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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-881065

ABSTRACT

Chlorogenic acid (5-CQA), neochlorogenic acid (3-CQA), and cryptochlorogenic acid (4-CQA), usually simultaneously exist in many traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). However, insufficient attentions have been paid to the comparative metabolism study on these three isomeric constituents with similar effects on anti-inflammation until now. In this study, a novel strategy was established to perform comparative analysis of their metabolic fates in rats and elucidate the pharmacological mechanism of anti-inflammation. Firstly, diagnostic product ions (DPIs) deduced from the representative reference standards were adopted to rapidly screen and characterize the metabolites in rat plasma, urine and faeces using UHPLC-Q-TOF MS. Subsequently, Network pharmacology was utilized to elucidate their anti-inflammatory mechanism. Consequently, a total of 73 metabolites were detected and characterized, including 50, 47 and 43 metabolites for 5-CQA, 4-CQA and 3-CQA, orderly. Moreover, the network pharmacology study indicated that these three isomeric constituents and their major metabolites with similar in vivo metabolic pathways exerted anti-inflammatory effects through co-owned 20 biological processes, which involved 10 major signal pathways and 159 potential targets. Our study shed light on the similarities and differences of the metabolic profiling and anti-inflammatory activity among these three isomeric constituents and set an example for the further researches on the active mechanism of isomeric constituents existing in TCMs based on comparative metabolism study.

2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879036

ABSTRACT

Astragali Radix is one of traditional Chinese medicines with effects in invigorating Qi for consolidating superficies, inducing diuresis to alleviate edema, promoting pus discharge and tissue regeneration. In recent years, the traditional Chinese medicine fermentation technology has received extensive attentions due to its high efficiency and safety. The pharmacological functions of traditional Chinese medicines could be further enhanced after microbial fermentation, which has a broad development prospects. In this paper, we summarized relevant literatures of Astragali Radix fermentation in such aspects as fermentation strains, fermentation forms, process optimization, active ingredients and pharmacological effects, in the expectation of providing a reference for development and utilization of Astragali Radix.


Subject(s)
Astragalus Plant , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Fermentation , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plant Roots
3.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 944-953, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread throughout the world. In this study, we aimed to identify the risk factors for severe COVID-19 to improve treatment guidelines.@*METHODS@#A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted on 313 patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Patients were classified into two groups based on disease severity (nonsevere and severe) according to initial clinical presentation. Laboratory test results and epidemiological and clinical characteristics were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to detect potential risk factors associated with severe COVID-19.@*RESULTS@#A total of 289 patients (197 nonsevere and 92 severe cases) with a median age of 45.0 (33.0, 61.0) years were included in this study, and 53.3% (154/289) were male. Fever (192/286, 67.1%) and cough (170/289, 58.8%) were commonly observed, followed by sore throat (49/289, 17.0%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that patients who were aged ≥ 65 years (OR: 2.725, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.317-5.636; P = 0.007), were male (OR: 1.878, 95% CI: 1.002-3.520, P = 0.049), had comorbid diabetes (OR: 3.314, 95% CI: 1.126-9.758, P = 0.030), cough (OR: 3.427, 95% CI: 1.752-6.706, P < 0.001), and/or diarrhea (OR: 2.629, 95% CI: 1.109-6.231, P = 0.028) on admission had a higher risk of severe disease. Moreover, stratification analysis indicated that male patients with diabetes were more likely to have severe COVID-19 (71.4% vs. 28.6%, χ2 = 8.183, P = 0.004).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The clinical characteristics of those with severe and nonsevere COVID-19 were significantly different. The elderly, male patients with COVID-19, diabetes, and presenting with cough and/or diarrhea on admission may require close monitoring to prevent deterioration.


