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Esculapio. 2017; 13 (4): 209-212
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-193553


Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the compliance with clinic follow up in people with type I diabetes mellitus and its relation with their glycemic control

Methods: Total of 97 subjects with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus were included in this cross sectional study. In addition to the scheduled follow up, the patients were telephonically called by the clinic reception to make an additional appointment. We compared the glycemic control amongst the clinic follow up compliant and non-compliant group. To data was analyzed on SPSS 18.0 version

Results: Out of 97 subjects, 48 [49.5%] were male and 49 [50.5%] were female. The mean age of subjects was 17.03 +/- 6.54 years. Mean duration of diabetes was 4.61 +/- 5.2 years. Mean hemoglobin A1C [HbA1c] was 10.59 +/- 3.09%. There was a significant difference in glycemic control of subjects who were compliant towards clinic follow up as compared to those who were non-compliant. The turn up of people with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus who were asked for an additional appointment, was only 15%

Conclusion: It was concluded that there was a strong relation between compliance towards follow up visit and the glycemic control. It was also observed that majority of the subjects with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus responded to the phone calls however did not turn up

Pakistan Journal of Physiology. 2017; 13 (4): 7-10
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-198449


Background: A peak in sudden death during night, disturbed metabolic profile and cardiovascular diseases are the main source of health deterioration and deaths in Obstructive sleep apnoea [OSA] patients. Interest has been focused in recent years to understand the interactions between OSA and cardio-vascular diseases [CVDs]. Studies advocate the possible causal role of OSA in development of abnormal lipid profile which may place a person at a high risk of CVDs progression. Objective of the present study was to examine the effects of OSA on lipid metabolism in our local population in Karachi

Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was carried out on 100 individuals, including 50 OSA patients and 50 age and BMI matched controls in Sleep Lab, Dow University of Health Sciences, Ojha Campus, Karachi. After verbal and written informed consent, history and complete physical examination was carried out. Individuals having sign and symptoms of OSA and positive Epworth Sleep Scale [ESS] score went through over night polysomnography to diagnose their OSA and its severity. All the elements of lipid profile including high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins, total cholesterol and triglycerides were examined and compared with a group of persons without sleep disturbance to determine their correlations with OSA by using SPSS-20

Results: Frequency of dyslipidemia was higher in OSA group. Mean total cholesterol [TC], triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein [LDL] were higher in OSA patients but difference didn't reach to statistically significant level, while mean high-density lipoproteins [HDL] was significantly higher in OSA group. Frequency of subjects with high serum total cholesterol was significantly higher in OSA group. Disturbance in all lipid profile components showed more subjects with abnormal levels in moderate and severe apnoea groups as compare to mild apnoea group, however; high triglycerides showed strong association with the severity of apnoea

Conclusion: OSA is associated with disturbed lipid metabolism in our local population

PAFMJ-Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal. 2016; 66 (6): 845-850
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-184930


Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of Hypomagnesemia in patients with uncontrolled type II diabetes mellitus

Study Design: Cross-sectional study

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medicine, PNS Shifa Naval Hospital Karachi, from Jul 2012 to Dec 2012 over a period of six months

Material and Methods: In this study, three hundred and twenty three patients of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus type-II on oral hypoglycemic agents for more than five years, presenting to medical OPD, were recruited. All patients fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria. Blood samples of all patients for serum HbA1c and serum magnesium levels were analyzed at the time of enrollment. Statistical analysis was done on SPSS 20

Results: Out of 323 patients, 243 [75.23%] were males and 80 [24.76%] were females with the age ranging from 40 - 65 years [mean age and SD 54.76 +/- 6.43]. Hypomagnesemia was found in 117 patients, without any significant difference in men and women [38.45% and 35.39% respectively]. The mean duration of diabetes was 12.5 years [ranging from 5 to 22 years]. By frequency test in SPSS-20, the highest frequency of hypomagnesemia [49.42%] is seen in [8.6-9.0] HbA1c group while lowest frequency hypomagnesemia [15.38%] is seen in [>10.0] HbA1c level group mean standard deviation and p-value calculated by Pearson correlation statistic in SPSS-20 for quantitative variables [HbA1c, Magnesium level]

Conclusion: Hypomagnesemia is frequent in poorly controlled type-II diabetes mellitus having increased level of HbA1c. So it may be prudent in clinical practice to periodically monitor plasma magnesium and HbA1c in type-II diabetes mellitus patients

