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Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 49: e20223202, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1365382


ABSTRACT Percutaneous tracheostomy has been considered the standard method today, the bronchoscopy-guided technique being the most frequently performed. A safe alternative is ultrasound-guided percutaneous tracheostomy, which can be carried out by the surgeon, avoiding the logistical difficulties of having a specialist in bronchoscopy. Studies prove that the efficacy and safety of the ultrasound-guided technique are similar when compared to the bronchoscopy-guided one. Thus, it is of paramount importance that surgeons have ultrasound-guided percutaneous tracheostomy as a viable and beneficial alternative to the open procedure. In this article, we describe eight main steps in performing ultrasound-guided percutaneous tracheostomy, highlighting essential technical points that can reduce the risk of complications from the procedure. Furthermore, we detail some precautions that one must observe to reduce the risk of aerosolization and contamination of the team when percutaneous tracheostomy is indicated in patients with COVID-19.

RESUMO A traqueostomia percutânea tem sido considerada o método padrão atualmente, sendo a técnica guiada por broncoscopia a mais realizada. Uma alternativa segura é a traqueostomia percutânea guiada por ultrassonografia, que pode ser feita pelo próprio cirurgião, evitando-se as dificuldades logísticas de disponibilidade de um especialista em broncoscopia. Estudos comprovam que a eficácia e a segurança da técnica guiada por ultrassonografia, comparada à guiada por broncoscopia, são semelhantes. Assim, é de suma importância que os cirurgiões tenham a traqueostomia percutânea guiada por ultrassonografia como alternativa viável e benéfica em relação ao procedimento aberto. Neste artigo, descrevemos oito passos principais da realização da traqueostomia percutânea ecoguiada, destacando pontos técnicos essenciais que podem reduzir o risco de complicações do procedimento. Ainda, detalhamos alguns cuidados que devem ser observados, com o intuito de reduzir o risco de aerolização e contaminação da equipe, quando a traqueostomia percutânea é indicada no paciente com COVID-19.

Humans , Tracheostomy/methods , COVID-19 , Bronchoscopy/methods , Ultrasonography , Ultrasonography, Interventional/methods
Clinics ; 74: e787, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011911


OBJECTIVES: Intestinal obstruction has a high mortality rate when therapeutic treatment is delayed. Resuscitation in intestinal obstruction requires a large volume of fluid, and fluid combinations have been studied. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of hypertonic saline solution (HS) with pentoxifylline (PTX) on apoptosis, oxidative stress and survival rate. METHODS: Wistar rats were subjected to intestinal obstruction and ischemia through a closed loop ligation of the terminal ileum and its vessels. After 24 hours, the necrotic bowel segment was resected, and the animals were randomized into four groups according to the following resuscitation strategies: Ringer's lactate solution (RL) (RL-32 ml/kg); RL+PTX (25 mg/kg); HS+PTX (HS, 7.5%, 4 ml/kg), and no resuscitation (IO-intestinal obstruction and ischemia). Euthanasia was performed 3 hours after resuscitation to obtain kidney and intestine samples. A malondialdehyde (MDA) assay was performed to evaluate oxidative stress, and histochemical analyses (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling [TUNEL], Bcl-2 and Bax) were conducted to evaluate kidney apoptosis. Survival was analyzed with another series of animals that were observed for 15 days. RESULTS: PTX in combination with RL or HS reduced the MDA levels (nmol/mg of protein), as follows: kidney IO=0.42; RL=0.49; RL+PTX=0.31; HS+PTX=0.34 (p<0.05); intestine: IO=0.42; RL=0.48; RL+PTX=0.29; HS+PTX=0.26 (p<0.05). The number of labeled cells for TUNEL and Bax was lower in the HS+PTX group than in the other groups (p<0.05). The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was lower in the HS+PTX group than in the other groups (p<0.05). The survival rate on the 15th day was higher in the HS+PTX group (77%) than in the RL+PTX group (11%). CONCLUSION: PTX in combination with HS enhanced survival and attenuated oxidative stress and apoptosis. However, when combined with RL, PTX did not reduce apoptosis or mortality.