Subject(s)
Adult , COVID-19/pathology , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Cough , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diarrhea , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-906587

ABSTRACT

@#Objective    To explore the effect of pulmonary hypertension on the clinical efficacy of Cox Maze Ⅳ procedure in treating atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with valvular heart disease. Methods    The clinical data of 84 patients who received cardiac valve replacement and Cox Maze Ⅳ ablation in our hospital from July 2017 to January 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the estimation of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) by ultrasound, the patients were divided into two groups: a group A (PAP<45 mm Hg, 20 males, 26 females with an average age of 59.1±7.8 years) and a group B (PAP≥45 mm Hg, 15 males and 23 females with an average age of 58.5±8.5 years). The PAP was less than 70 mm Hg in all patients. A systematic follow-up review was performed for 6 months after operation. The recovery and recurrence rate of sinus rhythm after surgical ablation were compared between the two groups, and the efficacy was analyzed. Results    (1) All the patients completed the operation successfully, and there was no statistical difference in the ablation time between the two groups (P>0.05); no patients died of pulmonary infection after the operation, and one patient underwent implantation of a permanent pacemaker due to conduction block. (2) At the end of the operation and 3 months after the operation, the conversion rate of AF in the group A was 91.3% (42 patients) and 82.6% (38 patients), respectively, and in the group B was 89.5% (34 patients) and 73.7% (28 patients), respectively (P>0.05). The conversion rate of AF was 82.6% (38 patients) in the group A and 63.2% (24 patients) in the group B at 6 months after operation (P=0.043). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that PAP≥45 mm Hg had a significant effect on the long-term effect of surgical Maze procedure in treating AF patients with valvular heart disease [P=0.014, OR=5.661, 95%CI (1.429, 22.432)]. Conclusion    PAP may be an influencing factor for the long-term effect of surgical Maze procedure in treating AF patients with valvular heart disease. Although the long-term recurrence rate of AF in the moderate pulmonary hypertension group is higher than that in the group A, the overall effect is still safe and effective; therefore it is still worth promoting in clinical application.

5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877080

ABSTRACT

Objective To analyze the composition and influencing factors of hospitalization expenses for diabetic patients,and to provide reference for effective control of medical expenses. Methods The hospitalization cost data of diabetes patients in rural areas of Wugang from 2013 to 2017 were collected. Structural change analysis,non-parametric test and BP (Back Propagation)neural network model were used to analyze the hospitalization expenses and influencing factors. Results The top three components of hospitalization expenses were drug cost (50.02%), examination cost (15.35%) and laboratory cost (12.06%). The contribution rates of structural change of hospitalization expenses were the examination fee (41.00%), drug fee (34.92%) and treatment fee (13.41%), respectively. Factors affecting the total hospitalization cost of diabetic patients included length of stay, operation or not, hospital level, age, discharge year, complication or not and gender (P<0.05), among which length of stay had the greatest impact (sensitivity value was 0.669). Conclusion The hospitalization expenses of patients with diabetes is affected by a variety of factors. It is suggested to optimize the composition of hospitalization expenses by improving the price mechanism of medical services, and to control and reasonably reduce hospitalization expenses by implementing standardized management of clinical pathways, implementing two-way referral and strengthening tertiary prevention.

6.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 471-481, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887682

ABSTRACT

Sleep exerts important functions in the regulation of cognition and emotion. Recent studies have found that sleep disorder is one of the important risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the effects of chronic sleep deprivation on the cognitive functions of AD model mice and its possible mechanism are still unclear. In the present study, 8-month-old male APP/PS1/tau triple transgenic AD model (3xTg-AD) mice and wild type (WT) mice (n = 8 for each group) were subjected to chronic sleep deprivation by using the modified multiple platform method, with 20 h of sleep deprivation each day for 21 days. Then, open field test, elevated plus maze test, sugar water preference test, object recognition test, Y maze test and conditioned fear memory test were performed to evaluate anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, and multiple cognitive functions. In addition, the immunohistochemistry technique was used to observe pathological characteristics in the hippocampus of mice. The results showed that: (1) Chronic sleep deprivation did not affect anxiety- (P = 0.539) and depression-like behaviors (P = 0.874) in 3xTg-AD mice; (2) Chronic sleep deprivation exacerbated the impairments of object recognition memory (P < 0.001), working memory (P = 0.002) and the conditioned fear memory (P = 0.039) in 3xTg-AD mice; (3) Chronic sleep deprivation increased amyloid β (Aβ) deposition (P < 0.001) and microglial activation (P < 0.001) in the hippocampus of 3xTg-AD mice, without inducing abnormal tau phosphorylation and neurofibrillary tangles. These results indicate that chronic sleep deprivation exacerbates the impairments of recognition memory, working memory and conditioned fear memory in 3xTg-AD mice by aggravating Aβ deposition and the excessive activation of microglia in the hippocampus.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Amyloid beta-Peptides , Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor/genetics , Animals , Cognition , Disease Models, Animal , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Presenilin-1 , Sleep Deprivation , tau Proteins
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-921811

