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1.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2015 Feb; 52 (1): 34-44
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-157953

ABSTRACT

Viral diseases like foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), calf scour (CS), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) etc. affect the growth and milk production of cattle (Bos taurus) causing severe economic loss. Epitope-based vaccine designing have been evolved to provide a new strategy for therapeutic application of pathogen-specific immunity in animals. Therefore, identification of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) binding peptides as potential T-cell epitopes is widely applied in peptide vaccine designing and immunotherapy. In this study, MetaMHCI tool was used with seven different algorithms to predict the potential T-cell epitopes for FMD, BVD, IBR and CS in cattle. A total of 54 protein sequences were filtered out from a total set of 6351 sequences of the pathogens causing the said diseases using bioinformatics approaches. These selected protein sequences were used as the key inputs for MetaMHCI tool to predict the epitopes for the BoLA-A11 MHC class I allele of B. taurus. Further, the epitopes were ranked based on a proposed principal component analysis based epitope score (PbES). The best epitope for each disease based on its predictability through maximum number of predictors and low PbES was modeled in PEP-FOLD server and docked with the BoLA-A11 protein for understanding the MHC-epitope interaction. Finally, a total of 78 epitopes were predicted, out of which 27 were for FMD, 25 for BVD, 12 for CS and 14 for IBR. These epitopes could be artificially synthesized and recommended to vaccinate the cattle for the considered diseases. Besides, the methodology adapted here could also be used to predict and analyze the epitopes for other microbial diseases of important animal species.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Computational Biology , Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral/analysis , Diarrhea Viruses, Bovine Viral/genetics , Epitopes/analysis , Epitopes/genetics , Foot-and-Mouth Disease/diagnosis , Foot-and-Mouth Disease/genetics , Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis/diagnosis , Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis/genetics
3.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-37820

ABSTRACT

The effect of two different doses (400 and 800 mg/kg body wt/day for 15 days) of a 95% ethanolic extract of the seeds of Brassica compestris (var sarason) was examined on carcinogen metabolizing phase-I and phase-II enzymes,antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content and lipid peroxidation in the liver of Swiss albino mice. Positive control mice were treated with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). Significant elevation in the levels of cytochrome p450 (p<0,.05), cytochrome b5 (p < 0.05) glutathione s-transferase (p<0.01), DT-diaphorase (p<0.05), superoxide dismutase (p<0.01), catalase (p < 0.001) and reduced glutathione (p<0.001) was noted in the group treated with 800 mg/kg body wt. of Brassica extract in comparison with the negative control group. Brassica compestris acted as a bifunctional inducer since it induced both phase - I and phase - H enzyme systems. Since phase-I and phase-II enzymes are considered to be reliable markers for evaluating the chemoprevention efficacy of particular test materials,these findings are suggestive of potential chemopreventive roles for Brassica seed extract.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brassica , Chemoprevention , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Glutathione Reductase/drug effects , Glutathione Transferase/drug effects , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Liver Neoplasms/enzymology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred Strains , Plant Preparations/pharmacology , Random Allocation , Reference Values , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2004 Apr; 42(4): 373-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-61773

ABSTRACT

Cashew nut shell oil has been reported to possess tumour promoting property. Therefore an attempt has been made to study the modulatory effect of cashew nut (Anlacardium occidentale) kernel oil on antioxidant potential in liver of Swiss albino mice and also to see whether it has tumour promoting ability like the shell oil. The animals were treated orally with two doses (50 and 100 microl/animal/day) of kernel oil of cashew nut for 10 days. The kernel oil was found to enhance the specific activities of SOD, catalase, GST, methylglyoxalase I and levels of GSH. These results suggested that cashew nut kernel oil had an ability to increase the antioxidant status of animals. The decreased level of lipid peroxidation supported this possibility. The tumour promoting property of the kernel oil was also examined and found that cashew nut kernel oil did not exhibit any solitary carcinogenic activity.