Professional Medical Journal-Quarterly [The]. 2015; 22 (9): 1192-1195
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-173772


Background: Anterior cruciate ligament [ACL] is commonly injured especially in sportsmen. Autografts using tissue from various sources including the quadriceps tendon and patellar ligament are popular but still controversial due to varying degree of success. The morphological characteristics of the quadriceps tendon and the patellar ligament are of prime importance for this purpose

Objectives: This cadaveric study was undertaken to evaluate the morphometric characteristics of the quadriceps tendon and patellar ligament as an autograft for ACL reconstructive surgery

Study design: Qualitative cadaveric study

Material and Methods: The morphometric observations of the quadriceps tendon and patellar ligament on 36 [18 male and 18 female] adult formalin fixed cadavers were recorded by dissection. The observations included the length, breadth and thickness of the quadriceps tendon and the patellar ligament and were recorded on both sides separately in the male and female subjects. The data were tabulated, compared and statistically analyzed

Results: There was no significant difference in measurements on the right and left sides both in the male and in the female specimens. However the length and width of the quadriceps tendon was more in the males as compared to the females. The patellar ligament was significantly longer in the male specimens as was its width. Thickness of the patellar ligament, however, was not significantly different in the two genders

Conclusion: Both the quadriceps tendon and the patellar ligament are safe and convenient sources of autograft tissue for reconstruction of the ACL

Humans , Male , Female , Tendons , Patellar Ligament/anatomy & histology , Cadaver , Anterior Cruciate Ligament , Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction
Medical Forum Monthly. 2015; 26 (9): 21-25
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-184740


Objective: To evaluate the lithium induced histological alteration in testes of albino rats and their amelioration by Vitamin E

Study Design: Experimental study

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at department of Anatomy, Baqai Medical University, Karachi from July 2010 to August 2010

Materials and Methods: The rats were assigned into three experimental groups [eight rats/group]: control group, lithium group and lithium plus vitamin E treated group. Lithium [50 mg/kg/day] and vitamin E [50mg/kg/day] were given intraperitoneally for 21 days. At the end of experiment, rats were sacrificed and testes removed and processed for routine H and E. Slides were studied for histological examination under light microscope

Results: Lithium treated rats showed decreased body and testicular weights, spermatogenic cells such as primary and secondary spermatocytes and spermatids were decreased, very little spermatozoa were seen in lumen of seminiferous tubules, significant increase in tubular count observed while tubular diameter, germinal epithelial thickness, number and size of nuclei of leydig cells were highly significantly reduced. In lithium plus vitamin E treated group, body and testicular weight, primary and secondary spermatocytes, spermatids were restored near to control. Tubular lumen also showed many spermatozoa. Tubular diameter, germinal epithelial thickness, numberand size of nuclei of leydig cells were also returned tocontrol

Conclusion: Our study conclude that lithium causes detrimental effect on testicular morphology through oxidative stress and vitamin E provided protection through its antioxidative property

PAFMJ-Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal. 2015; 65 (6): 835-838
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-173371


Objective: To determine the frequency of thyroid dysfunction among patients of chronic hepatitis C [HCV] infection receiving combination of interferon-alpha and ribavirin therapy

Study Design: Cross-sectional study

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medicine, PNS Shifa Naval Hospital Karachi, from September 2012 to March 2013 over a period of six months

Patients and Methods: In this study, 170 diagnosed patients of chronic HCV [confirmed by anti-HCV and HCV RNA-positive] presenting to medical OPD with normal thyroid functions were recruited. All patients fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria. They were prescribed IFN-alpha 2b [3 million units subcutaneously 3 days a week] and oral preparation of antiviral drug ribavirin [800 to 1200 mg daily in divided doses according to weight]. At the end of 12 weeks of combination antiviral therapy, their thyroid profile was worked up. Serum TSH, free T4 and T3 levels were determined by chemiluminescence technique in chemical pathology lab of the hospital. Statistical analysis was done on SPSS 17

Results: Out of 170 patients, 83 [48.82%] were females and 87 [51.18%] were males with the age ranging from 22-46 years [mean +/- SD: 33.86 +/- 5.32]. After 12 weeks of antiviral therapy, thyroid functions were normal in 156/170 [91.76%] patients, whereas in 14/170 [8.24%] cases thyroid dysfunction was observed. Out of those patients having thyroid dysfunction, 10/14 [71.42%] were hypothyroid whereas 4/14 [28.58%] had hyperthyroidism