ABSTRACT

The present study investigated the effects and mechanisms of Jiaotai Pills on depressed mice induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress(CUMS). The CUMS-induced depression model mice were established and the depression behaviors of mice were evaluated by sucrose preference test, open field test, tail suspension test, and forced swimming test. Molecular docking was employed to simulate the interaction of six main active ingredients in Jiaotai Pills with SIRT1. Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the level of SIRT1 in the hippocampus of mice. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression levels of SIRT1, p-NF-κB p65, NF-κB p65, and FoxO1 in the hippocampus of mice. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) kits were used to detect the levels of interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor(BDNF) in the hippocampus and serum of mice. Biochemical kits were used to detect superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity and malondialdehyde(MDA) and glutathione(GSH) levels in the hippocampus and serum of mice. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS) was used to detect the levels of dopamine(DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine(5-HT), and norepinephrine(NE) in the hippocampus and serum of mice. The results showed that the sucrose preference rate, movement distance, and the number of crossing centers were reduced in the model group(P<0.01), and the tail suspension time and swimming immobility time were increased(P<0.01). Molecular docking results indicated good binding of six main active ingredients in Jiaotai Pills to SIRT1. In the hippocampus, the expression level of SIRT1 was reduced(P<0.01), and the levels of p-NF-κB p65/NF-κB p65 and FoxO1 were increased(P<0.01). In the hippocampus and serum, the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and MDA were increased(P<0.01), and the activity of SOD and the levels of GSH, DA, 5-HT, NE, and BDNF were reduced(P<0.01). The treatment with high-dose Jiaotai Pills increased the sucrose preference rate, movement distance, and the number of crossing centers(P<0.05), reduced tail suspension time and swimming immobility time(P<0.01), elevated hippocampal SIRT1 expression level(P<0.01), decreased hippocampal and serum IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and MDA levels(P<0.01), potentiated SOD activity, and up-regulated GSH, DA, 5-HT, NE, and BDNF levels in the hippocampus and serum(P<0.05, P<0.01) in model mice. In conclusion, the results showed that Jiaotai Pills could improve the depression behaviors of model mice with CUMS-induced depression, and the underlying mechanism was related to the up-regulation of SIRT1 in the hippocampus of mice to exert anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative stress effects.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antidepressive Agents , Behavior, Animal , Chromatography, Liquid , Depression/etiology , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hippocampus , Mice , Molecular Docking Simulation , Sirtuin 1/genetics , Stress, Psychological , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-911749

ABSTRACT

Objective:To explore the independent risk factors that predict 10-year mortality in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD).Methods:The baseline data from a prospective cohort study were analyzed and long-term follow-up were performed. Patients with confirmed diagnosis of stable COPD were consecutively enrolled in the outpatient clinic from January 2010 to December 2010, and were followed up until December 31, 2020. Cox regression analysis was used to determine the independent risk factors for all-cause mortality and mortality from respiratory causes in stable COPD patients.Results:A total of 182 stable COPD patients were enrolled and followed up for a median of 89 months. The 10-year mortality was 51.1%(93/182), and 9 patients died within one year. The leading cause of death was respiratory disorder, followed by cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. The risk factors independently associated with all-cause mortality included old age( HR=1.936,95% CI: 1.610~2.328, P<0.01), increased baseline COPD Assessment Test(CAT)( HR=1.331,95% CI: 1.049-1.689, P=0.02) and the increased CAT in one year( HR=1.314,95% CI: 1.197-1.420, P<0.01). The risk factors independently associated with respiratory cause mortality included increased baseline CAT( HR=1.719,95% CI: 1.026-2.880, P=0.04), emphysema index(LAA%)( HR=1.062,95% CI: 1.007-1.120, P=0.03), and one year inecreased CAT( HR=1.342,95% CI: 1.198-1.505, P<0.01)was a protective factor. Conclusions:Old age, baseline CAT, one year increased in CAT and LAA% were independent influencing factors for 10-year mortality of stable COPD patients.