Subject(s)
9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene/toxicity , Anacardium/chemistry , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Carcinogens/toxicity , Catalase/metabolism , Female , Glutathione/metabolism , Glutathione Transferase/metabolism , Lactoylglutathione Lyase/metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Mice , Microsomes, Liver/drug effects , Nuts/chemistry , Papilloma/chemically induced , Plant Oils/pharmacology , Skin Neoplasms/chemically induced , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
5.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2004 Mar; 42(3): 319-22
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-60046

ABSTRACT

Bitter melon ( Momordica charantia Linnaeus) fruit extract was tested against 3,4 benzo(a)pyrene [B(a)P] induced forestomach papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice. Extract of M. charantia in two concentrations, 2.5 and 5% of standard mice feed was used for the short-term and long-term studies. A significant decrease in tumour burden was observed in short and long-term treatment. Also, total tumour incidence reduced to 83.33% with 2.5% dose and 90.90% with 5% dose in short term treatment, while in long-term treatment tumor incidence decreased to 76.92% with 2.5% dose and 69.23% with 5% dose of M. charantia. The possible mechanism involved in the cancer chemoprevention has also been discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anticarcinogenic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Benzo(a)pyrene , Body Weight , Carcinogens , Male , Mice , Momordica charantia/metabolism , Neoplasms, Experimental/drug therapy , Plant Extracts , Stomach Neoplasms/chemically induced
6.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2003 Nov; 41(11): 1317-21
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-62293

ABSTRACT

The present study reports the modulatory influence of 95% ethanolic extract from the seeds of B. compestris on the activity of phase-II enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase (GST), DT-diaphorase (DTD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) level in the skin, lung, kidney and forestomach of the mouse. Oral treatment with the seed extract at 800 mg/kg body wt. for 15 days significantly elevated GST in lung and forestomach and DT-diaphorase in forestomach and skin and GSH level in lung, kidney forestomach and skin. The lower dose 400 mg/kg body wt was effective only in inducing GST and DT-diaphorase activity in forestomach and reduced glutathione level in lung. The findings suggest that B. compestris seed extract may block or suppress the events associated with chemical carcinogenesis at least in part, by inducing metabolic detoxification of the carcinogen.


Subject(s)
Administration, Oral , Animals , Body Weight/drug effects , Brassica/chemistry , Carcinogens/metabolism , Glutathione/metabolism , Glutathione Transferase/metabolism , Kidney/drug effects , Lung/drug effects , Male , Mice , NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone)/metabolism , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Seeds/chemistry , Skin/drug effects , Stomach/drug effects
7.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 1999 Oct; 36(5): 337-40
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-28376

ABSTRACT

The effect of exposing rats to amplitude modulated radiofrequency radiation (112 MHz modulated to 16 Hz) during development and growth has been examined. Wistar rats (35 days old) when exposed at above frequency at the power level 1.0 mW/cm2 (SAR, 0.75 W/kg) for 35 days showed enhanced ornithine decarboxylase activity and Ca2+ efflux in brain indicating potential health hazards due to exposure.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain/enzymology , Calcium/metabolism , Female , Ion Transport , Male , Ornithine Decarboxylase/metabolism , Radio Waves , Rats , Rats, Wistar
8.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1999 Feb; 37(2): 193-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-60174

ABSTRACT

The activity of glyoxalase I from the soluble fraction of diabetic rat liver was found to decrease as compared to the control. Sodium orthovanadate in drinking water and Trigonella foenum graecum seed powder when administered to these diabetic animals were found to reverse the activity of glyoxalase I to control values. A combination of the above two antidiabetic compounds showed a better reversal. Vanadate and Trigonella seed powder treatment separately to diabetic rats also normalized hyperglycemia together with glyoxalase I activity. A combination of vanadate and Trigonella seed powder also restored the other general parameters of the diabetic animals.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Female , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Lactoylglutathione Lyase/metabolism , Liver/enzymology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Trigonella , Vanadates/pharmacology
9.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1992 Dec; 30(12): 1142-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-60694

