota-host crosstalk and for the development of a powerful platform for future therapeutic approaches. Here, we review recent literature on gut microbial alterations and/or interactions involved in the pathophysiology of GI dysmotility and metabolic disorders.

2.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-61976

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Though nocturnal acid-breakthrough (NAB) is common in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients, its clinical importance results from esophageal acidification, which has been shown to be uncommon. Ilaprazole, a long-acting proton pump inhibitor, may cause NAB infrequently. Accordingly, we studied prospectively, (1) frequency and degree of esophageal acidification during NAB, and (2) frequency and severity of NAB while on ilaprazole versus omeprazole. METHODS: Fifty-eight consecutive patients with GERD on once daily ilaprazole, 10 mg (n = 28) or omeprazole, 20 mg (n = 30) for > one month underwent 24-hour impedance-pH monitoring prospectively. NAB was defined as intra-gastric pH one hour during night, and esophageal acidification as pH < 4 for any duration. Nocturnal symptoms (heartburn, regurgitation, and chest pain) were also recorded. RESULTS: Of the 58 patients (age 35.5 [inter-quartile range 26.5–46.0] years, 38 [65.5%], 42 (72.4%) had NAB. Though patients with NAB had lower nocturnal intra-gastric pH than without (2.8 [1.9–4.1] vs 5.7 [4.6–6.8], P < 0.001), frequency and duration of nocturnal esophageal acidification (17/42 vs 4/16, P = 0.360 and 0.0 [0.0–1.0] vs 0.0 [0.0–0.3] minutes, P = 0.260, respectively) and symptoms were comparable (13/42 vs 6/16, P = 0.750). Though ilaprazole was associated with less NABs (1 [range 1–2, n = 19] vs 1 [range 1–3, n = 23], P = 0.010) than omeprazole, the frequency, duration, and mean intra-gastric pH during NAB were comparable (19/28 vs 23/30, P = 0.560; 117 [0–315] vs 159 [69–287] minutes, P = 0.500; 1.02 [0.7–1.4] vs 1.04 [0.44–1.3], P = 0.620, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Though NAB was common while patients were on a proton pump inhibitor, esophageal acidification was uncommon. Frequency and severity of NAB were comparable among patients on ilaprazole and omeprazole, except for the lesser number of NABs with ilaprazole.


Subject(s)
Chest Pain , Electric Impedance , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Heartburn , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Omeprazole , Prospective Studies , Proton Pump Inhibitors , Proton Pumps , Thorax
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-58350

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with exaggerated cerebral response including emotional processing following visceral stimulation; though data on this issue is available in female IBS patients, it is scanty among males. Hence, we aimed to study brain response of male IBS patients following rectal balloon distension as compared to healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Data between diarrhea and constipation predominant IBS (IBS-D and IBS-C) were also compared. METHODS: Rectal balloon distension threshold was assessed in 20 male IBS patients (10 IBS-C and 10 IBS-D) and 10 age-matched male healthy controls. Subsequently, fMRI on all the participants was performed at their respective rectal pain threshold. The fMRI data were analysed using the Statistical Parametric Mapping software. RESULTS: IBS patients showed greater cerebral activations in insula, middle temporal gyrus, and cerebellum in the left hemisphere compared to healthy controls. Neural activation was found in bilateral precuneus/superior parietal lobules in controls but not in patients with IBS. The brain activation differed among IBS-C and IBS-D patients; while the right mid-cingulate cortex was activated in IBS-C, the left inferior orbito-frontal cortex, left calcarine, and bilateral fusiform gyri were activated among patients with IBS-D following rectal balloon distension. CONCLUSIONS: Brain response to rectal balloon distension differed among male patients with IBS and controls and among patients with IBS-C and IBS-D. Differential activation among patients with IBS-C and IBS-D was seen in the brain regions controlling affective motivation, homeostatic emotions, and autonomic responses to pain.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cerebellum , Constipation , Diarrhea , Female , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Motivation , Pain Threshold , Parietal Lobe , Temporal Lobe
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-186684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Achalasia is known to result from degeneration of inhibitory neurons, which are mostly nitrinergic. Characteristic features of achalasia include incomplete lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation and esophageal aperistalsis. Nitric oxide (NO), produced by NO synthase (NOS), plays an important role in peristalsis and LES relaxation. Therefore, we evaluated genetic polymorphisms of NOS gene isoforms (endothelial NOS [eNOS], inducible NOS [iNOS], and neuronal NOS [nNOS]) in patients with achalasia and healthy subjects (HS). METHODS: Consecutive patients with achalasia (diagnosed using esophageal manometry) and HS were genotyped for 27-base pair (bp) eNOS variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), iNOS22G/A (rs1060826), nNOS C/T (rs2682826) polymorphisms by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), respectively. RESULTS: Among 183 patients (118 [64.5%] male, age 39.5 +/- 13.0 years) with achalasia and 366 HS (254 [69.4%] male, age 40.8 +/- 11.0 years), eNOS4a4a genotype of 27-bp VNTR was more common among achalasia than HS (20 [10.9%] vs 13 [3.6%]; P < 0.001; OR, 3.72; 95% CI, 1.8-7.7). Patients with achalasia had iNOS22GA genotypes more often than HS (95 [51.9%] vs 93 [25.4%]; P < 0.001; OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 2.1-4.4). Frequency of genotypes GA + AA was higher in patients than HS (97 [53%] vs 107 [29.2%]; P < 0.001; OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.8-3.9). Also, nNOS29TT variant genotype in rs2682826 was more common among patients compared to HS (14 [7.7%] vs 6 [1.6%]; P < 0.001; OR, 5.91; 95% CI, 2.2-15.8). CONCLUSIONS: Achalasia is associated with eNOS4a4a, iNOS22GA, and nNOS29TT genotypes. This may suggest that polymorphisms of eNOS, iNOS, and nNOS genes are risk factors for achalasia.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Esophageal Achalasia , Esophageal Motility Disorders , Esophageal Sphincter, Lower , Genotype , Humans , Male , Minisatellite Repeats , Neurons , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Peristalsis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Genetic , Protein Isoforms , Relaxation , Risk Factors
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-101971

ABSTRACT

No abstract available.


Subject(s)
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-91004

ABSTRACT

Dyspepsia is a syndrome consisting of epigastric pain, burning, fullness, discomfort, early satiety, nausea, vomiting and belching. Functional dyspepsia (FD) is diagnosed if upper gastrointestinal endoscopy does not show structural abnormality explaining these symptoms. 8%-30% and 8%-23% of Asian people suffer from of uninvestigated dyspepsia and FD, respectively. Most patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia are found to have FD. Patients with FD are usually young and there is no predilection to any gender. Overlap of FD with other functional bowel diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome and gastroesophageal reflux disease is common in Asia. Cultural difference in reporting of symptoms of dyspepsia is well-known. Moreover, dietary factors, socio-cultural and psychological issues, gastrointestinal infection including that caused by Helicobacter pylori, frequency of organic diseases such as peptic ulcer and gastric cancer responsible for dyspeptic symptoms in the study population may also influence epidemiology of dyspepsia. There is considerable heterogeneity in the above issues among different Asian countries. More studies on epidemiology of FD are needed in Asia.


Subject(s)
Asia , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , Burns , Dyspepsia , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Eructation , Gastroesophageal Reflux , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Gastroparesis , Helicobacter pylori , Humans , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Nausea , Peptic Ulcer , Population Characteristics , Quality of Life , Stomach Neoplasms , Vomiting
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