9.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1908-1913, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-825178

ABSTRACT

Pazufloxacin eardrops are a topical quinolone agent for the treatment of outer ear infection. The present study evaluated the pharmacokinetics and topical distribution of pazufloxacin eardrops by a sensitive LC-MS/MS method for determining pazufloxacin in plasma and otorrhea. Plasma and otorrhea samples were extracted by acetonitrile-induced protein precipitation and were subjected to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric analysis with an electrospray ionization interface. The samples were separated on an HSS T3 column (50 mm×2.1 mm, 1.8 μm). To avoid the matrix effect, gradient elution was performed with the mobile phase consisting of methanol and 1 mmol·L-1 ammonium acetate aqueous solution (0.1% formic acid). The ion transitions for pazufloxacin and pazufloxacin-d4 were m/z 319.1→281.2 and m/z 323.1→285.2, respectively, under the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The method was linear in the range of 0.010 0 - 8.00 ng·mL-1 for pazufloxacin in plasma and 0.500 - 1 000 ng·mg-1 in otorrhea. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision for pazufloxacin in plasma and in otorrhea met acceptable criteria. The clinical trial was approved by the Society of Ethics and conducted in Nanjing First Hospital and Jiangsu Province Hospital. The validated methods were used in a systemic and topical pharmacokinetic study of 0.1% pazufloxacin eardrops in 3 patients with chronic suppurative otitis media.

10.
Journal of Medical Postgraduates ; (12): 363-369, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-821856

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveBone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can promote ovarian angiogenesis, improve ovarian insufficiency caused by chemotherapy, and repair ovarian function, while heat shock pretreatment can reduce the apoptosis rate of stem cells and improve the therapeutic effect of stem cells. This study aims to investigate the effect of heat shock pretreatment on MSCs, and further study the effect of heat shock pretreated mesenchymal stem cells on chemotherapy-induced apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells.Methods1. The bone marrow-derived MSCs of rats were isolated, cultured and identified, and pretreated within a 42 °C water bath for one hour. 2. Cisplatin (5 mg/L) was added to MSCs to simulate the local microenvironment of chemotherapy. MSCs were divided into four groups: blank control group, heat shock control group, model group, and heat shock model group. The effects of heat shock pretreatment on the proliferation, apoptosis and survival rate of MSCs were investigated by CCK-8 method, Hoechst33342/PI, and flow cytometry. 3. We isolate and culture rat ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) to establish an in vitro model of GCs injury under the induction of cisplatin (5 mg/L). The experiment was carried out in four groups: a control group, model group, MSCs model group, HS-MSCs model group. The apoptosis and survival rate were detected by Hoechst33342/PI and flow cytometry, respectively.Results1. The proliferation level and survival rate of MSCs in the heat shock control group were significantly higher than those in the other three groups, and the apoptosis rate was significantly lower than the other three groups (P<0.05). Compared to the model group, the proliferation level of the heat shock model group was significantly increased, and the apoptosis rate was significantly decreased (P<0.05), and the cell survival rate increased; 2. The apoptosis rate of GCs in the HS-MSCs model group was significantly lower than that in the other three groups. Compared to the MSCs model group, the apoptosis rate of GCs in the HS-MSCs model group was significantly decreased (P<0.05).ConclusionHeat shock pretreatment can increase the proliferation level and survival rate of MSCs, and reduce its apoptosis rate. Heat shock pretreated stem cells can effectively inhibit chemotherapy-induced apoptosis of ovarian granulosa cells.