Conclusion: Managing patients of chronic HCV with combination antiviral therapy comprising IFN-alpha 2b and ribavirin can cause thyroid dysfunction. These patients should be monitored before and during treatment to avoid complications and poor compliance

Isra Medical Journal. 2014; 6 (2): 78-80
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-183485


Objectives: To analyze antiphospholipid antibodies in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion

Study design: A Case-control study

Place and duration: Isra University and Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Jamshoro from 1st June to 31st December 2010

Methodology: Sixty three subjects with history of three spontaneous abortions in their first three months of pregnancy were included in this study and 63 women of corresponding age, with one or more alive babies having no record of any first trimester spontaneous abortion were taken as controls. Coagulation tests platelet count, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastic time were done by standard methods. Antiphospholipid Antibodieswere estimated by ELISA method using specific kits

Results: Mean serum Antiphospholipid antibodies level was 7.10 +/- 3.47 in patients and 6.30 +/- 2.02 in controls. The difference in serum level of two groups was significant. Mean platelet count; mean prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time revealed no significant difference between patients and controls

Conclusion: There is strong association of antiphospholipid antibodies in the patients having recurrent spontaneous abortions so there is a strong need of including this test in the primary screening of such disease in the pregnant women who have history of previous abortion

Isra Medical Journal. 2013; 5 (4): 249-252
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-189007


Objectives: Recognition of fatal coagulopathies in patients with carcinoma of prostate by carrying out platelet count, PT and APTT

Study Design: A case-control study

PLACE AND DURATION: Samples collected from patients attending ISRA University Hospital, Hyderabad, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Hospital Hyderabad and NIMRA Jamshoro from June 2011 to November 2011. Study was conducted in the Pathology department, ISRA University Hospital, Hyderabad. Duration of study was six months

Methodology: Cases were patients with prostatic carcinoma who were diagnosed on biopsy examination. Controls were normal healthy randomly selected age matched adult males from Hyderabad without prostatic carcinoma. A total of one hundred subjects were included in the study. They were divided in two groups as follows; Group-I: Patients-Diagnosed cases of carcinoma of prostate. Group - II: Control - Normal subjects of the same age group

Results: A total number of 50 cases with the history of prostatic carcinoma were included according to the criteria mentioned in the material and method section. The frequencies of different variables were taken for platelet count, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time. In Group -1 [Cases], the mean platelet count was 197.52 x 10[3] in patients with advance age and in Group - II [Controls], the mean platelet count was 286.06 x 10[3]. The mean platelet count of cases and control is shown in Table -1.In the Group -1 [Cases] the mean PT value was 16.95 seconds and in Group - II [Controls] the mean PT value was 11.92 seconds. The mean PT of cases and control is shown in Table - II. In the Group -1 [Cases] the mean APTT value was 36.88 seconds and in Group - II [Controls] the mean APTT value was 30.94 seconds. The mean APTT of cases and control is shown in Table-III

Conclusion: Early analysis and recognition of coagulopathies in patients with carcinoma of prostate by carrying out platelet count, PT and APTT should be sorted out to help the patients in terms of treatment or diagnosis or prevention of fatal complications. Disseminated intravascular coagulation is the most frequently reported disorder but, in spite of its long-time recognition, its treatment remains controversial. Our results suggest that platelet count; PT and APTT are altered in patients with prostate cancer. Further study is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanism and clinical significances of such a phenomenon among patients with prostate cancer

Medical Forum Monthly. 2013; 24 (9): 22-24
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-161153


Analysis and recognition of coagulopathies in patients with carcinoma of prostate by carrying out platelet count and D-dimers level. Case-control study. This study was conducted at ISRA Hospital, Hyderabad, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Hospital Hyderabad and NIMRA Jamshoro for a period of six months from from June 2011 to November 2011. Cases were patients with prostatic carcinoma who were diagnosed on biopsy examination. Controls were normal healthy randomly selected age matched adult males from Hyderabad without prostatic carcinoma. A total of one hundred subjects were included in the study. In Group I [Cases], the mean platelet count was 197.52 x 103 and in Group II [Controls], the mean platelet count was 286.06 x 103. In Group I [Cases], the mean D-dimers level was 0.692 mg/L and in Group II [Controls], the mean D-dimers level was 0.146 mg/L. Coagulopathies are frequently associated with prostate cancer and should be known to urologists and oncologists because they may compromise short-term prognosis and influence therapeutic strategies. Our results suggest that platelet count and D-dimer levels are altered in patients with prostate cancer