Animals , Male , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Resuscitation/methods , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Intestinal Obstruction/metabolism , Immunohistochemistry , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Disease Models, Animal , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Intestinal Obstruction/mortality , Intestinal Obstruction/prevention & control , Intestine, Small/drug effects , Intestine, Small/metabolism , Kidney/drug effects , Kidney/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/analysis
Acta cir. bras ; 33(9): 753-761, Sept. 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973501


Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the oxidative stress, resulting from ischemia and hepatic reperfusion, in mice with non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis. Methods: C57BL/6 male mice were used. Part of them were ob/ob mice, and the other part was fed with standard or MCD diets - this last used to develop steatohepatitis. The animals - MCD-I/R, ob/ob-I/R and I/R groups - were submitted to 30 minutes of partial hepatic ischemia, followed by reperfusion for 24 hours. The blood was collected, for biochemical analysis of AST, and the liver removed for assessment of TBARS and nitrite, and of histology. Results: After the I/R, the animal fed with MCD diet presented higher AST levels (MCD-I/R: 967±349U/L / ob/ob-I/R: 606±18 U/L / I/R: 311±172 U/L), TBARS (MCD-I/R: 7±1 nM/mg protein / ob/ob-I/R: 3±1 nM/mg protein / I/R: 3±1 nM/mg protein) and nitrite (MCD-I/R: 614±87 µg/mL / ob/ob-I/R: 512±81 µg/mL / I/R: 459±29 µg/mL) than the ob/ob mice, when both groups were compared to animals fed with standard diet. Regarding histology, the steatosis level (azonal macrovesicular steatosis of level 3 - >66%) and hepatic fibrosis (periportal and perisinusoidal of level 2) was also more intense, but both animal models presented lobular inflammation of level 3 (>66%). Conclusions: The murine model fed with MCD diet is suitable for the assessment of oxidative stress in hepatic I/R injury associated with the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Although both murine models showed inflammatory infiltrate and macro and micro vesicular steatosis.

Animals , Male , Rats , Lipid Peroxidation/physiology , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Nitrites/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Mice, Inbred C57BL
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 45(2): e1706, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896646


ABSTRACT Objective: to verify the profile of the General Surgery residents of the Clinics Hospital (HC) of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of São Paulo (FMUSP). Methods: we evaluated the residents approved in the public contest for the Medical Residency Program in General Surgery of HC-FMUSP in the years 2014, 2015 and 2016. We carried out the study by applying a questionnaire and gathering information from the Medical Residency Commission of the Institution. We analyzed data on identification, origin of the candidate, undergraduate school, surgical teaching received, reason for choosing Surgery, residency expectations, choice of future specialty and pretensions as to the end of medical residency. We also analyzed the result of the examination of access to specialties. Results: the mean age was 25.8 years; 74.3% of residents were male. The majority (84.4%) had attended public medical schools, 68% of which were not in the Southeast region; 85,2% of the residents were approved in the first contest. The specialty choice was present for 75.9% of individuals at the beginning of the residency program, but 49.5% changed their minds during training. Plastic Surgery, Urology and Digestive System Surgery were chosen by 61.5%. Sixty hours per week work were considered adequate by 83.3%; 27.3% favored direct access to the specialty. At the end of the specialty, 53.3% intended to continue in São Paulo, and 26.2%, to return to their State of origin. A strict-sense post-graduate course was intended by 68.3%. Conclusion: the current profile of the resident reveals a reduction in the demand for General Surgery, an earlier definition of the specialty, options for increasingly specific areas and an activity that offers a better quality of life.