11.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-866249

ABSTRACT

Objective:To observe the efficacy and safety of postural modified Valsalval manoeuvre in terminating paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT).Methods:From January 2017 to June 2018, a total of 98 patients with PSVT were selected in the Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University.They were randomly allocated to standard Valsalval manoeuvre group(48 cases) and postural modified Valsalval manoeuvre group(50 cases) according to sealed envelope method.The patients in standard Valsalval manoeuvre group carried out standard semi-recumbent Valsalva manoeuvre, while the other group received semi-recumbent with supine repositioning and passive leg raise immediately after the Valsalva strain.The general clinical data, total cardioversion success rate, first-time cardioversion success rate and the incidence of adverse reactions were compared between the two groups.Results:There were no statistically significant differences in male proportion, age, history of PSVT or coronary heart disease, incidence of hypertension, diabetes and heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure at attack between the two groups(all P>0.05). The total cardioversion success rate [40.0%(20/50)], first-time cardioversion success rate [28.0%(14/50)] in the modified group were significantly higher than those in the standard group [16.7%(8/48), 12.5%(6/48)](χ 2=27.924, 16.308, all P<0.05). The incidence of adverse reactions was low in both two groups, and there was no statistically significant difference( P>0.05). Conclusion:Postural modified Valsalval manoeuvre can effectively improve the cardioversion success rate of PSVT, and has high safety, which is worthy of clinical promotion.

12.
Chinese Journal of Neurology ; (12): 819-823, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-870884

ABSTRACT

N6-methyladenosine (m 6A), one of the most common types of eukaryotic mRNA methylation modification, is widely distributed in the nervous system and participates in important regulatory mechanisms for controlling gene expression. With the participation of related methylation-modifying enzymes and proteins, m 6A plays an important role in the growth and development of the nervous system, related functions, and the occurrence and development of diseases in the nervous system by affecting the "life cycle" of mRNA. This article briefly reviews the research progress on the role of mRNA m 6A methylation modification in neurological diseases and nervous system growth and development.

13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-870082

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate the clinical characteristics of four McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) patients associated with growth hormone(GH)-prolactin(PRL) pituitary adenoma, and explore more effective clinical treatment and management methods.Methods:The clinical data of four patients with MAS and GH-PRL pituitary adenoma diagnosed by Peking Union Medical College Hospital were retrospectively analyzed, including clinical manifestations, biochemical parameters, radiographic characteristics, as well as treatment and prognosis. Literature review was also conducted to analyze the efficacy of surgical operations and drug intervention.Results:Clinical characteristics: 3 females and 1 male, all of whom had onset before the age of 7 years. The types of fibrous dysplasia of bone were all polyosseous and involved craniofacial region. There were obvious gigantism/acromegaly manifestations in all cases, 3 cases had evident visual impairment and 1 case with optic chiasm compression. There was no spontaneous or triggered lactation in all 4 patients. Laboratory examination: GH and insulin-like growth factor-Ⅰ(IGF-Ⅰ) levels were significantly increased in 4 patients, GH levels were not inhibited by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), PRL levels were over 100 ng/ml, ALP levels were significantly increased in 4 patients, while serum calcium and phosphorus levels were remained normal. Imaging features: All pituitary adenomas in 4 patients were macroadenomas, with unilateral cavernous sinus enclosure in cases 2 and 3, and recurrence of macroadenoma with bilateral cavernous sinus enclosure in case 4 after the first operation. Four cases of skull CT showed multiple FD in craniofacial bone and skull base. Treatment and outcome: All 4 patients underwent pituitary adenoma resection and bisphosphonate therapy, and somatostatin analogues, dopamine receptor agonists and other treatments were selected according to the situation. Two patients with early diagnosis and initial treatment achieved partial remission after treatment, while the other two patients did not.Conclusions:Patients with MAS and GH-PRL pituitary adenoma had earlier onset age and were more likely to suffer from optic nerve damage. Early diagnosis and reasonable surgical treatment may help to improve biochemical indicators (GH, IGF-Ⅰ, and PRL, etc.) rapidly, and combined drug therapy (somatostatin analogues and dopamine receptor agonists) can better maintain or close to normal biochemical indicators, and ultimately improve the prognosis of patients.