PJR-Pakistan Journal of Radiology. 2012; 22 (1): 13-17
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-178009


Giant cell tumor [GCT] is a primary benign neoplasm of bone. It accounts for 5% of all skeletal tumors. It usually originate from long bones. We report three cases of GCT arising from rare locations. Two lesions were seen involving the tarsal bones of foot including the talus and calcaneum. The third case originated from an extremely rare site i.e. sternum. Tumor from calcaneum presented with pain and swelling in right heel. Physical examination revealed swelling of tendoachilles and calcaneum. On plain radiography there was expansile lytic lesion of calcaneum. Contrast enhanced MRI demonstrated expansile, erosive, locally aggresive mass lesion of calcaneus with exophytic extension. The mass demonstrated iso-intensity on T1WI, heterogenous hyperintensity was seen on T2WI with non homogenous enhancement on post contrast examination. The tumor was resected and histological features were consistent with Giant cell tumor. The other case involving the talus presented with pain in left ankle joint. Plain radiograph and MRI scan showed a lytic, solid cum cystic mass lesion involving the body ,neck and tail of the talus bone. Enbloc resection with total talectomy and arthrodesis with cementing was done. The third case involved sternum which is an extremely rare location for GCT. This was a 48 years old female who presented with a history of pain in midline upper chest and cough. On examination a firm mass was present on anterior chest wall in the region of manubrium sterni. On computed tomography [C.T] an expansile lytic mass was seen in the sternum. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done and histopathology was consistent with Malignant Giant Cell Tumor

PJR-Pakistan Journal of Radiology. 2012; 22 (2): 62-64
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-178021
PJR-Pakistan Journal of Radiology. 2012; 22 (3): 115-118
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-178030


Metastatic calcification is the deposition of calcium salts in previously healthy tissues, usually as a result of abnormalities of calcium and phosphorous metabolism. The pulmonary parenchyma is most susceptible to calcification. Such condition may be caused by both benign and malignant diseases, most commonly metastatic pulmonary calcification is seen in patients with chronic renal failure who are on hemodialysis. In autopsies, 60-80% of patients with CRF reportedly present MPC[1] We report two cases with chronic renal failure and metastatic calcifications, both patients were hypertensive and were on dialysis. A 46 yrs old female suffering from chronic renal failure, is on dialysis for 2 years. Another patient 48 yrs old was a known case of chronic renal failure. She is on dialysis for 6 years

Medical Forum Monthly. 2012; 23 (2): 58-62
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-124981


The high-ceilinged importance given to safe blood transfusion, a study was conducted in the teaching hospitals of Islamabad and Rawalpindi to ascertain how much blood transfusion protocols are followed. Cross sectional study. This study was carried out in the Teaching Hospitals of Islamabad and Rawalpindi, between Oct, 2007 to Dec, 2007. A total of seventy six health care professionals from surgical and allied specialties were put forward a questionnaire Performa relating to as to whether departmental guidelines for blood transfusion are followed or not. Out of total studied sample i.e. seventy six in total, forty health care personals i.e. 52.63% affirmed that they do follow departmental guidelines for blood transfusion, whereas thirty six personals i.e. 47.37% were lacking the follow-up of standard protocols in their settings. In the study 47.37% i.e. thirty six in number of considered health care professionals were of the opinion that they do not pursue in spirit departmental guidelines regarding blood and blood product transfusion

Humans , Health Personnel , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, Teaching , Practice Guidelines as Topic
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2011; 27 (5): 1173-1176
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-113585