RESUMO Objetivo: verificar o perfil dos residentes de Cirurgia Geral do Hospital das Clínicas (HC) da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP). Métodos: foram avaliados os residentes aprovados no concurso do Programa de Residência Médica em Cirurgia Geral do HC-FMUSP nos anos de 2014, 2015 e 2016. O estudo foi realizado por meio de coleta de dados de questionário e informações obtidas da Comissão de Residência Médica da Instituição. Foram analisados: dados da identificação, origem do candidato, escola da graduação, ensino cirúrgico recebido, razão da escolha pela Cirurgia, expectativas na residência, escolha da especialidade futura e pretensões ao término da residência médica. Também foi analisado o resultado do exame de acesso às especialidades. Resultados: a média de idade foi de 25,8 anos, sendo 74,3% do sexo masculino. A maioria (84,4%) cursou a graduação em escolas públicas, sendo 68% no Sudeste; 85,2% dos residentes foram aprovados no primeiro concurso. A escolha da especialidade estava definida em 75,9% no início da residência, porém 49,5% mudaram ao longo do treinamento. Cirurgia Plástica, Urologia e Cirurgia do Aparelho Digestivo foram escolhidas por 61,5%. Consideraram adequadas as 60 horas semanais 83,3%. Eram favoráveis ao acesso direto à especialidade 27,3%. Ao término da especialidade, 53,3% pretendiam continuar em São Paulo e 26,2% retornar ao Estado de origem. A pós-graduação stricto sensu era pretendida por 68,3%. Conclusão: o perfil atual do residente revela redução na procura pela Cirurgia Geral, definição mais precoce da especialidade, opções por áreas cada vez mais específicas e uma atividade que ofereça melhor qualidade de vida.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , General Surgery/education , Internship and Residency/trends , Brazil , Forecasting
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 44(5): 521-529, Sept.-Oct. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896609


ABSTRACT Pancreatic necrosis occurs in 15% of acute pancreatitis. The presence of infection is the most important factor in the evolution of pancreatitis. The diagnosis of infection is still challenging. Mortality in infected necrosis is 20%; in the presence of organic dysfunction, mortality reaches 60%. In the last three decades, there has been a real revolution in the treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis. However, the challenges persist and there are many unsolved questions: antibiotic treatment alone, tomography-guided percutaneous drainage, endoscopic drainage, video-assisted extraperitoneal debridement, extraperitoneal access, open necrosectomy? A step up approach has been proposed, beginning with less invasive procedures and reserving the operative intervention for patients in which the previous procedure did not solve the problem definitively. Indication and timing of the intervention should be determined by the clinical course. Ideally, the intervention should be done only after the fourth week of evolution, when it is observed a better delimitation of necrosis. Treatment should be individualized. There is no procedure that should be the first and best option for all patients. The objective of this work is to critically review the current state of the art of the treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis.

RESUMO A necrose pancreática ocorre em 15% das pancreatites agudas. A presença de infecção é o fator mais importante na evolução da pancreatite. Confirmar o diagnóstico de infecção ainda é um desafio. A mortalidade na necrose infectada é de 30% e na vigência de disfunção orgânica, chega a 70%. Nas últimas décadas, ocorreu uma verdadeira revolução no tratamento da necrose pancreática infectada. Mesmo assim, persiste o desafio e há múltiplas questões ainda não resolvidas: tratamento exclusivo com antibiótico, drenagem percutânea guiada por tomografia, drenagem por via endoscópica, desbridamento extra-peritoneal vídeo-assistido, acesso extra-peritoneal, necrosectomia por via aberta? Foi proposto o tratamento por etapas, "step up approach", iniciando-se com as medidas menos invasivas e reservando-se a intervenção operatória para os casos em que o procedimento anterior não resolver definitivamente o problema. A indicação e o momento da intervenção devem ser determinados pela evolução clínica. O ideal é que a intervenção seja feita apenas depois da quarta semana de evolução, quando já existe melhor delimitação da necrose. O tratamento deve ser individualizado. Não existe um procedimento que deva ser o primeiro e a melhor opção para todos os doentes. O objetivo deste trabalho é fazer uma análise crítica do estado atual do tratamento da necrose pancreática infectada.