ABSTRACT

Potential chemopreventive role of an Indian food additive-garam masala has been assessed through its impact on the hepatic levels of detoxication enzymes like glutathione S-transferase (GST), cytochrome b5 (cyt. b5) and cytochrome P-450 (cyt. P-450), and acid soluble sulfhydryl (-SH) content in 8-9 weeks old Swiss albino mice of either sex fed on the 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5% (w/w) garam masala in the diet for 10 days. The data from this short term study revealed the significant but dose-independent alteration in the levels of detoxication system enzymes. The results suggest the possible chemopreventive potency of this widely used food additive by being a bifunctional inducer of detoxication system.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System/metabolism , Cytochromes b5/metabolism , Female , Food Additives/pharmacology , Glutathione Transferase/metabolism , Liver/drug effects , Male , Inactivation, Metabolic , Mice , Spices
10.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1992 May; 30(5): 367-70
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-61477

ABSTRACT

Estrogenic action of diosgenin on the mammary epithelium of ovariectomized (OVX) mouse has been reported. Diosgenin when administered (sc) at the dose levels of 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight for a period of 15 days stimulated the growth of mammary epithelium. This was indicated by the increase in DNA content, increase in number of ducts and appearance of terminal endbuds. There was a significant increase in the mammary development scores in the presence of diosgenin. Concomitant treatment of estrogen and diosgenin showed augmentation of estrogenic effect of diosgenin especially at the higher dose level (40 mg/kg body wt). Diosgenin showed a lack of progesterogenic action as was apparent from the absence of alveolar development even in the presence of exogenous estrogen.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Division/drug effects , Diosgenin/pharmacology , Drug Synergism , Epithelium/drug effects , Estradiol/pharmacology , Female , Mammary Glands, Animal/drug effects , Mice , Ovariectomy , Stimulation, Chemical
11.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1990 May; 28(5): 409-16
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-62930

ABSTRACT

Present study evaluates the chemopreventive actions of tamoxifen (10 mg/kg), retinyl acetate (50 mg/kg), tocopherol (200 mg/kg), aminoglutethimide (1 mg/kg), ergocryptine (5 mg/kg), and sodium selenite (1 mg/kg) when given singly/in combinations on the initiation of mammary carcinogenesis induced by 20 mg of DMBA in virgin female rats. DMBA was given when rats were 50 days old and the modulators were given in diet 10 days before and 10 days after carcinogen treatment and experiments were terminated 6 months later. DMBA alone yielded tumors in 62% rats. When modulators were given singly and in combinations of two, tumor incidences were not altered significantly. The range of tumor incidences was between 30% and 13% when the agents were given in combinations of 3, 4 and 5. Finally when all 6 modulators were given together the tumor incidence dropped down to 8.3%.


Subject(s)
9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene , Aminoglutethimide/pharmacology , Animals , Drug Interactions , Ergolines/pharmacology , Female , Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental/prevention & control , Rats , Selenium/pharmacology , Tamoxifen/pharmacology , Vitamin A/analogs & derivatives , Vitamin E/pharmacology
12.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 1990 May; 28(5): 405-8
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-56953

ABSTRACT

The chemopreventive action of garlic extract on DMBA-induced complete skin carcinogenesis system was studied in random bred, 6-7 weeks old, male Swiss albino mice. Topical weekly application of DMBA for 25 weeks at two dose levels, i.e. 200 nmol during the first week followed by 100 nmol during subsequent weeks, or 400 nmol during the first week followed by 200 nmol during subsequent weeks, resulted in 73.9% and 100% tumor incidences respectively. When garlic extract was topically applied twice daily for 3 days every week prior to above-stated dose schedules of DMBA, the incidences of tumors were reduced to 31.8% (P less than 0.01) and 43.4% (P less than 0.01) respectively.


Subject(s)
9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene , Animals , Garlic , Male , Mice , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal , Skin Neoplasms/chemically induced
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