To determine the serum zinc and copper levels in patients of nephrotic syndrome and healthy subjects. Forty patients of nephrotic syndrome, fulfilling the pentad criteria [proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperlipiduria and edema] were included in this study. Proteinuria was more than 3.5g per 24 hour in adults and more than 1000 mg/m2 in children. Ten healthy subjects were included as control. Patients on dialysis, pregnancy and with proteinuria of less than 3.5g per 24 hour were excluded from the study. Patients were selected from Nephrology outpatient department of Shalamar Hospital Lahore and Children hospital and Institute of child Health Lahore. The trace metals were measured on continuous source Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer [ContrAA700] using flame mode for Zn and Cu. The levels of serum Zn and Cu were significantly lower [28.61 +/- 24.07, 47.62 +/- 34.1 microg/dl] as compared to controls [100.8 +/- 14.8, 112.3 +/- 10.6 microg/dl] respectively. Serum Zn level and 24 hour urinary protein had negative correlation with each other which was statistically significant [r= -0.442, p= 0.021]. There was positive and significant correlation / [[r= 0.712, p= 0.001], [r=0.612, p=0.002]/ ] between serum albumin and serum Zn and serum Cu levels. The results of the present study showed that there was high prevalence of Zn and Cu deficiency in patients suffering from nephrotic syndrome. Causes of hypozincemia and hypocuperemia were hypoalbuminemia and increased twenty four hour urinary protein losses. Other probable factors were decreased dietary intake and increased loss of trace metals in urine

Pakistan Journal of Pathology. 2011; 22 (1): 24-28
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-137445


To determine the plasma levels of Zn and Mg in Type 2 Diabetic patients with HbA[1c] >8% and <8% and to determine the correlation of Zn and Mg with HbA[1c]. A total population of 60 patients of Type 2 DM and 30 normal healthy control subjects were included in this study. Three ml of blood was collected in EDTA vacutainer tube [BD vacutainer] for determination of HbA[1c] and 6 ml blood was collected in EDTA vacutainer tube [BD vacutainer] for determination of Zn and Mg, HbA[1c] was performed on Bio Rad D10 hemoglobin testing system. Zn and Mg were measured on ContrAA 700 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The age range of the patients and controls was 40 to 60 years. The mean age of the patients was 51.7 +/- 7.1 year and mean age of the control subjects was 46.7 +/- 7.2 years. Statistically significant differences were observed between levels of HbA[1c], Zn and Mg in patients and control groups [p < 0.05]. Mean Plasma Zn and Mg levels were low in Diabetic patients than in control group. We also found that diabetic patients with HbA[1c] >8% have lower levels of Zn and Mg as compared to diabetic patients with HbA[1c] <8%. A significant negative correlation of HbA[1c] with Zn and Mg was also observed. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus is associated with the deficiency of Zn and Mg. Patients with poor giycemic control have more severe deficiency of Zn and Mg than patients with good giycemic control. HbA[1c] levels correlate negatively with Zn and Mg in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Humans , Male , Female , Zinc/blood , Magnesium/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Glycated Hemoglobin A/metabolism , Edetic Acid
PJR-Pakistan Journal of Radiology. 2011; 21 (1): 37-39
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-178003
JCPSP-Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 2011; 21 (12): 731-734
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-122871


To assess the present waste management system of healthcare facilities [HCFs] attached with Shalamar Hospital, Lahore by applying the 7-S technique of Total Quality Management [TQM] and to find out the outcome after imparting training. Interventional quasi-experimental study. The Shalamar Hospital, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan, November, 2009 to November, 2010. Mckinsey's 7-S, technique of TQM was applied to assess the 220 HCFs from Lahore, Gujranwala and Sheikhupura districts for segregation, collection, transportation and disposal [SCTD] of hospital waste. Direct interview method was applied. Trainings were provided in each institution. After one year action period, the status of four areas of concern was compared before and after training. The parameters studied were segregation, collection, transportation and disposal systems in the 220 HCFs. Each of these were further elaborated by strategy, structure, system, staff, skill, style and stakeholder/shared value factors. Standard error of difference of proportion was applied to assess significance using 95% confidence level. There was marked improvement in all these areas ranging from 20% to 77% following a training program of 3 months. In case of disposal of the waste strategy, structure and system an increase of 60%, 65% and 75% was observed after training. The 7-S technique played a vital role in assessing the hospital waste management system. Training for the healthcare workers played a significant role in healthcare facilities

Medical Waste Disposal , Delivery of Health Care , Total Quality Management , Incineration , Refuse Disposal , Health Facilities
Medical Forum Monthly. 2011; 22 (7): 36-39
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-124623