Humans , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/microbiology , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/therapy , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
Acta cir. bras ; 32(8): 641-647, Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886231


Abstract Purpose: To develop an experimental model of intestinal ischemia and obstruction followed by surgical resection of the damaged segment and reestablishment of intestinal transit, looking at bacterial translocation and survival. Methods: After anesthesia, Wistar rats was subject to laparotomy, intestinal ischemia and obstruction through an ileal ligature 1.5cm of ileum cecal valve; and the mesenteric vessels that irrigate upstream of the obstruction site to approximately 7 to 10 cm were ligated. Abdominal wall was closed. Three, six or twenty-four hours after, rats were subject to enterectomy followed by an end to end anastomosis. After 24h, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen and lung tissues were surgically removed. It was studied survival rate and bacterial translocation. GraphPadPrism statistical program was used. Results: Animals with intestinal ischemia and obstruction for 3 hours survived 24 hours after enterectomy; 6hx24h: survival was 70% at 24 hours; 24hx24h: survival was 70% and 40%, before and after enterectomy, respectively. Culture of tissues showed positivity on the 6hx24h and negativity on the 3hx24h. Conclusion: The model that best approached the clinic was the one of 6x24h of ischemia and intestinal obstruction, in which it was observed bacterial translocation and low mortality rate.

Animals , Male , Bacterial Translocation/physiology , Disease Models, Animal , Mesenteric Ischemia/microbiology , Ileocecal Valve/blood supply , Ileocecal Valve/microbiology , Intestinal Obstruction/microbiology , Time Factors , Colony Count, Microbial , Survival Rate , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Mesenteric Ischemia/surgery , Mesenteric Ischemia/mortality , Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Anaerobic Bacteria/physiology , Ileocecal Valve/surgery , Intestinal Obstruction/surgery , Intestinal Obstruction/mortality , Ligation
Clinics ; 72(2): 87-94, Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840048


OBJECTIVE: To present our experience in the management of patients with infected pancreatic necrosis without drainage. METHODS: The records of patients with pancreatic necrosis admitted to our facility from 2011 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: We identified 61 patients with pancreatic necrosis. Six patients with pancreatic necrosis and gas in the retroperitoneum were treated exclusively with clinical support without any type of drainage. Only 2 patients had an APACHE II score >8. The first computed tomography scan revealed the presence of gas in 5 patients. The Balthazar computed tomography severity index score was >9 in 5 of the 6 patients. All patients were treated with antibiotics for at least 3 weeks. Blood cultures were positive in only 2 patients. Parenteral nutrition was not used in these patients. The length of hospital stay exceeded three weeks for 5 patients; 3 patients had to be readmitted. A cholecystectomy was performed after necrosis was completely resolved; pancreatitis recurred in 2 patients before the operation. No patients died. CONCLUSIONS: In selected patients, infected pancreatic necrosis (gas in the retroperitoneum) can be treated without percutaneous drainage or any additional surgical intervention. Intervention procedures should be performed for patients who exhibit clinical and laboratory deterioration.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Gases , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/drug therapy , Retroperitoneal Space , Length of Stay , Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Acta cir. bras ; 29(11): 735-741, 11/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728650


PURPOSE: To evaluate intestinal inflammatory and apoptotic processes after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury, modulated by pentoxifylline and hypertonic saline. METHODS: It was allocated into four groups (n=6), 24 male Wistar rats (200 to 250g) and submitted to intestinal ischemia for 40 min and reperfusion for 80 min: IR (did not receive any treatment); HS group (Hypertonic Saline, 4ml/kg-IV); PTX group (Pentoxifylline, 30mg/kg-IV); HS+PTX group (Hypertonic Saline and Pentoxifylline). All animals were heparinized (100U/kg). At the end of reperfusion, ileal fragments were removed and stained on hematoxylin-eosin and histochemical studies for COX-2, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3. RESULTS: The values of sO2 were higher on treated groups at 40 minutes of reperfusion (p=0.0081) and 80 minutes of reperfusion (p=0.0072). Serum lactate values were lower on treated groups after 40 minutes of reperfusion (p=0.0003) and 80 minutes of reperfusion (p=0.0098). Morphologic tissue injuries showed higher grades on IR group versus other groups: HS (p=0.0006), PTX (p=0.0433) and HS+PTX (p=0.0040). The histochemical study showed lesser expression of COX-2 (p=0.0015) and Bcl-2 (p=0.0012) on HS+PTX group. A lower expression of cleaved caspase-3 was demonstrated in PTX (p=0.0090; PTXvsIR). CONCLUSION: The combined use of pentoxifylline and hypertonic saline offers best results on inflammatory and apoptotic inhibitory aspects after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion. .