14.
Chinese Journal of Rheumatology ; (12): 388-391, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-868218

ABSTRACT

Objective:To investigate whether febuxostat with stepwise dose increase is as useful as colchicine prophylaxis in comparison with febuxostat with no dose titration when initial introduction of urate-lowering therapy in patients with gout. And to determine the effect of urate-lowering therapy in the treat to target by febuxostat with stepwise dose increase.Methods:In this prospective, multicentre, randomized open-label comparative study, patients were randomized to group A (stepwise dose increase of febuxostat from 10 to 40 mg/d), group B (fixed-dose febuxostat 40 mg/d plus colchicine 0.5 mg/d) or group C (fixed-dosefebu-xostat 40 mg/d) and were followed-up for 24 weeks. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug was used to control symptoms when acute flare occurred. Patients were follow-up every 4 weeks. The comparison between groups was made by single factor analysis of variance (ANOVA). χ2 test was used to compare groups. Results:A total of 276 patients were randomized, and 253 patients were treated. 211 patients completed the study and were follow-up. Among the treated patients, gout flares were experienced by 12/84(25.0%) in group A, 20/85(23.5%) in group B and 26/42 (61.9%) in group C. There was no significant difference between group A and group B ( χ2=0.050, P=0.824) in gout flares. There was significantly higher frequency in gout flares in group C than that in group A and group B ( χ2=22.040, P<0.01). The proportion of patients reaching the target of urate-lowering therapy in group A at 4 and 8 weeks was significantly lower than that in group B and C. And there was no significant difference among the three groups after 12 weeks. Conclusion:Stepwise dose increase of febuxostat and low-dose colchicine has the same prophylaxis effectiveness in reducing gout flares but are more effective in prevent acute flare when compared with fixed-dose febuxostat alone. Stepwise dose increase of febuxostat may be an effective alternative to low-dose colchicine prophylaxis during the introduction of urate-lowering therapy.

15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828412

ABSTRACT

Cannabis sativa, also known as marijuana or hemp, is an annual herb which belongs to Cannabinaceae family. It is often dioecious, originally produced in Central Asia and now is widely distributed in the world, wild or cultivated, with many varieties. As an ancient plant, C.sativa has been used for thousands of years, and its fiber has been used in many aspects, but it is also widely disputed because it contains tetrahydrocannabinol(THC), a psychoactive ingredient. It has been listed as one of the three major drugs by "United Nations Drug Convention", along with heroin and cocaine. Nowadays, with the deepening and comprehensive understanding of C.sativa, it has been widely studied because of its great economic value in the fields of textile, chemicals for daily use, medicine and so on. In this paper, the literature about the chemical compositios and species variation of C.sativa at home and abroad was reviewed in order to provide some reference for its researches.


Subject(s)
Cannabis , Dronabinol
16.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 344-352, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is a promising method for the study of brain function. Typically, rs-fMRI is performed on anesthetized animals. Although different functional connectivity (FC) in various anesthetics on whole brain have been studied, few studies have focused on different FC in the aged brain. Here, we measured FC under three commonly used anesthesia methods and analyzed data to determine if the FC in whole brain analysis were similar among groups.@*METHODS@#Twenty-four male aged Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8 in each group). Anesthesia was performed under either isoflurane (ISO), combined ISO + dexmedetomidine (DEX) or α-chloralose (AC) according to the groups. Data of rs-fMRI was analyzed by FC in a voxel-wise way. Differences in the FC maps between the groups were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and post hoc two-sample t tests.@*RESULTS@#Compared with ISO + DEX anesthesia, ISO anesthesia caused increased FC in posterior brain and decreased FC in the middle brain of the aged rat. AC anesthesia caused global suppression as no increase in FC was observed.@*CONCLUSION@#ISO could be used as a substitute for ISO + DEX in rat default mode network studies if the left temporal association cortex is not considered important.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Animals , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain Mapping , Isoflurane , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar
17.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 419-425, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827046

ABSTRACT

Alterations of the transmural gradient of repolarization may contribute to the increase of transmural dispersion of repolarization and ventricular arrhythmias. The transmural gradient of repolarization may play an important role in sudden death associated with left ventricular epicardial pacing. To investigate the changes of transmural gradient dispersion of ventricular repolarization with different pacing sites in heart failure (HF) canines, 8 mongrel dogs were randomized into healthy group and HF group (n = 4). We mapped the monophasic action potential duration (MAPD) in the subendocardial, subepicardial and mid-myocardial layers of the left ventricle (LV) in canines of healthy and HF groups during right atrium (RA) pacing, right ventricular apical endocardial (RV) pacing, left ventricular lateral epicardial (LV) pacing and biventricular (Biv) pacing respectively. The results showed that in the healthy group, the MAPDs were significantly different among the three layers during RA pacing (all P 0.05). In the HF group, the MAPDs in all three layers were prolonged compared with those in the same locations in the healthy group (all P 0.05). By MAP recording with our new mapping electrode, we found a transmural MAPD gradient among the three layers of the LV during RA pacing and the gradient between the subendocardial and subepicardial layers vanished during RV, LV or Biv pacing in healthy dogs. In contrast, there was no transmural MAPD gradient during RA, RV, LV or Biv pacing in HF dogs. These results are helpful to understand the mechanism of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with HF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Dogs , Heart , Heart Failure , Heart Ventricles , Humans , Myocardium
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905757