Exhumation is conducted around the globe when foul play is suspected. In developed world and in some developing countries this procedure is also carried out for identification purposes as well as in insurance claims, and some other civil suits. To determine the cause of death in exhumed bodies. Prospective, descriptive. The Study was conducted in the department of Forensic Medicine, Chandka Medical College, Larkana [CMCL] from Jan:2001 to Dec:2010. A total of 125 bodies were exhumed in various districts of upper Sindh by exhumation board, constituted by Director General Health Services Hyderabad. At the site of graveyard, bodies were digged out. After identification of deceased by near relatives, the bodies were thoroughly examined, viscerae taken for histopathological and chemical analysis, and cause of death determined by consensus in almost all cases. The most common cause of death was firearm injuries 37 [29.6%], followed by blunt trauma 15 [12%], sharp weapon injuries 09 [7.2%], drowning 09 [7.2%], poisoning 07 [5.6%] strangulation 06 [4.8%], infanticide 06 [4.8%]. In about 1/3 of cases cause of death could not be decided due to advanced stage of decomposition. Majority of victims were young males and firearm injury was the commonest cause of death

Humans , Male , Female , Cause of Death , Prospective Studies , Firearms , Wounds, Nonpenetrating , Wounds, Penetrating , Drowning , Poisoning , Infanticide
JAMC-Journal of Ayub Medical College-Abbotabad-Pakistan. 2011; 23 (1): 73-76
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-132414


Pakistan ranks 8[th] on the list of 22 high-burden tuberculosis [TB] countries in the world according to the World Health Organization's [WHO] Global Tuberculosis Control 2009. Including other reasons the main cause is improper and late diagnosis of the disease. PCR may play an important role to control the disease with its rapid, sensitive and specific diagnosis. But in Pakistan due to lake of knowledge about this latest technique we are not using this technique appropriately. Clinicians still trust on conventional methods of TB diagnosis, which are time consuming or insensitive. The present study was arranged to highlight the importance of PCR in TB diagnosis in pulmonary and extra-pulmonary cases and its comparison with conventional methods. Samples obtained from 290 patients of suspected TB [pulmonary or extra-pulmonary] were subjected to ZN smear examination, LJ medium culture and PCR test by amplifying 541bp fragment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex genome. The present prospective study is performed at Shalamar Hospital Lahore from November 2008 to November 2010. A distinctly difference was observed in the test results done by PCR and other conventional techniques in pulmonary or extra-pulmonary tuberculosis samples [p<0.001]. The sensitivity of different tests was 68.62% for PCR, 26.90% for LJ medium culture, and 14.14% for ZN smear examination [p<0.05]. However, there was no significant difference between different tests as for as specificity was concerned. PCR test sensitivity in pulmonary and extra-pulmonary clinical samples was 78.34 and 61.76% respectively, being significantly higher [p<0.05] when compared with sensitivity of other tests. The mean detection time for M. tuberculosis was 25 days by LJ medium culture and less than 1 day by smear examination and PCR test. PCR test is more sensitive than ZN smear examination and LJ medium culture for the diagnosis of TB in pulmonary and extrapulmonary clinical samples

Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis
Isra Medical Journal. 2009; 1 (3): 68-71
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-125392


To study the frequency and pattern of benign, premalignant, and malignant lesion in hystrectomized uteri and perform clinic-pathological analysis. All hysterectomy specimens received in the histopathology departments of Isra University Hyderabad and Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences Hyderabad during the period of January 2005 to December 2006 were studied. A randomized study of 100 cases undergoing hysterectomy was carried out and clinicopathological analysis was done. Most women who underwent hysterectomy were in the age group of 25-75 years. Two proformas were designed to record the clinical information and gross and histopathological findings. Specimens were preserved in 10% formalin and thorough gross examination was done. Representative blocks were processed for paraffin embedding. Abnormal menstrual flow was the most common complaint. Mean age of the patient was 43.06 +/- 7.34 years. Out of 100 cases, endometrial diseases were the most common finding [in67% of the cases] followed by adenomyosis [47%], leiomyoma [32%], cervical intraepithelial neoplastic changes [04%], and invasive cervical carcinoma [03%]. This study concludes that benign uterine lesions are common, consisting mostly of endometrial hyperplasia, leiomyoma, and adenomyosis, and are almost equally present in women above and below the age of 40 years in Hyderabad with the exception of endometrial carcinoma and invasive cervical carcinoma which were commonly found above 40 years of age

Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Age Distribution , Leiomyoma/surgery , Endometrial Hyperplasia/surgery , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/surgery , Carcinoma, Endometrioid/surgery