Animals , Male , Apoptosis/drug effects , Intestines/blood supply , Ischemia/complications , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/pharmacology , /analysis , /analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Intestines/drug effects , Ischemia/prevention & control , Lactic Acid/blood , Oxygen/metabolism , Pentoxifylline/therapeutic use , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Reperfusion Injury/blood , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/therapeutic use , Time Factors
ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig ; 20(2): 90-92, abr.-jun. 2007. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-622284


RACIONAL: As lesões do ducto torácico ocasionando quilotórax são pouco freqüentes e ocorrem durante procedimentos torácicos e traumas, tais como esofagectomias, procedimentos cirúrgicos mediastinais e pleuro-pulmonares. A operação está indicada se não houver resolução espontânea. OBJETIVO: Analisar a fístula linfática como complicação de esofagectomias para doenças malignas e benignas. MÉTODOS: Sete doentes com idade média de 42 anos, sendo cinco masculinos, apresentaram quilotórax no pós-operatório de esofagectomias realizadas para o carcinoma epidermóide (cinco casos) e megaesôfago chagásico avançado (dois casos). A nutrição parenteral total foi indicada em todos os pacientes. RESULTADOS: A drenagem média foi de 2700 mL/dia, e a pleurodese foi o primeiro procedimento preconizado, com resultados pouco satisfatórios. Procedimento cirúrgico foi indicado na persistência da fístula. Três doentes foram submetidos à videotoracoscopia direita e em um deles houve necessidade de reintervenção por toracotomia direita. No outro caso, houve necessidade de conversão imediata para toracotomia direita. E no último, por meio da videotoracoscopia, o ducto torácico foi identificado e ligado. Os demais casos foram submetidos à toracotomia direita. A evolução pós-operatória foi favorável para os seis doentes operados, que receberam alta hospitalar após período médio de internação de 36 dias. Um doente com carcinoma faleceu (15%) por complicações decorrentes de cirrose hepática. CONCLUSÕES: A fístula linfática pós-esofagectomia é complicação grave, que determina déficit nutricional significativo e exige com freqüência tratamento operatório para ligadura do ducto, sendo a videotoracoscopia a primeira escolha.

BACKGROUND: Lesions of the thoracic duct causing chylotorax are less frequent and normally happen during thoracic procedures and traumas, such as esophagectomies, mediastinal and pleuro-pulmonary surgeries. Therefore, surgery is suitable if there is no spontaneous resolution. AIM: To analyze the lymphatic fistula as a complication of esophagectomy regarding malignant and benign diseases. METHODS: Seven patients with an average age of 42 years, being five males, presented postoperative chylotorax after esophagectomies accomplished for the epidermoid carcinoma (five cases) and advanced chagasic megaesophagus (two cases). Total parenteral nutrition was indicated in all cases. RESULTS: The average drainage was of 2700 mL/day, and pleurodesis was the first procedure made, with minimal satisfactory results. Surgery was indicated with the persistence of the fistula. Three patients were submitted to right videothoracoscopy and one of these was reoperated by right thoracotomy. Another case had the need of immediate conversion to right thoracotomy. And in the last case, the thoracic duct was identified and joined by means of videothoracoscopy. The rest of the cases were submitted to right thoracotomy. Post-operative evolution was favorable for six of the operated patients, who received hospital discharge after an average period of 36 hospitalization days. One patient who had carcinoma passed away (15%) due to hepatic cirrhosis complications. CONCLUSION: Post-esophagectomy lymphatic fistulas are dangerous complications, which determines the significant nutritional deficit of the patients and demands frequent surgical treatment for the joining of ducts, being videothoracoscopy one of the first choice procedures.