ABSTRACT

independence improved with the launch of AGREE Ⅱ (Z > 2.130,P < 0.05). The average scores rate ranged from high to low followed as range and purpose (41.6%), clarity (39.9%), participants (24.5%), rigor (23.2%), independence (15.5%) and applicability (12.9%). Objective:To evaluate the methodological quality of clinical practice guidelines of rehabilitation using Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II. Methods:Clinical practice guidelines of rehabilitation were searched in databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, Wanfang database, CNKI, China Biology Medicine disc and related websites from medlive.cn, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, National Guideline Clearinghouse, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, World Health Organization, and Guidelines International Network from establishment to January 11, 2020. Two researchers reviewed literatures and assessed the methodological quality of the guidelines independently by using AGREE II; any disagreements needed to be discussed in a consensus meeting. Results:A total of 84 guidelines were included in the study, with 67 foreign guidelines and 17 domestic guidelines. The average score rate for all the guidelines was 48.1%, in which 49.9% for the foreign guidelines and 40.7% for the domestic guidelines. In the six areas of AGREE II, the average score rate of the foreign guidelines was higher than that of domestic ones (|Z| > 2.034,P < 0.05), expect applicability; the average score rate of clarity and Conclusion:Clinical practice guidelines of rehabilitation is mainly of low quality by AGREE II. Guideline developers need to work after AGREE Ⅱ standard in the future.

19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905756

ABSTRACT

International Network from establishiment to January 11, 2020. The number, publication date, distribution of countries, journals, institutions, subject areas and methods for developing guidelines of included literatures were analyzed.Chinese and 67 in English. The top four countries that published rehabilitation guidelines were the United States (19 articles), China (17 articles), the United Kingdom (12 articles) and Canada (11 articles). The guidelines were developed mainly by the health professional societies and associations (49 articles). The main health conditions involved stroke (12 articles), cardiovascular disease (9 articles), shoulder joint injury (5 articles), pulmonarydisease (5 articles) and spinal cord injury (5 articles). There were 35 guidelines expressiong evidenceclassification and recommendation intensity (42%), and 22 guidelines (26%) would update regularly.rehabilitation. Most guidelines are based on literature review or expert opinions, while a few are evidence-based. It is proposed to implement standardized approaches to develop clinical practice guidelines of rehabilitation. Objective:To analyze the development trends and issues of clinical practice guidelines of rehabilitation. Methods:Clinical practice guidelines of rehabilitation were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, China Biology Medicine disc, CNKI, Wangfang database, Medlive, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, National Guideline Clearinghouse, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network, World Health Organization and Guidelines Results:A total of 84 clinical practice guidelines of rehabilitation were included, in which there were 17 published in Conclusion:Clinical practice guidelines of rehabilitation focuse on neurological and musculoskeletal system diseases and cardiopulmonary dysfunction. There are relatively few published clinical practice guidelines for

20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-905755

ABSTRACT

framework and approaches of development and research of guidelines of rehabilitation at levels of policies,community and services.Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, WHO World Report on Disability, Community-basedRehabilitation Guideline, Rehabilitation in Health Service System, and International Classification of Diseases (ICD), International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), and International Classification of Health Intervention (ICHI) of WHO-FICs, had been discussed.description of diseases and functioning, interventions and evaluations for the development and implementation of rehabilitation guidelines had been developed. Objective:To use World Health Organization Family International Classifications (WHO-FICs) to explore the Methods:The important documents and tools of rehabilitation at international level, including United Nations Results:The framework, classifications, diagnosis and description of diseases and functioning, coding, intervention and functioning evaluation based on ICD-11, ICF and ICHI-β-2 had been established for development and implementation of rehabilitation guidelines and Cochrane rehabilitation. Conclusion:The framework and systematic approaches of ontology, classification, terminology, coding, diagnosis and

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